Chapter 5 environmental science

Economy
Which term is used to describe the conversion of natural resources into goods and services in addition to the ongoing trade of such goods and services?
Costa Rica
conservation success stories by PSA payment for environmental services not to cut down forests
why? 17% to 52%
1. watershed protection-filtering and conserve water
2. biodiversity- tropical forest
3. scenic beauty-economic benefit tourism
4. carbon sequestration -slow global warming
Neoclassical economics has environmental consequences
-replacing resources
-external costs
-discounting
-growth
environmental economics
A developing school of economics that modifies the principles of neoclassical economics to address environmental challenges. Most environmental economists believe that we can attain sustainability within our current economic systems. Compare ecological economics; neoclassical economics.
ecological economics
needs more far reaching changes that neither grow nor shrink but are stable (steady state)
non market value
don’t pay money, pleasure from natural landscape
-use value
-existence value
-optional value
-aesthetic value
-scientific value
-education value
-cultural value
=143 trillion in 2014 dollars of value
full cost accounting /true cost
all cost and benefits in GPI
GPI
Genuine Progress indicator
market failure
The failure of markets to take into account the environment’s positive effects on economies (for example, ecosystem services) or to reflect the negative effects of economic activity on the environment and thereby on people (external costs). GOV WILL TRY TO STEP IN
natural resources
What is the term that refers to the substances and forces that sustain our society and everyday lives?
These are essential processes such as soil formation, nutrient cycles, the pollination of plants, etc.
What are ecosystem services?
Gross Domestic Product
How do economists assess (calculate) the economic health of a nation?
ecological economists
Which of the following groups advocates economies that neither grow nor shrink but remain stable?
Production
Which of the following is the main concern of neoclassical economics?
This occurs when markets do not take into account the environment’s positive effects on economies (such as ecosystem services) or when they do not reflect the negative impacts of economic activity on people or the environment (external costs).
What is meant by “market failure”?
GDP goes up when the polluting substance is produced and again when society pays to remove the substance from the environment.
Pollution changes the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) How does this occur?
external costs
What costs are associated with transactions that can result in damage to the environment, human health, and property?
by encouraging society to view the supply of resources as infinite
In which of the following ways did neoclassical economics contribute to environmental problems?
Ecological economics
What type of economic discipline maintains that society, like natural populations, cannot surpass environmental limitations?
The GPI takes into account externalities (both good and bad) and other nonmarket values, while the GDP does not.
How does the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) differ from the GPI (Genuine Progress Indicator)?
increased inputs to the economy and improvements in efficiency through technology
Which of the following correctly illustrate the two ways that economic growth can occur?
cost of rebuilding roads damaged by trucks heavily loaded with goods
Which of the examples below illustrates the economic principle of a negative externality?
This allows one party to “get away” with an environmental impact while other parties continue to use best environmental practices.
Which of the following best explain the “free rider” predicament?
legislation
Statutory law. crafting bills
regulations
A specific rule issued by an administrative agency, based on the more broadly written statutory law passed by Congress and enacted by the president.
Theodore Roosevelt did what in 1903
created the first national wildlife refugue
triple bottom line = sustainable development
economic advancement, environmental protection, and social equality
job security
Which of the following is NOT an external cost that affects people who are not involved in some environmentally damaging transaction?
the Cuyahoga River catching fire
What event is credited with leading to the passage of the Clean Water Act?
national park
During the second wave of U.S. environmental policy, in 1872, Congress designated Yellowstone as the world’s first __________.
enforcement and elaboration of laws passed by Congress
The role of an administrative agency is that of _______.
development through management and westward expansion
What was the main emphasis of the first major era of U.S. environmental policy?
Silent Spring
What is the title of the book by Rachel Carson that refers to the absence of birdsongs due to the poisoning of birds by pesticides?
people realized that environmental damage is not equally distributed among all classes and racial groups; minority and low-income communities tend to contain a much larger share of the environmental damage (such as landfills, incinerators, toxic waste sites, etc.)
The environmental justice movement started because ________
gave citizens the right to see and comment on proposed government projects through the creation of environmental impact statements
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) _________.
Richard Nixon
Who signed the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?
the Superfund
Which of the following was NOT part of public policy during the early years of the United States?
The World Trade Organization has recently acquired the ability to impose fines on nations that trade unfairly. These actions can then have effects that worsen or improve the environment.
Which of the following organizations is described accurately?
An example of customary law is the idea that no nation should use its resources in ways that adversely affect its neighbors.
Which statement is correct concerning international law?
the 19th century
During what century did consumption of natural resources and pollution increase dramatically for the first time in human history?
Ecolabeling
Which type of advertising assists consumers in choosing products that are grown or manufactured with environmentally friendly methods?
green tax
Which of the following acts to discourage unsustainable activities?
command-and-control
Most of the environmental progress made over the past few decades has come about through __________ methods.
ecolabeling
While in the grocery store, Maria chooses to purchase the soy milk produced from non-genetically modified soybeans over the brand grown conventionally. Maria has made use of __________ for her decision.
Greenwashing
A company that produces household cleaners decides to produce a “green” version of its products, even though the formulas are virtually unchanged compared to the original formulas. This is an example of __________.
promoting a viable economy while maintaining a viable environment and meeting social needs
What is sustainable development?
Sustainable
Which kind of development would be promoted if a government worked on finding a balance between economic security, environmental protection, and social equity?
The legislative branch
Statutory law is created by which branch of government ?
Policy
_________ consists of a formal set of general plans and principles intended to address problems and guide decision making
if state and federal laws conflict with each other, federal laws take precedence
Which of the following is s true statement about the relationship between state and federal laws
subsidy
tax break is also known as a
vested economy
when someone has a(n)________ economy , he or she may have a lot to gain or lose from the outcome
cap-and-trade emissions trading system
when polluters buy, sell and trade permits with other polluters this is called a
the kyoto protocol
an international treaty that aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the ______.
the polluter-pays principle
which of the following requires those responsible for pollution to cover the cost of repairing the damage?
identify the problem
the first step in the policy process is to _____.
conventional law
what type of law results from conventions and treaties between nations

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