Chapter 4: Reaching the Audience

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What is an audience-centered speaker?
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An audience-centered speaker strives to understand the listeners so that he or she can meet their needs and interests
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What is meant by audience analysis and adaptation?
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Analysis means finding out exactly who the listeners are and what they know. Adaptation means shaping a speech to satisfy the listeners’ particular needs and interests.
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How can a speaker get advance information about an audience?
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Interview the program director, talk to a few prospective listeners, or send a questionnaire to the future audience
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What are taboos, and why are they an important concern for a speaker?
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Taboos are prohibitions in a culture; violating them can offend an audience.
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Do international audiences usually prefer a presentation that is humorous and informal, or one that is serious and formal?
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International audiences usually prefer a serious, formal tone. An informal approach is often viewed as frivolous and disrespectful
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What is ethnocentrism?
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The belief that one’s own cultural group is superior to other groups
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Who is the best source of information about the needs of listeners with disabilities, and why?
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The disabled listener—because he or she knows best what accommodations need to be made
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What approach should you take if listeners have an unfavorable attitude toward your speech goal?
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Try to win listeners to your position, but if this fails, be content to at least move them closer to your view
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What guidelines should be followed for a speech to an audience that knows little or nothing about your topic?
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(1) Limit the number of new ideas, (2) If possible, use visual aids, (3) Use down-to-earth language, (4) Repeat key ideas, and (5) Give vivid examples
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What might happen if you give a speech that is different from the one the audience was expecting?
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Some members of the audience might be disappointed, even angry

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