Chapter 36 APUSH

question

The Feminine Mystique
answer

Best-selling book by feminist thinker Betty Friedan. This work challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery and helped launch what would become second-wave feminism.
question

Rock ‘n’ roll
answer

“Crossover” musical style that rose to dominance in the 1950s, merging black rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country.
question

Checkers Speech
answer

Nationally televised address by vice-presidential candidate Richard Nixon.
question

Montgomery Bus Boycott
answer

Protest by black Alabamians against segregated seating on city buses, sparked by Rosa Parks’s defiant refusal to move to the back of the bus. The bus boycott lasted from December 1, 1955, until December 26, 1956, and became one of the foundational moments of the civil rights movement.
question

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
answer

Landmark Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and abolished racial segregation in public schools.
question

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
answer

Youth organization founded by southern black students in 1960 to promote civil rights.
question

Operation Wetback
answer

A government program to roundup and deport as many as one million illegal Mexican migrant workers in the US.
question

Federal Highway Act of 1956
answer

Federal legislation signed by Dwight D. Eisenhower to construct thousands of miles of modern highways in the name of national defense
question

Policy of boldness
answer

Foreign policy objective of Dwight Eisenhower’s Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who believed in changing the containment strategy to one that more directly engaged the Soviet Union and attempted to roll back communist influence around the world.
question

Hungarian uprising
answer

Series of demonstrations in Hungary against the Soviet Union
question

Battle of Dien Bien Phu
answer

Military engagement in French colonial Vietnam in which French forces were defeated by Viet Minh nationalists loyal to Ho Chi Minh.
question

Suez Crisis
answer

International crisis launched when Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, which had been owned mostly by French and British stockholders.
question

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
answer

Cartel comprising Middle Eastern states and Venezuela first organized in 1960.
question

Sputnik
answer

Soviet satellite first launched into Earth orbit on October 4, 1957. This scientific achievement pushed the USSR ahead of the US in the Space Race
question

Kitchen debate
answer

Televised exchange in 1959 between Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and American Vice President Richard Nixon.
question

Military-Industrial Complex
answer

Term popularized by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in his 1961 Farewell Address, referring to the political and economic ties between arms manufacturers, elected officials, and the U.S. armed forces that created self-sustaining pressure for high military spending during the Cold War. Eisenhower also warned that this powerful combination left unchecked could “endanger our liberties or democratic process,” favoring defense concerns over more peaceful goals that balanced security and liberty.
question

Abstract Expressionism
answer

An experimental style of mid-twentieth-century modern art exemplified by Jackson Pollock’s spontaneous “action paintings,” created by flinging paint on canvases stretched across the studio floor.
question

International Style
answer

Archetypal, post-World War II modernist architectural style, best known for its “curtain-wall” designs of steel-and-glass corporate high-rises.
question

Beat Generation
answer

A small coterie of mid-twentieth-century bohemian writers and personalities, including Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William S. Burroughs, who bemoaned bourgeois conformity and advocated free-form experimentation in life and literature.
question

Southern Renaissance
answer

A literary outpouring among mid-twentieth-century southern writers, begun by William Faulkner and marked by a new critical appreciation of the region’s burdens of history, racism, and conservatism.
question

New Frontier
answer

President Kennedy’s nickname for his domestic policy agenda.
question

Peace Corps
answer

A federal agency created by JFK in 1961 to promote voluntary service in Americans in foreign countries.
question

Apollo
answer

Program of manned space flights run by America’s NASA.
question

Berlin Wall
answer

Fortified and guarded barrier between East and West Berlin erected on the orders from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 to stop the flow of people to the West.
question

European Economic Community (EEC)
answer

Free trade zone in Western Europe created by Treaty of Rome in 1957, often referred to as the “Common Market.”
question

Bay of Pigs invasion
answer

CIA plot in 1961 to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power.
question

Cuban missile crisis
answer

Standoff between JFK and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba.
question

Freedom Riders
answer

Organized mixed-race groups who rode interstate buses deep into the South to draw attention and to protest racial segregation, beginning in 1961.
question

Voter Education Project
answer

Effort by the SNCC and other civil rights groups to register the South’s historically disenfranchised black population.
question

March on Washington
answer

Massive civil rights demonstration in August 1963 in support of Kennedy-backed legislation to secure legal protections for American blacks.
question

Richard M. Nixon
answer

37th Republican President of the United States, 1969 to 1974. He rose to national prominence as a “communist hunter” and member of HUAC in the 1950s. He was Vice President under Eisenhower from 1953 to 1961 and defended American capitalism in the 1959 Kitchen Debate with Khrushchev. He ran unsuccessfully for president against John F. Kennedy in 1960, but was elected to the presidency in 1968 and 1972. He resigned the presidency amid the Watergate scandal in 1974.
question

Betty Friedan
answer

Feminist author of The Feminine Mystique in 1960. Her book sparked a new consciousness among suburban women and helped launch the second-wave feminist movement.
question

Elvis Presley
answer

Memphis-born singer whose youth, voice, and sex appeal helped popularize rock ‘n’ roll in the mid-1950s. Commonly known using only his first name, Elvis was an icon of popular culture, in both music and film.
question

Rosa Parks
answer

Known as the “mother of the civil rights movement”. In December of 1955, Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white rider. She was jailed and fined $14 for the offense. This led to Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Montgomery Bus Boycott.
question

Martin Luther King, Jr.
answer

Civil rights leader and Baptist preacher who rose to prominence with the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 and founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957. He was an outspoken advocate for black rights throughout the 1960s, most famously during the 1963 March on Washington where he delivered the “I Have a Dream” speech. He was assassinated in Memphis in 1968 while supporting a sanitation workers’ strike.
question

Earl Warren
answer

Chief Justice and former governor of California; brought originally taboo social issues, such as civil rights to African Americans, to the attention of Congress and the country. Known for the Brown v. Board of Education case of 1954.
question

John Foster Dulles
answer

American politician principally known for serving as Eisenhower’s Secretary of State. An ardent Cold Warrior, he drafted the “policy of boldness” designed to confront Soviet aggression with threat of “massive retaliation” via thermonuclear weapons, and supported American intervention in Vietnam.
question

Nikita Khrushchev
answer

The premier of Russia during the race to get satellites into space between Russia and the United States. He used many propaganda techniques to try to fool the world of Russia’s intentions. President’s Eisenhower and Kennedy dealt with his communist attitudes.
question

Ho Chi Minh
answer

The Vietnamese leader who believed in Asian nationalism and anti-colonialism in his country. He was trying to get rid of the French colonial rule in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh’s beliefs were discouraged by the Cold War and he became increasingly communist. He led the North Vietnamese against the U.S. and the South Vietnamese. He was the enemy in Vietnam.
question

Gamal Abdel Nasser
answer

The hardnosed Arab nationalist president of Egypt during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956. He seized the Suez Canal from the English and French. England and France were willing to use force to get it back. Soviets try to interfere. Eisenhower made them back down when he put the Strategic Air Command on alert.
question

Fidel Castro
answer

He engineered a revolution in Cuba in 1959. He denounced the imperialists and took valuable American property for a land-distribution program. When the U.S. cut off U.S. imports of Cuban sugar, Castro took more U.S. land and resulting from that his dictatorship became similar to Stalin’s in Russia. (Communism in the Western Hemisphere)
question

John F. Kennedy
answer

Democratic 36th President of the United States. He was the youngest president ever elected, as well as the only Catholic to take office. He represented the Democratic Party with his “New Frontier” platform in the 1960 election. He was a major contributor to the space program and to the civil rights movement. He was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
question

Lyndon B. Johnson
answer

Democratic 36th President of the United States, 1963 to 1969. A Texas Democrat who rose to tremendous power in the Senate during the New Deal, he was tapped to be John F. Kennedy’s running mate in 1960. Chosen largely to help solidify support for the Democratic ticket in the anti-Catholic South, he assumed the presidency after Kennedy’s assassination in 1963. As president, he was responsible for liberal programs such as the Great Society, War on Poverty, and civil rights legislation, as well as the escalation of the Vietnam War. After a series challenges from within his party, he chose not to run for reelection in 1968.
question

Jackson Pollock
answer

New York-based painter who became the father of abstract expressionism with his spontaneous “action paintings”.
question

Andy Warhol
answer

Pioneering “Pop” artist known for his iconic portraits of Cold War America’s material objects, including soup cans and soda bottles.
question

Jack Kerouac
answer

Frenetic novelist and progenitor of the bohemian Beat Generation (a term he coined). He gained celebrity after publishing the group’s unofficial bible, On the Road.
question

Allen Ginsberg
answer

New Jersey-born poet who served as spokesman of the Beat Generation. The 1956 publication of his Howl and Other Poems sparked a San Francisco literary renaissance and a local obscenity trial that brought nationwide publicity to the bohemian Beat movement.
question

Arthur Miller
answer

New York-born playwright who dramatized the pitfalls of postwar American materialism in Death of a Salesman and Cold War hysteria in The Crucible, among other plays.
question

Ralph Ellison
answer

Oklahoma-born and Tuskegee-educated novelist best known for writing Invisible Man, one of the great novels of the twentieth-century African-American experience.
question

Robert F. Kennedy
answer

Younger brother of John F. Kennedy who entered public life as U.S. Attorney General during the Kennedy administration. Later elected senator from New York, Robert Kennedy became an anti-war, pro-civil rights presidential candidate in 1968, launching a popular challenge to incumbent President Johnson. Amid that campaign, he was assassinated in California on June 6, 1968.
question

Robert S. McNamara
answer

Businessman turned Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968. McNamara was the author of the “flexible response” doctrine, which created a variety of military options and avoided a stark choice between nuclear warfare and none at all. As Defense Secretary, he was the chief architect of the Vietnam War.
question

Ngo Dinh Diem
answer

First president of South Vietnam, where he took power following the Geneva Accords in 1954. Diem was propped up by the United States until he was overthrown and assassinated by a coup in 1963.
question

James Meredith
answer

In 1962 became the first black American to attend the University of Mississippi after being blocked several times by segregationist politicians. An icon of the Civil Rights Movement, Meredith receded from public view following his brave steps toward educational integration.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member