Chapter 16 Cancer

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What kills more people than cancer does
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heart disease
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What factor contributes to about 30% of all cancer deaths
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tobacco use
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A malignant tumor id different from a benign tumor in that a malignant tumor is
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capable of invading surrounding structures
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leukemia cells are considered
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malignant
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cancer is characterized by
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controlled growth of cells
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When a malignant tumor spreads to sites distant from primary tumor, the process is known as
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metastasis
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when cancer cells enter the lymph or blood system,
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they can form secondary tumors elsewhere
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When a patient who has been previously diagnosed with cancer no longer has symptoms or other evidence of that cancer, the patient is said to
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be in remission
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criteria used to determine the stage that a particular cancer is at
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– the number of cancer cells present – whether the cancer has spread to another organ – whether the tumor has broken through tissue boundaries
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cancers arising from connective and fibrous tissues such as bone, cartilage, or muscle are called
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sarcomas
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sarcomas arise from
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connective and fibrous tissue
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Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph nodes part of the body’s
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infection- fighting system
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A physician who specialized in the study and treatment of cancer is known as an
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oncologist
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cancer death rates since 1990 are
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declining
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the most common cause of cancer death in the U.S. is
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lung cancer
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Smoking is responsible for what percentage of lung cancer
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90%
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Greatest risk factor for the development of lung cancer among nonsmokers
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environmental tobacco smoke
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lung cancer is
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difficult to cure at any stage
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A technique that detects lung cancer earlier than x-ray do is
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spiral CT scan
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One type of cancer that seems to be linked to a diet high in red meat is
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colon cancer
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At what age should a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy be a standard regular test
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50
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Daniel has a family history of Colon cancer. to lower his personal risk of the disease, he should consider
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– increasing his intake of fruits and vegetables – being physically active – using whole grains rather than refined grains
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The most common form of cancer in women is ______ cancer; the most common cause of cancer death in women is ____
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breast; lung
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What do obesity and alcohol use have in common that increases breast cancer risk?
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They increase estrogen levels in blood
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Risk factors for breast cancer inclcude
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– genetic factors – diet – hormonal factors
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A women is more likely to develop breast cancer if
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she is obese
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The American Cancer Society recommends routine use of mammography to detect breast cancer for women over age
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40
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Prostate cancer is
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– the second leading cause of cancer death in men – the most common cancer in males – influenced by diet and lifestyle
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techniques for early detection of prostate cancer include a digital rectal exam and
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A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test
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The infection that puts women at risk for cervial cancer is
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HPV
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Scraping cells from the cervix to screen for cancerous changes is called
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a PAP test
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In some cases, cervical dysplasia develops into
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cervical cancer
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Cancer of the lining of the uterus is called _______ cancer
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edometrial
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Risk factors for endometrial cancer include
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– late menopause – obesity – prolonged estrogen exposure
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Ovarian cancers
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are relatively rare but have a high death rate
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the most dangerous form of skin cancer is
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melanoma
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The most at risk of developing skin cancer include
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– people who use tanning beds – people with a family history of skin cancer – people who were severely sunburned as children
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Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas
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may be pearly nodules or red, scaly patches
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Characteristic of melanoma
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– appears at the site of a preexisting mole – invades surrounding tissue – bleeds easily
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Steps to prevent skin cancer include
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– avoiding prolonged exposure to the sun – avoiding sunburns – using sunscreens and protective clothing
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A characteristic of a skin lesion that may be a melanoma is one with a
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diameter greater than that of a pencil eraser
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The most common treatment for skin cancer is
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surgical removal
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Risk factors for oral cancer include
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– cigarette and cigar smoking – excess alcohol consumption – use of spit tobacco
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Groups that are at increased risk of testicular cancer
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– white males – men with undescended testicles – men with a family history of it
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Statements regarding testical self- examination
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