Chapter 15 – Disorders of Aging and Cognition Essay

question

36 million people in the United States are
answer

“old” over 65 more than 12% of population
question

Older women outnumber men
answer

3 to 2
question

As many as ___ the elder people would benefit from mental health services yet fewer than ___ actually receive them
answer

half 20%
question

gerosychology
answer

field of psychology dedicated to mental health of elderly people developed almost entirely within last 35 years only small percentage of clinicians work primarily with elderly persons
question

Two Groups of Psychological problems of elderly persons
answer

Disorders connected to aging Disorders of cognition
question

Disorders connected to aging
answer

depressive anxiety substance-related disorders
question

Disorders of cognition
answer

delirium mild neurocognitive disorders majjor neurocognitive disorders result from brain abnormalities
question

What is the most common mental health problems of older adults
answer

Depression highest in older women 20% of people experience depression in old age
question

Depression jumps to __ percent who live in nursing homes
answer

32%
question

Does depression raise chances of developing medical problems for elderly?
answer

Yes
question

Elderly are more likely to commit suicide than young people
answer

True 16 per 100,000
question

Anxiety Disorders men vs. women
answer

11% of elderly women 6% of elderly men
question

Medications vs. elderly
answer

must be used cautiously/body breaks down drugs differently when older
question

Substance Abuse vs. Elderly
answer

4-7% more men drinks as a result of aging death of a spouse/living alone/unwanted retirement
question

misuse of prescription drugs
answer

leading substance problem in elderly elderly buy 30% of all prescription drugs 40% over the counter have to take so many/confusing medication or skipping doses is high
question

Most elderly take at least ___ prescription drugs and ___ over the counter drugs
answer

5 2
question

Misuse of medications in nursing homes
answer

anti-psychotic drugs being given to 30% of total nursing home population in US individuals do not display psychotic functioning given to quiet and manage patients
question

Schizophrenia and Delusional disorder are disorders of
answer

Cognition within the elderly
question

Schizophrenia young vs. old
answer

less common in older persons than younger ones symptoms of schizophrenia lessen later in life
question

Schizophrenia of Elderly men vs. women
answer

women outnumber men by at least 2 to 1
question

Delusional Disorder
answer

develop beliefs that are false but not bizarre 3 of every 10,000 increase in elderly population
question

Leading cognitive disorders in elderly are
answer

delirium and neurocognitive
question

Delirium
answer

major disturbance in attention and orientation to environment great difficulty concentrating and thinking in an organized way leads to illusions, misinterpretations, hallucinations
question

Delirium develops over
answer

a period of time usually hours or days
question

Percent of Elderly with Delirium
answer

1% over 55 14% over 85 1 in 10 shows symptoms of delirium entering hospital 10% develop delirium during their stay
question

Delirium vs. nursing homes
answer

60% older than 75 have this compared to 35% living independently with assistance of home health services
question

Causes of Delirium
answer

fever certain diseases infections poor nutrition head injuries strokes stress intoxication by certain substances
question

Neurocognitive disorder
answer

experience significant decline in at least one (more than one) area of cognitivie functioning such as memory and learning motor skills/planning/decision making etc. also undergo personality changes
question

Major neurocognitive disorder
answer

decline is substantial interferes significantly with ability to be independent
question

Mild neurocognitive disorder
answer

decline is modest and does not interfere with independent functioning
question

Alzheimer’s disease
answer

most common type of neurocognitive disorder 2/3 of all cases 5 million ppl in US *to triple by 2050* vast majority occurs after 65 (late onset) can appear middle age (early onset)
question

Onset of death with Alzheimer’s
answer

8 to 10 years
question

Death and Alzheimer’s
answer

accounts for 75,000 deaths a year 7th leading cause of death in country *THIRD LEADING CAUSE AMONG THE ELDERLY*
question

Alzehimer’s diagnosis in brain
answer

excessive senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
question

senile plaques
answer

sphere shaped deposits of a small molecule – beta-amyloid protein form in spaces between cells in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, nearby blood vessels occurs normally/higher for those with Alzheimer’s
question

Neurofibrillary tangles
answer

twisted protein fibers found within cells of hippocampus and certain other brain areas occur in all people as age extraordinary number produced with disease
question

Genetic causes of Alzheimer’s
answer

proteins fundamental components of all living cells abnormal activity by proteins/frenzied manner result in death of many neurons
question

Tau
answer

another protein key to excessive formation of tangles
question

Abnormalities in genes with two proteins Genetic Factors
answer

beta-amyloid precursor and presenilin protein families transmit mutations of one or both genes lead to abnormal functioning of proteins
question

Late-Onset of Disease is result of
answer

genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors
question

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
answer

normally responsible for production of a protein that helps carry various fats into bloodstream
question

30% inherit ApoE-4 which is
answer

form of protein that is particularly vulnerable to development of Alzheimer’s promotes excessive formation of proteins/spur formation of plaque/numerous tangles/death of neurons
question

Brain and Alzheimer
answer

prefrontal lobes temporal lobes diencephalon involve damage to or improper functioning of one or more brain structures
question

Biochemical and Alzheimer
answer

acetycholine glutamate RNA calcium -responsible for production of memory linked proteins abnormal activity leads to disease
question

Zinc
answer

high levels found in those with disease observed to trigger clumping of beta-amyloid similar to disease
question

Environmental toxins
answer

lead elderly exposed to high levels in 60s,70s damaged or destroyed neurons
question

Autoimmune theory
answer

mistaken attack by immune system against itself helps lead to disease
question

Viral Theory
answer

Resembles Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (caused by slow-acting virus) propose similar virus may cause Alzheimer’s *no such virus has been detected in brains of Alzheimer’s victims*
question

Most cases of Alzheimer’s can be diagnosed with absolute certainty
answer

only after death when autopsy is performed
question

PET Scan hippocampus
answer

new study developed cognitive impairments displayed lower hippocampus activity on their initial PET scans than participants who stayed healthy
question

PET Scan accuracy
answer

mild 71% major 83%
question

Vascular Neurocognitive disorder
answer

follows cerebrovascular accident or stroke blood flow to specific areas in brain was cut off; damaging the areas still have functioning in parts of brain where blood flow was not cut off
question

Frontotemporal Neurocognitive Disorder
answer

Pick’s Disease rare disorder affects frontal and temporal lobes similar to Alzheimer’s *two can be distinguished at autopsy*
question

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
answer

spasms of the body caused by slow acting virus – live in body for years before disease develops once launched/disease is rapid
question

Huntington’s disease
answer

inherited progressive disease memory problems worsen over time personality changes mood difficulties movement problems too 50% of gaining it if parents had it
question

Parkinson’s disease
answer

slowly progressive neurological disorder tremors rigidity unsteadiness can result in neurocognitive due to Parkinson’s in older people whose cases are advanced
question

Neurocognitive disorders can be caused by
answer

HIV infections traumatic brain injury substance abuse various medical conditions/ meningitis/advanced syphilis
question

Drug Treatment for Alzheimers
answer

tacrine (Cognex) donepezil (Aricept) rivastigmine (Exelon) galantamine (Reminyl) memantine (Namenda) improve slightly in short term memory/reasoning/language or take vitamin E helps slow down cognitive decline in mild stage of Alzheimers *administered after a person has the disease*
question

Estrogen
answer

women who took hormone after menopause cut their risk of developing Alzheimer’s in half
question

Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
answer

ibuprofen and naprosyn may help reduce risk of disease *mixed*
question

Cognitive Approach Alzheimer
answer

temporary success mental exercises stimulation programs help prevent or delay onset of disease
question

Behavioral Approach Alzheimer
answer

physical exercise improve specific symptoms focus on changing everyday behaviors that are stressful /wandering/loss of bladder/ etc.
question

___ percent of people with Alzheimer’s are taken care of by their relatives
answer

90%
question

Most common reason for institutionalization of Alzheimer’s victims
answer

caregivers can no longer cope with difficulties of keeping them at home
question

long term care
answer

services offered outside the family supervised apartment senior housing complex nursing home
question

___ percent of elderly population actually live in nursing homes but as many as ___ percent eventually wind up being placed in such facilities
answer

5% 30%

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member