Answers on Chapter 11 Flashcards

question

how many bonds does carbon always make?
answer

four
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what is the exception to carbon always making four bonds?
answer

co
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two reasons carbon is so special:
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can form 4 covalent bonds and bonds with other carbon atoms in a straight chain or ring
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what kind of bonds do organic molecules form?
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covalent or polar-covalent
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what kind of bonds do organic molecules never form?
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ionic
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can carbon form quadrupal bonds?
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no, just single, double and triple
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other elements commonly found in organic molecules?
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hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen
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each central atom has a specific
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3-d shape
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what was the first synthesized organic molecule?
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urea
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who synthesized urea?
answer

frederick wohler
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what makes carbon able to form four equivelent bonds?
answer

hybridization
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what does hybridization allow carbon to do?
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form long chains and rings structures
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isomers
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same molecular formula different compounds
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why do structuralisomers have different physical properties?
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because they are connected in a different order
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another name for structural isomers?
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constitutional isomers
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functional groups
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structural elements with characteristic arrangement of atoms and similar chemical properties
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what determines the characteristics of organic molecules?
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functional groups
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three types of structural formulas?
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molecular, lewis structures, condensed structural formulas
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hydrocarbons contain only
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carbon and hydrogen
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four most simple types of hydrocarbons:
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alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics
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alkanes
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only single bonds
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alkenes
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at least one double bonds
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alkynes
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at least one triple bond
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aromatics
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six carbon rings
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alkanes only contain
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carbon and hydrogen
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what is possible if an alkane has more than three carbons
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constitutional isomers
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branches and straight chain alkanes are
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constitutional isomers
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isomers have different
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configurations
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configuration
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bonds must be broken to change shape
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conformations
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different structures of the same compounds
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can you twist a double bond?
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no only a single bond
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are conformations malleable
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yes, different conformations are achieved by rotating around single bonds
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configurations are not changeable unless
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bonds are broken and reformed
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prefixes denote
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the number and identity of attached groups
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root word denotes
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longest carbon chain
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ending denotes
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functional class (alkane, alkene, etc)
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how can main groups be modified?
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by the addition of substituents
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during modification you lose an atom but the (blank) is maintained
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bond
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first step when naming organic molecules
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find and name the longest contiual carbon chain
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the main chain is what part of the name?
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the root
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which carbon is number one?
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the carbon closest to a branch
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second step when naming organic molecules
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identify each substituent
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number each substituent according to
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where it is attached to the main chain
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if there are two or more substituents attahed to the same carbon of the main chain…
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they each get the same number
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will you find metal in organic compounds
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no
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why are alkanes saturated?
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the max number of carbons are attached
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general formula for cycloalkanes
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C(n) H(2n)
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the smallest cycloalkanes have (blank) carbons
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three
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why are three and four carbon rings strained?
answer

because the bond angles are less than 110 degrees
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what do you include in line structures of cyclalkanes?
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bonds and elements beside carbon and hydrogen
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how do you decide which carbon is number one on the cycloalkane?
answer

start alphabetically
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is free rotation possible in a cyclic compound?
answer

no
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two commonly seen conformations of cyclohexane
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chair and boat
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which is the more stable cycloalkane, the chair or the boat?
answer

the chair
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what are the bond angles in a cyclohexane?
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about 110 degrees
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because rings have fixed structures it is possible for substituents to
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be on different sides
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to distinguish whether or not the substituents are on the same side, you use these two prefixes
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cis and trans
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are alkanes polar or nonpolar
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nonpolar
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are alkanes soluble in water
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no
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alkanes density more or less than water
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less
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physical properties of alkanes
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colorless, tasteless
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are alkanes toxic
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no
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are alkanes flammable
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yes
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are alkanes reactive
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nor very
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alkane intermolecular forces are
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london dispersion
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combustion
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the rapid reaction of another compound with oxygen that produces heat and light
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the products of combustion are always
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water and carbon dioxide
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hybrid orbital
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a combination of the 2s and 2p orbitals that allows carbon to make four bonds that are equivelent
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structural formulas show all
answer

covalent bonds
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what are the simplest of all organic compounds?
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hydrocarbons
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another word for saturated hydrocarbons
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alkanes
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three types of unsaturated hydrocardbons
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alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics
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what kind of hydrocarbons are not common in the human body?
answer

alkanes
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general formula for alkanes
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C(2)H(2n+2)
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what is the simplest alkane
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methane
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what are the bond angles of a tetrahedral?
answer

110 degrees
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two types of alkanes
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normal and branched
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what does the prefix n mean?
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indicates that all carbons form an unbranched chain
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alkyl groups
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a collection of atoms that can be thought of as an alkane minus one hydrogen atom
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why do alkanes have a lower melting and boiling point than other organic molecules
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because they have very weak nonpolar bonds
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homologous series
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any series of compounds in which each member differs from the previous member only be having an additional CH2 unit
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dispersion forces increase as (blank) increases
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molecular weight
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one to four carbons
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gas
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five to twenty carbons
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liquid
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more than twenty carbons
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waxy solid
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what are the least reactive of all organic compounds?
answer

alkanes
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what are the products of incomplete combustion
answer

co and c
question

what causes incomplete combustion
answer

lack of oxygen

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