Chapter 10 Leadership

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Manager
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Someone who coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives, using available resources efficiently and effectively
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Leader
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someone who can influence others to achieve goals
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Why is leadership so important?
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it gets followers to embrace a vision and to ultimately achieve the organization’s goals
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What are the 3 secrets to leadership?
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1) Emotional and Social Competence 2) Power 3) Ethics
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What is the secret to effective leadership?
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Emotional and Social competence
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What is the secret to influential leadership?
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Power
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What is the secret to responsible leadership?
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Ethics
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Competencies
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capabilities or abilities that include both intent and action, and that can be directly linked to how well a person performs on a task or in a job
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What differentiates great leaders from average ones?
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Emotional intelligence
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What are the 3 things that EI enables leaders to do?
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1) Motivate subordinates to commit to their vision 2) Develop an identity for the organization and instill trust and cooperation 3) Respond appropriately when they realize they’ve made a mistake
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What are the 5 sources of Power?
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1) Legitimate 2) Reward 3) Coercive 4) Expert 5) Referent
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Legitimate power
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the ability to influence others by right of the one’s position in the organization, the office held, or formal authority
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Reward power
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the ability to influence others by giving or withholding rewards such as pay, promotions, time off, attractive projects, learning experiences, and the like
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Coercive power
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the attempt to influence others through punishment
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Expert Power
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the ablility to influence followers through a combination of special knowledge/skills
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Referent power
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power that comes from personal characteristics that people value and want to emulate and that cause people to feel respect or admiration
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Empowerment
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trusting employees to make decisions and to take responsibility for their decisions and actions
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What are the 3 things that you need to be empowered?
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1) Knowledge and tools 2) Responsibility and accountability 3) Authority within a span of control
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What are 3 ways how empowerment contributes to effective leadership?
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1) Increasing a manager’s ability to get things done and spend less time on daily supervision 2) Increasing workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitment 3) Allowing for quick decisions to be made at all levels
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Theory z
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focused on increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well being of the employee, both on and off the job
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According to the Trait Model, what were the 8 traits that a good leader should have?
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1) Intelligence 2) Knowledge and Expertise 3) Dominance 4) Self-confidence 5) High energy 6) Tolerance for stress 7) Integrity and Honesty 8) Maturity
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How does having intelligence help managers?
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understand complex issues and solve problems
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How does having knowledge and expertise help managers?
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make good decisions and discover ways to increase efficiency and effectiveness
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How does having dominance help managers?
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influence their subordinates to achieve organizational goals
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How does having self-confidence help managers?
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contributes to managers’ effectively influencing subordinates and persisting when faced with obstacles or difficulties
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How does having high energy help managers?
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deal with many demands they face
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How does having tolerance for stress help managers?
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deal with uncertainty and make difficult decisions
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How does having integrity and honesty help managers?
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behave ethically and earn their subordinates’ trust and confidence
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How does having maturity help managers?
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avoid acting selfishly, control their feelings, and admit when they have made a mistake
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What are two major dimensions of leadership behavior according to Ohio State’s behavior models?
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1) Consideration 2) Initiating Structure
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Consideration
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people-orientated behaviors such as respect, openness to employee’s ideas, and concern for employee well-being
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Initiating Structure
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behaviors related to task and goal orientation, such as giving clear directions, monitoring employees’ performance, and planning and setting work schedules and deadlines
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What were the 2 dimensions of behavior according to Michigan’s behavior models?
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1) Job-centered behavior 2) Employee-Centered Behavior
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Job centered behavior
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focus primarily on the work a subordinate is doing
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Employee centered behavior
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focus primarily on subordinates as people
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Country club manager
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high people, low task
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Team manager
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high people, high task
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Impoverished manager
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low people, low task
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Authority obedience manager
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low people, high task
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Contingency Models
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propose that the effectiveness of a leader with certain traits in contingent on the situation or context in which he/she performs
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Fiedler’s Model
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Leadership effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the leader and the situation styles
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What were the 2 leader styles according to Fiedler?
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1) Relationship-oriented 2) Task-oriented
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Relationship-oriented
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leaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them
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Task-oriented
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leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level and focus on task accomplishment
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How does the situation affect leaders?
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situational characteristics determine how favorable a situation is for leading
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Leader-member relations
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the degree of confidence, trust, and respect employees have for their leader
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Task structure
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degree to which job assignments are formalized and structured
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Position power
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degree of influence a leader has over activities such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases
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House’s path-goal theory (2)
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1) leader is responsible for motivating employees to obtain goals 2) clarify the path toward organizational and person goals and link rewards to those goals
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What are the 4 kinds of interchangeable leadership behaviors that motivate subordinates?
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1) Directive 2) Supportive 3) Participative 4) Achievement-oriented
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Directive
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defines clear expectations, offers guidance, established performance standards, and schedules work tasks
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Supportive
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creates a pleasant, cooperative environment
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Participative
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collaborates with employees by soliciting input and participative in the decision making process
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Achievement-oriented
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establishes clear, challenging goals, emphasizes performance excellence, and shows belief in employees’ ability to attain goals
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Leadership Substitutes Model
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direct leadership may be unnecessary depending on characteristics of subordinates and the situation
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Transformational leadership
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leaders have a high level of social and emotional intelligence and can inspire others to seek an extraordinary vision
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3 Characteristics of subordinates of transformational leaders
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1) increased awareness of the importance of their jobs and high performance 2) aware of their own needs for personal growth and development 3) work for the good of the organization, not just themselves
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3 Characteristics of Transformational managers
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1) Charismatic 2) Intellectually stimulate subordinates 3) Engage in developmental consideration
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Developmental consideration
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behavior a leader engages in to support and encourage followers and help them develop and grow on the job
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2 characteristics of Transactional leadership
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1) a more traditional approach to management 2) lower levels of job satisfaction and performance than transformational
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2 characteristics of Transactional leadership
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1) a more traditional approach to management 2) lower levels of job satisfaction and performance than transformational
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2 characteristics of Transactional leadership
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1) a more traditional approach to management 2) lower levels of job satisfaction and performance than transformational

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