Ch1 & 2 Nutrition

amino acids
The building blocks of proteins. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, and a unique side chain.

calories
A unit of measure used to express the amount of energy provided by food.

carbohydrates
A class of nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fibers. Chemically, they all contain carbon, along with hydrogen and oxygen, in the same proportions as in water (H2O).

cholesterol
A type of lipid that is found in the diet and in the blood. High blood levels increase the risk of heart disease.

control group
In a scientific experiment, the group of participants used as a basis of comparison. They are similar to the participants in the experimental group but do not receive the treatment being tested.

designer foods or neutraceuticals
Foods or supplements thought to have health benefits in addition to their nutritive value

dietary supplements
Products sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids), enzymes, herbs, or other substances.

elements
Substances that cannot be broken down into products with different properties.

energy-yielding nutrients
Nutrients that can be metabolized to produce energy in the body. They include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

epidemiology
The branch of science that studies health and disease trends and patterns in populations.

essential nutrients
Nutrients that a person must consume in order to maintain health.

experimental group
In a scientific experiment, the group of participants who undergo the treatment being tested.

fiber
A type of carbohydrate that cannot be digested by humans.

fortified foods
Foods to which one or more nutrients have been added.

functional foods
Foods that have health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions.

genes
Units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits.

hormones
Chemical messengers that are produced in one location in the body, released into the blood, and travel to other locations, where they elicit responses.

hypothesis
A proposed explanation for an observation or a scientific problem that can be tested through experimentation.

kilocalories
Units of heat that are used to express the amount of energy provided by foods. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius (1 kcalorie = 1000 calories. When Calorie is spelled with a capital C it denotes kilocalorie).

lipids
A class of nutrients that is commonly called fats. Chemically, they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and most of them do not dissolve in water.

macronutrients
Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts. These include water and the energy-yielding nutrients carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

malnutrition
A condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal.

micronutrients
Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals.

Minerals
In nutrition, elements needed by the body in small amounts to maintain structure and regulate chemical reactions and body processes.

nutrient density
A measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content.

nutrients
Substances in food that provide energy and structure to the body and regulate body processes.

nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics
The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health.

organic compounds
Substances that contain carbon bonded to hydrogen.

osteoporosis
A bone disorder characterized by reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and increased risk of fractures.

overnutrition
Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake in excess of that which is optimal for health.

peer-review process
The review of the design and validity of a research experiment by experts in the field of study who did not participate in the research.

phytochemicals
Substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties.

placebo
A fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from the real thing. It is used to disguise the control and experimental groups in an experiment.

proteins
A class of nutrients that includes molecules made up of one or more intertwining chains of amino acids. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

saturated fats
Lipids that are most abundant in solid animal fats and are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

scientific method
The general approach of science that is used to explain observations about the world around us.

theory
A formal explanation of an observed phenomenon made after a hypothesis has been supported and tested through experimentation.

Undernutrition
Poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake below that which meets nutritional needs.

unsaturated fats
Lipids that are most abundant in plant oils and are associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.

variable
A factor or condition that is changed in an experimental setting.

Vitamins
Organic compounds needed in the diet in small amounts to promote and regulate the chemical reactions and processes needed for growth, reproduction, and the maintenance of health.

zoochemicals
Substances found in animal foods (zoo means animal) that are not essential nutrients but may have healthpromoting properties.

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs
Healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake.

Adequate Intakes (AIs)
Nutrient intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists. Ai values are an approximation of the nutrient intake that sustains health.

Daily Value
A reference value for the intake of nutrients used on food labels to help consumers see how a given food fits into their overall diet

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
A set of nutrition recommendations designed to promote population-wide dietary changes to reduce the incidence of nutrition-related chronic disease.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
A set of four reference values for the intake of nutrients and food components that can be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada.

discretionary calories
The calories remaining after an individual has met recommended intake levels with healthy choices from all the food groups.

Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)
Nutrient intakes estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the healthy individuals in a given gender and life-stage group.

Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs)
Average energy intake values predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals.

Exchange Lists
A system of grouping foods based on their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and energy content.

food guides
Food group systems that suggest amounts of different types of foods needed to meet nutrient intake recommendations.

health claims
Claims on food labels that describe the relationship between a nutrient or food and a disease or health condition. Only approved health claims may appear on food labels.

Healthy People
A set of national health promotion and disease prevention objectives for the U.S. population

MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You
A food group system developed by the USDA as a guide to the amounts of different types of foods needed to provide an adequate diet and comply with current nutrition recommendations.

nutrient content claims
Claims on food labels used to describe the level of a nutrient in a food. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 defines there terms and regulates the circumstances under which they can be used.

Nutrition Facts
The portion of a food label that provides information about the nutritional composition of a food and how that food fits into the overall diet.

nutritional status
An individual’s health, as it is influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients.

qualified health claims
Health claims on food labels that have been approved based on emerging but not well-established evidence of a relationship between a food, food component, or dietary supplement and reduced risk of a disease or health-related condition.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
Intakes that are sufficient to meet the needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group.

structure/function claims
Claims on food labels that describe the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient in maintaining normal structure or function in humans.

Supplement Facts
Portion of a dietary supplement label that includes information about, serving size, ingredients, amount per serving size (by weight), and percent of Daily Value, if established.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
Maximum daily intake levels that are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a given gender and life-stage group.

Which DRI standards can be used as goals for individual intake?
AIs and RDAs only

Which DRI standard can help you determine whether a supplement contains a toxic level of a nutrient?
UL

T/F: Your EER stays the same when you gain weight.
FALSE

The different colors of the triangles that make up MyPyramid are designed to illustrate that
a variety of foods are needed to make up a healthy diet

Which of these foods is highest in discretionary calories? apple, tbsp of olive oil, slice of whole wheat bread, a doughnut
doughnut

In which order are the ingredients listed on a food label?
from largest to smallest, by weight

Which of the following is stressed by the Dietary Guidelines?
A: Choose nutrient-dense foods.
B: Balance food intake with physical activity.
C: Limit nutrients that are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease.
D: Handle food safely to prevent food-borne illness.
All of the above

Which of the following is used to assess nutritional status?
A: nutritional analysis of the diet
B: measurements of body dimensions
C: medical history and physical examination
D: laboratory tests
All of the above

Which of the following is a structure/function claim?
A: Fiber maintains bowel regularity.
B: Soluble fiber helps reduce the risk of heart disease.
C: Calcium helps reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
D: Diets that are low in sodium can reduce the risk of high blood pressure.
Fiber maintains bowel regularity.

What is meant by nutritional status?
the measure of a person’s health in terms of his or her intake and utilization of nutrients

Which of the following is not a food group in MyPyramid?
A: milk
B: meat and beans
C: vegetables
D: fats and sweets
fats and sweets

True or false: If you choose a high-fat, high-salt, fast-food lunch, your nutrient intake for the day cannot meet the recommendations for a healthy diet.
False

Which of these foods has the lowest nutrient density?
A: an orange
B: strawberry yogurt
C: whole-wheat bread
D: orange soda
orange soda

Which group consists only of nutrients that are classified as energy-yielding nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

Which group consists only of nutrients that are considered micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals

Which nutrient class provides the most Calories per gram?
lipids

Which of these statements about essential nutrients is false?
A:If you do not get enough of them in your diet, your body will synthesize enough to meet its needs.
B:If you do not get enough of them in your diet, deficiency symptoms will eventually appear.
C:Some of them provide energy.
D:Some of them provide structure.
If you do not get enough of them in your diet, your body will synthesize enough to meet its needs.

Why it is better to obtain your nutrients from foods than from dietary supplements?
A: Dietary supplements are more likely to contain toxic amounts of nutrients.
B: Foods provide phytochemicals and zoochemicals.
C: Foods provide pleasurable tastes and aromas.
All of the above are correct

Which of these factors can limit the availability of food?
A: socioeconomic status
B: health status
C: living conditions
All of the above are correct

A diet that follows the principles of variety, balance, and moderation _________
can include all kinds of foods

Which of these sources would be most likely to exaggerate the beneficial effects of a dietary supplement?
A: government publication
B: dietitians recommendations
C: a pamphlet published by the manufacturer
D: peer reviewed article in a scientific journal
a pamphlet published by the manufacturer

When the scientific method is used, a hypothesis is first proposed and then tested through experimentation. Which of the following hypotheses can be tested by means of experiments that use a quantifiable measure?
A: Iron supplements increase feelings of vitality.
B: A high vitamin E intake makes you feel younger.
C: Eating an apple a day will lower blood cholesterol.
D: B vitamin supplements give you an energy boost.
Eating an apple a day will lower blood cholesterol.

In a scientific experiment, a group that is identical to the experimental group in every way except that its members do not receive the treatment being tested is called _________
a control group