Ch. 6 – Societies to Social Networks

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group (social group)
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people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant
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society
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people who share a culture and a territory
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shaman (witch doctor)
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the healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury
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pastoral society
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a society based on the pasturing of animals
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horticultural society
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a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools
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domestication revolution
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the first social revolution, based on domestication of plants and animals
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agricultural society
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a society based on large-scale agriculture
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agricultural revolution
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the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural societies
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industrial revolution
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the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
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industrial society
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a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels
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postindustrial society (information society)
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a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
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biotech society
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a society whose economy increasingly centers on modified genetics to produce food, medicine, and materials
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aggregate
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individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together
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category
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people, objects, and events that have similar characteristics and are classified together
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primary group
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a small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
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secondary group
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compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
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in-groups
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groups toward which one feels loyalty
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out-groups
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groups toward which on feels antagonism
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reference group
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a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
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social network
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the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
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clique
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a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another
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group dynamics
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the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
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small group
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a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
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dyad
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the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
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triad
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a group of three people
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coalition
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the alignment of some members of a group against others
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leader
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someone who influences other people
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instrumental leader (task-oriented leader)
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an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals
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expressive leader (socioemotional leader)
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an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group
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leadership styles
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ways in which people express their leadership
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authoritarian leader
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an individual who leads by giving orders
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democratic leader
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an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus
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laissez-faire leader
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an individual who leads by being highly permissive
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groupthink
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a narrowing of though by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer and that to even suggest alternatives is a sign of disloyalty

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