Ch. 6 – Societies to Social Networks

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Mallory
group (social group)
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant
society
people who share a culture and a territory
shaman (witch doctor)
the healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury
pastoral society
a society based on the pasturing of animals
horticultural society
a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools
domestication revolution
the first social revolution, based on domestication of plants and animals
agricultural society
a society based on large-scale agriculture
agricultural revolution
the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural societies
industrial revolution
the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
industrial society
a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels
postindustrial society (information society)
a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
biotech society
a society whose economy increasingly centers on modified genetics to produce food, medicine, and materials
aggregate
individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together
category
people, objects, and events that have similar characteristics and are classified together
primary group
a small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
secondary group
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
in-groups
groups toward which one feels loyalty
out-groups
groups toward which on feels antagonism
reference group
a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
social network
the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
clique
a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another
group dynamics
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
small group
a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
dyad
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
triad
a group of three people
coalition
the alignment of some members of a group against others
leader
someone who influences other people
instrumental leader (task-oriented leader)
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals
expressive leader (socioemotional leader)
an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group
leadership styles
ways in which people express their leadership
authoritarian leader
an individual who leads by giving orders
democratic leader
an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus
laissez-faire leader
an individual who leads by being highly permissive
groupthink
a narrowing of though by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer and that to even suggest alternatives is a sign of disloyalty

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