ch. 3 Organizational Culture and Environment: (prep) Essay

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34. Which of the following represent the two views of managerial impact on the success or failure of the organization?
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a. omnipotent and symbolic
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35. The omnipotent view of management states that ________________.
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b. managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure
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36. The __________ view of management is consistent with the stereotypical picture of the take-charge business executive who can overcome any obstacle in carrying out the organization’s objectives.
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a. omnipotent
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37. Which of the following most accurately reflects the symbolic view of management?
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c. External forces are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure.
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38. Internal constraints that restrict a manager’s decision options _______________.
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a. exist within every organization
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39. The current dominant assumption in management theory suggests _______________.
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c. an emphasis on the view that managers are omnipotent
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40. According to the symbolic view, managers have a(n) _____________ effect on substantive organizational outcomes.
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c. limited
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41. Managers may be able to expand their areas of discretion by _______________.
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b. changing and influencing their organization’s culture and environment
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42. The symbolic view of management is based upon the belief that managers symbolize _________.
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a. control and influence
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n reality, managers are most accurately viewed as _________.
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b. neither helpless nor all powerful
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44. The culture of an organization is analogous to the _____________ of an individual.
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b. personality
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45. All organizational cultures consist of each of the following except _________.
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c. innovation
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46. Organizational culture is concerned with how members perceive the organization, not whether they __________.
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a. like the organization
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47. Strong cultures _____________.
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d. have a greater influence on employees than do weak cultures
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48. Employees in organizations with strong cultures _______________.
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a. are more committed to their organizations
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49. Which of the following phrases is associated with the definition of organizational culture?
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b. shared meaning
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50. Which of the following is not considered to be a dimension of organizational culture?
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c. purchasing policies
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51. Which of the following dimensions of organizational culture is defined as the degree to which an organization’s actions and decisions emphasize maintaining the status quo?
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a. stability
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52. A company whose managers focus on results, rather than how results are achieved, most likely possesses a high degree of which of the following?
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a. outcome orientation
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53. Sony Corporation’s focus on product innovation is an example of which of the following dimensions of organizational culture?
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c. outcome orientation
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54. Which of the following most accurately reflects the difference between strong cultures and weak cultures?
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d. Company values are more deeply held and widely shared in strong cultures than in weak cultures.
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55. Corporate ___________ are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the values of an organization.
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b. rituals
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Which of the following represents the most significant ways through which corporate cultures are transmitted to employees?
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c. stories, rituals, symbols, and language
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57. When employees at Microsoft use terms such as work judo, eating your own dog food, and flat food, they are using organizational __________.
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a. languages
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58. Most organizations have ____________ cultures.
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d. moderate to strong
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59. The original source of an organization’s culture usually ________________.
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d. reflects the vision or mission of the organization’s founder
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60. Organizational _____________ typically contain narratives about significant events or people in the organization.
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a. stories
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61. All of the following are mentioned in the textbook as examples of material symbols except ____________.
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c. availability of stock options
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62. The link between organizational values and managerial behavior is _____________.
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b. fairly straightforward
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63. In learning an organization’s specific language, members are displaying their _________________.
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c. willingness to help preserve the culture of the organization
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64. An organization’s culture affects managers by ______________.
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d. establishing what is appropriate and expected behavior
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65. Which of the following is most likely to have a highly ethical organizational culture?
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b. a company with high risk tolerance
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66. To encourage ethical cultures, managers should _________________.
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d. serve as visible role models
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67. A company that primarily values a strong sense of purpose through meaningful work has a(n) _________________ organizational culture.
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a. spiritual
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68. Conscientious employees with good listening skills are highly valuable for building a(n) _________________ organizational culture.
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c. customer-responsive
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69. An innovative organizational culture is characterized by all of the following characteristics except _________________.
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b. conformity
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70. Workplace spirituality has become important in the contemporary workplace because it helps to _________________.
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c. restore a sense of community
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71. Which of the following is most characteristic of an organization with a strong spiritual culture?
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a. Employees are encouraged to express themselves.
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72. Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between spirituality and business profitability?
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b. Limited evidence suggests that spirituality may be compatible with profitability.
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73. External environment refers to _________________.
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b. factors and forces outside the organization that affect the organization’s performance
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74. According to the textbook, the _______________ environment includes those constituencies that have a direct and immediate impact on managers’ decisions and actions and are directly relevant to the achievement of the organization’s goals.
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b. specific
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75. An organization’s specific environment ________________.
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a. is unique and changes with conditions
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76. The main forces that make up an organization’s specific environment are __________.
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b. customers, suppliers, competitors, and pressure groups
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77. Organizations exist to meet the needs of which of the following constituencies?
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a. customers
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78. When you think of an organization’s suppliers, you ________________.
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d. typically think in terms of organizations that provide materials and equipment
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79. Managers seek to ensure a steady __________________.
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b. flow of needed inputs at the lowest price available
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80. Each of the following is considered an organizational supplier except providers of __________________.
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d. political pressure
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81. The Internet is having an impact on determining whom an organization’s competitors are because it has _____________.
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d. virtually eliminated geographic boundaries
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82. For a company such as Walt Disney World in Florida, a bank would be an example of what kind of factor in their specific environment?
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b. supplier
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84. For organizations such as hospitals, which hire nurses, the labor union and the local labor market are examples of which of the following specific environmental factors?
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c. both are examples of suppliers
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85. Typically, the specific organizational environment includes which of the following?
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d. competitors
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86. United Parcel Service represents which of the following to the U.S. Postal Service?
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a. competitor
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87. The general environment factor of economic conditions consists of all of the following except _______________.
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a. legislation recently passed by Congress
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88. Sociocultural conditions consist of _______________.
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d. changing expectations and values within society
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89. To a national broadcast network such as NBC, your home DVD player is considered a _____________.
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d. competitor
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90. Groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) are examples of what factor in the specific external environment?
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b. pressure groups
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91. Typically, the general organizational environment includes which of the following?
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a. political conditions
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92. Compared to the specific environment, which of the following is an accurate statement about the general environment of an organization?
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a. It has less impact on the organization’s operations.
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93. Which of the following is not a component of an organization’s general environment?
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d. industry conditions
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94. Interest rates, inflation rates, and stock market fluctuations are all examples of what factor in an organization’s general environment?
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a. economic
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95. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is an example of a __________.
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b. political/legal condition
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96. A decrease in contributions from the public to the United Way charity is most likely the result of which of the following general environmental factors?
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d. economic
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97. Which of the following groups includes individuals who were born between the years 1946-1964?
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c. the baby boomers
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98. The members of which of the following groups are behaving in fundamentally different ways that are likely to greatly impact organizations and managers?
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d. Generation Y
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99. Automation represents an example of a(n) __________ general environmental factor.
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a. technological
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100. Which of the following has been the most rapidly changing component in an organization’s general environment?
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d. technological
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101. Which of the following best represents a global general environmental factor?
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d. international markets
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102. Which of the following are the two dimensions of environmental uncertainty?
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a. degree of change and degree of complexity
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103. If the components of an organization’s environment change frequently, the organization is operating in a __________ environment.
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c. dynamic
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104. Managers try to minimize __________ because it threatens organizational effectiveness.
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b. uncertainty
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105. __________ are any constituencies in an organization’s external environment that are affected by the organization’s decisions and actions.
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d. Stakeholders
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106. Degree of _______________ refers to the number of components in an organization’s environment and the extent of the knowledge that the organization has about those components.
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c. complexity
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107. The first step of managing external stakeholder relationships is to identify whom the stakeholders are. The second step is to _________________.
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c. determine what particular interests or concerns these stakeholders might have

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