Ch 12 – Flashcards with Answers Essay

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Adulthood covers the four decades of life between ages_____and_____.
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25;65
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Once a person has reached adulthood, the vital capacity of his or her lungs drops about 4 percent:
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each decade.
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If he is typical, a 45-year-old man will probably state that he feels _______his chronological age.
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5 to 10 years younger than
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Obesity and weight-related medical problems are primarily reflective of which process?
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allostasis
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Rita, age 65, began a yoga practice 15 years ago, and enjoys an evening walk through her neighborhood nearly every day. These habits are likely to:
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lighten her allostatic load.
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Which statement is true for people of both genders as they age?
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Reproduction becomes less likely.
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Middle aged men and women in committed, monogamous relationships are MOST likely to be________with their sex lives.
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extremely satisfied
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Infertility is defined as being unable to conceive after ________months of trying to get pregnant.
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12
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Approximately 15 percent of U.S. couples are:
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infertile
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In approximately_______of cases, the cause of a couple’s infertility can be traced to the man.
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one-third
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Malek is 45 years old. Research indicates that it will take him approximately________impregnate a woman now than it would have when he was 20 years younger.
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45
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During the past 40 years, advances in medicine have solved about half of all:
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fertility problems.
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The risk of birth defects and later serious illnesses for ________newborns is about 3 percent.
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in vitro fertilized
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In an aging brain:
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reaction time lengthens.
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Before the age of 65, ______percent of individuals experience significant brain loss.
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1
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What are the odds that a person will inherit the dominant gene for Alzheimer disease?
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1 in 1000
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Severe brain loss that occurs before late adulthood could be caused by any of these factors EXCEPT:
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normal senescence.
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Statistically, which female has the MOST acute hearing?
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the voice of a small child
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George is 65 years old and is experiencing some symptoms of age-related hearing loss. If he is typical for his age, which sound would be the LEAST audible for him?
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the voice of a small child
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Which vision change is NOT associated with aging?
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Nearsightedness increases while farsightedness decreases.
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A group of friends, all about 60 years of age, are playing cards. What characteristic of senescence do they MOST likely have in common?
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Their faces have wrinkles.
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The first visible signs of senescence are usually observed in a person’s:
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skin.
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Which physical change does NOT typically occur in middle adulthood?
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The space between the spinal disks widens.
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At a recent physical exam, Janet was told that she is an inch shorter than she was five years ago at age 50. What caused her decrease in height?
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age-related compression of the spine
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In middle adulthood, a person is MOST apt to lose:
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nearly an inch in height.
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The average age of menopause is about_________years.
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51
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A drop in sex hormones in a woman’s bloodstream along with cessation of ovulation and menstruation signals:
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menopause.
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The many changes of menopause are caused by reduced:
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estrogen.
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Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) involves taking:
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estrogen and progesterone.
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Which statement about hormone replacement therapy is true?
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Some findings may have been affected by SES.
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The term “male menopause” is sometimes used to refer to:
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the age-related reduction in testosterone.
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Women experience menopause; men experience:
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andropause.
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Considering the psychological causes discussed in the text, the man LEAST likely to experience “male menopause” is:
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Bob, who is 55 and has decided to retire early.
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The diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging:
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may be strongly affected by lifestyle.
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A researcher is compiling data on the incidence of several different diseases. These data reflect:
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morbidity.
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Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of a “physical, mental, or emotional condition” is called:
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disability.
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The measure of health MOST indicative of the quality of one’s daily life is:
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vitality.
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Examining worldwide trends in smoking shows that smoking:
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is a habit for one-third of the adults in Greece and Turkey.
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All smoking diseases are:
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dose and duration sensitive.
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What global trend is evident with regards to alcohol?
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Poor countries have more abstainers and abusers.
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Research studies on alcohol use have shown that:
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moderate use of alcohol may increase longevity.
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One of the effects of moderate drinking is:
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a reduction in coronary heart disease.
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As Tom helped himself to a fourth beer, he announced to everyone at the barbecue that alcohol is healthy in moderation. How does the text define “moderation”?
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two drinks per day
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Researchers on obesity agree that during middle age:
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metabolism slows down by about a third.
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Jim, who was 60, couldn’t understand why he kept slowly gaining weight. He wasn’t eating any more than usual, and he maintained his regular exercise routine. What explains his weight gain?
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His metabolism slowed down by a third between emerging and late adulthood.
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Which country has experienced a doubling of its diabetes rate in the past 4 decades?
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the United States.
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Currently in the United States,_______percent of adults are overweight.
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65
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In middle adulthood, an individual is considered obese who:
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has a BMI of 30 or more.
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Which statement about gastric bypass surgery in obese adults is FALSE?
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Such surgery decreases the need for life-changing habits.
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What percentage of adults in the United States and England get at least 30 minutes per day of exercise?
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less than 5
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Regular exercise helps adults in all these ways EXCEPT:
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negating the impact of tobacco use.
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What is one crucial factor for success at the implementation stage of breaking a habit?
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social support
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Implementation is quitting a habit according to plan. When is implementation most successful?
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tackling one habit at a time
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What is the term for the phenomenon that happens when a person’s resolve to break a habit fades when faced with stress?
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attention myopia
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Lena wants began a plan to quit smoking shortly before losing her job. However, in the midst of the financial and personal turmoil of her job loss, she abandoned her efforts and bought more cigarettes. This is an example of:
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poor planning.
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If a person is experiencing several stressors and the person’s organ reserve is depleted, the physiological toll of those stressors can:
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speed up the heart.
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With which coping style do people try to attack a stressor in some way?
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problem-focused
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In which coping style do people try to change their attitude about a stressor?
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emotion-focused
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Janyce, a 50-year-old woman, has several stressors in her life, so she turns to her friends in order to deal with the pressure. Which statement BEST explains the physiological phenomenon associated with her method of coping?
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Her body is producing oxytocin, a hormone that encourages caring interactions.
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In the United States, after age 35 a person’s life span increases________years for each year of education
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1.7
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Which statement does NOT describe the effect of SES upon a person’s life span?
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The impact of SES on life span is decreasing in the U.S.
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In the United States, _________women are MOST apt to die from breast cancer, though the exact reasons why are unknown.
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African American
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Which factor is NOT part of the hypothesis about why low SES is associated with poor health habits?
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the poor experience less stress
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Diseases of affluence:
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are now more common among the poor.
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Alicia, who is 31, arrived in the United States 6 months ago. She was accompanied by her daughter Maricela, age 8, and her mother, Rosita, age 55. They joined Danilo (Maricela’s father) who has lived in the United States for the past 2 years. Statistically, which family member is at greatest risk for obesity
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Maricela
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In comparing individuals from the same ethnic groups, immigrants are statistically______than native born individuals.
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healthier and poorer
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Which psychologist proposed the existence of g?
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Spearman
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The term g refers to:
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general intelligence.
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Research that analyzes the cognitive development of the same individuals as they develop over the years is called:
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longitudinal research.
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A problem with cross-sectional research is that:
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cohort differences can make it difficult to differentiate between developmental change and contextual differences.
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The Flynn effect refers to the:
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rise in average IQ over the generations.
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The Wilson family is having a big reunion and four generations of Wilsons are expected to attend. Applying the Flynn effect to this family, we would expect that:
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the fourth generation of Wilsons would score the highest on a standard IQ test.
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The Flynn effect is MOST likely due to changes in:
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nutrition, education, and health.
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A psychologist who is studying the mathematical abilities of adults finds significant differences between the scores of adults born 50 years ago, when rote learning was stressed, and those born 25 years ago, when more “progressive” approaches to education were popular. This is an example of a(n):
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cohort difference.
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The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in previous periods in addition to the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is called:
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cross-sequential research.
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Schaie’s cross-sequential research on intellectual development demonstrated that:
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individuals improve in most mental abilities during adulthood.
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The two researchers who concluded that fluid and crystallized intelligence are the most crucial aspects of intelligence were:
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Cattell and Horn.
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The basic intelligence that makes learning quick and thorough is referred to as________intelligence.
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fluid
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Which statement about fluid intelligence is true?
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It is quick and flexible
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Fluid intelligence includes:
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the speed of processing mathematical information.
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Which is the best example of fluid intelligence?
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the ability to quickly recognize relationships between words
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Which example relies MOST heavily upon crystallized intelligence?
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knowing the chemical symbols for various elements
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Analytic intelligence involves:
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abstract planning, focused attention, and verbal and logical skills.
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When students take multiple-choice exams, they are using the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls:
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analytic.
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Creative intelligence requires ________thinking
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divergent
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Which of Sternberg’s three forms of intelligence is sometimes called “street smarts”?
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practical
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Practical intelligence would be needed to:
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understand the needs of family members.
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Betty is a retired registered nurse who fills in at the local hospital when the staff is in need of nurses. She is frequently called in without advance notice and must take over without any time to get oriented. Betty must rely on what Sternberg calls ________intelligence.
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practical
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Over the long run,______intelligence is prized whenever life circumstances change or new cahallengs arise.
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creative
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The Mullers have just had a baby. Both parents must now adapt to the new demands of caring for an infant. This will require the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls:
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practical.
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Which type of intelligence is usually MOST valued during high school and college?
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analytic
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What does the KIDI scale measure?
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Knowledge of Infant Development
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When supportive, encouraging people visited low-income mothers, the result was an:
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improvement in the mothers’ ability to create an appropriate environment.
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Baltes and Baltes found that adults use their intellectual strengths to offset their age-related declining abilities through the process of:
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selective optimization with compensation.
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For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence usually increases:
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in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest.
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Which is the BEST example of an adult using selective optimization with compensation?
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Bettie, who uses sticky note reminders in her home, office, and car
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Paula is a middle-aged doctor who is an expert at laser eye surgery for the correction of myopia (nearsightedness). She graduated from medical school 35 years ago. Daryl is a young doctor who also does the surgery; he graduated from medical school 5 years ago. According to the textbook, who would likely be the better choice for operating on your eyes?
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Paula; she has done the operation so often that she is more strategic and flexible
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When developmentalists use the term “expert,” they usually mean a person who:
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is significantly better than others at performing a certain task.
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To solve a problem in his or her special area, the expert is more likely than the novice to:
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rely on past experiences
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Compared to novices, experts typically:
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are more intuitive.
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When the thought required for an action has become routine, and it appears that most aspects of the task are performed instinctively, the performance of the task is:
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automatic.
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Thinking that occurs without deliberate, conscious thought is_____processing.
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automatic
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Experts tend to be intuitive, automatic,______,and ______in their thinking.
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strategic; flexible
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Ken is a highly skilled electrician and Gwen is his new apprentice. When unexpected problems occur as they work on complex wiring projects, the MOST critical difference between their approaches in successfully completing the job is:
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Ken’s automatic processing.
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Which statement about age and expertise is true
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Expertise can overcome some of the detrimental effects of age but not all.
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Research on taxi drivers in London indicates that drivers with more experience:
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had brains that adjusted to the need for a particular kind of knowledge.

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