Case Study MS powerpoint
Considered to be an autoimmune disorder, MS attacks the myelin sheaths which surround and protect the nerve fibers. The affected myelin then forms scar tissue (hence the name), also referred to as plaques or lesions, which can damage the nerve fibers and disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses from the CONS (brain and spinal cord) to the body. MS, literally translated to “many scars”, is a chronic disease affecting the CONS. Continued Once pathways are interrupted, impulses are shunted/short-circuited and eventually, conduction can cease (Hone and Marine 405).
The interruption of pathways can cause a variety and wide array of symptoms, depending on the “course” (stage) of the disease. Courses There are four courses of MS: Relapsing-Remitting: 85% of those affected with MS are initially diagnosed with this course. Defined attacks of worsening neurological function are followed by complete recovery periods. Primary-progressive: Slowly worsening symptoms with no periods of remission. Contain dude Secondary-Progressive: Following an initial relapse-remitting period, the disease develops more steadily.
Progressive-Relapsing: Worsening symptoms from the beginning with declining neurological function and no remissions. Only 5% of those diagnosed experience this course. Nervous System Structure Central Nervous System (CONS)Brain and spinal cordilleras Nervous System (PENS)Somatic Nervous System (voluntary)Sensory
Interprets the sensory input and decides the motor output. Consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 cranial nerves. The spinal nerves carry information to and room the spinal cord and cranial nerves carry information to and from the brain. Healthy Brain MS Brain MR. off normally functioning Miriam brain with Nervous System Function Sensory input uses sensory receptors in the body to monitor changes that occur both inside and outside the body. All of the information that is gathered is referred to as sensory input.
Integration Sensory input is processed and interpreted then the nervous system decides what should be done at each moment. Motor output A response occurs by activating effecter organs such as muscles and glands(Marine 2010). Peripheral Nervous System (PENS) The sensory system contains nerve fibers that carry information to the CONS from the body (class notes). There are somatic nerves which are associated with the skin, skeletal muscles and joints.
Visceral nerves are those associated with the visceral organs. The motor system transmits information away from the CONS to the muscles and glands PENS continued Somatic (voluntary) nervous system allows control over skeletal muscles and sends signals to skeletal muscles from the CONS (class notes). Autonomic nervous system (MANS) monitors events that are involuntary. Includes the sympathetic, which speeds up the body, and the parasympathetic, which slows the body down.
Structure of a Neuron Minis bodies (Garlic, 201 1) Makes protein/membrane in body Dendrites Receives information Cell Body Contains Nucleus Metabolic center of cell Axon Transmits information to dendrites and cell bodies of other cells Myelin Sheath Insulation of axon (improves speed of transmission) Axon Terminal Storage of neurotransmitters Node of Rainier gaps in sheath occur where one Schuman cell ends and another begins Neuronal Cytoplasm portion of Schuman cell Nerve regeneration Schuman cells Myelin wrapped around axon only dendrites always unlimited Myelin retests/electrically insulates fibers increases transmission rate of nerve impulses Pathologically Within the Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Denomination of axons of nerve fibers. This causes conduction blocking, which in turn can have various affects on the Not all militated parts of the axon must be degraded to have an effect on the signaling potential. Evidence has shown that there is also alterations made in the bloodstain barrier. The serum factors, which determine the cellular requirements for Ca+ and K+, are given the ability to access damaged tissues and the synapses linked with these sites.
Found in the cerebration’s fluid, this can debilitate sodium channel functions. Inflammation The disease is classified as an autoimmune inflammatory disease. Inflammation is found within the central white matter and locations where there is high synaptic activity, such as the cerebral cortex. These changes in the nervous system can cause the spacing of militated fibers and make the node of Rainier larger than normal. With this increase in size the rate of deportation is hindered. Safety Factor – “The current necessary to deplorable a node to its firing threshold divided by the current necessary to do so” (K. J. Smith, W. I. McDonald, pig. 1650).
The safety factor in these denominated fibers is decreased because the current requirements to deplorable the subsequent Schuman cells is raised. Pathologically Symptoms Blindness Fatigue Paralysis Heat Sensitivity Numbness Tingling Loss Of Balance Spastic Feeling Weak Dizziness Slurred Speech Cognitive Difficulties Vision Problems General Information Relapsing – occurs every 1-2 years Lesions – Show on MR. and other diagnostic medical devices 10-20 times more frequently than relapse or remission occurs. MR. Results – The white spots within the image are a result of the amount and striation of water in the intracellular and extracurricular spaces in affected areas ( K. J. Smith, W. L. McDonald, pig. 1663).
Statistics “Approximately 55-75% of patients with MS have spinal cord lesions at some point during the course of the disease” (C. Luzon, Pathologically Section). 67% of spinal MS show within the cervical portion of the spinal cord. Throughout years of research and acquisition of diagnostic images doctors have found that approximately 1/5 of the patients don’t show any interracial lesions. These patients still show significant symptoms of the disease, yet have no apparent lesions within the brain. Just below 50% of MS patients will show signs of optic neuritis during their progression through the disease. The optic nerve will go through the same process as every other axon that is affected, which includes denomination and/or spacing between Schuman cells.
Current knowledge of mechanism On the right of page this diagram gives a better understanding of how this disease takes affect on a patient throughout the disease. (C. Luzon, Pathologically Section) There are many factors that must be taken into consideration, each one having an impact on certain aspects of the disease; there isn’t necessarily a correlation tit the amount of lesions and how many symptoms a patient will show. The more amount The mechanism of denomination in multiple sclerosis may be activation of myelin-reactive T cells in the periphery, which then express adhesion molecules, allowing their entry through the blood-brain barrier (EBB). T cells are activated following antigen presentation by interpenetrating cells such as macrophages and microbial, or B cells.
Perpendicular T cells can secrete proportionality cytokines, including interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Antibodies against myelin also may be generated in the periphery or intrinsically. Ongoing inflammation leads to epitome spread and recruitment of other inflammatory’ cells (ii, bystander activation). The T cell receptor recognizes antigen in the context of human leukocyte antigen molecule presentation and also requires a second event (ii, co-stimulatory signal via the BE-CD pathway, not shown) for T cell activation to occur. Activated microbial may release free radicals, nitric oxide, and proteases that may contribute to tissue damage.
MS is not a fatal disease except in rare cases where the stage is very severe, patients live a near normal lifespan. Suicide rates among those with MS are Geiger than average. MS affects more women than men, but the outlook for women is better. Studies have shown that the following patients tend to do better: Those that have fewer attacks in the initial years of diagnosis Those that experience long intervals and complete recovery between attacks Having attacks that are sensory in nature such as visual loss, or numbness and tingling sensations Lastly, the affected individuals whom have near normal neural examinations within five years of onset seem to have milder cases of MS.
Symptoms with the opposite effects of those listed on the previous slides, such s incomplete recoveries between and more frequent attacks, difficulty walking, difficulty with motor coordination, and early neurological abnormalities with more lesions, usually experience a more progressive course of MS. Attacks Also known as relapses or flares. During this time, the white matter within the CONS becomes inflamed. Worsening of symptoms occur for at least 24 hours to be considered an attack. Treatment Although there is no cure for MS, there are multiple ways to manage symptoms and “attacks” of MS. Natural Remedies Prescription Drugs Natural remedies can be complementary treatments, meaning that it can be used with Yoga prescription treatment, or it can be alternative treatment, meaning they can be used without Hypnotherapy prescription treatment.
Some natural Physical remedies Therapy for managing schoolmistresses Stress Management ; multiple include but are not limited to: Occupational Chiropractic Therapy Speech Therapy Chinese Medicine Acupuncture Diet and Exercise ;Massage and Body Therapy ;Natural Herbs ;Biofeedback ;ATA Chi The FDA has approved certain prescription drugs that may help alleviate the symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis and/ or slow down the progression of this disease. They are as follows: . Interferon Beta IA: (Rebel, Avon) 2. Interferon Beta B: (Betrayers, Octavia) 3. Glitterati Acetate: (Capstone) 4. Fondling (Galilean) 5. Intimidation (Innovation) 6. Initialization (Disparity) Interferon Beta Injections Interferon Beta is a man made protein that mimics the naturally occurring protein found in the body. The Interferon Beta IA and B has the same amino acid sequence as the interferon beta found in your body. Interferon Beta is used to fight infection and kill off pathogens.
It is administered in patients with MS to also help with inflammation. The most common prescription drug or Interferon Beta IA is Avon. This is administered by self injection once per week whereas the prescriptions drugs Betrayers and Octavia (most common prescription drug for Interferon Beta 1 B) are self administered once every other day.