Cancer may be caused by mutations or the abnormal changes in responsible genes that regulate the cells growth and keeping them healthy. The malignant tumor that develops from cells in the breast leads to breast cancer. Breast cancer either starts in the lobules cells that produce milk or the ducts that act as a passage of milk from the lobules to the nipple. This takes place in women though men can also experience it. Cells in any body part can lead to cancer and spread to other parts of the body. Breast cancer is majorly caused by the abnormality in genetic abnormal
Available preventive services for patients at risk for breast cancer. The possible benefits and harms of screening tests in breast cancer should be discussed by family physicians with each woman. A plan for every breast cancer detection that reduces the potential harms should be developed (Silver and M, 2004).The risk of breast cancer, evidence regarding every screening test and preferences of patient should be included in these discussions.
Clinicians should take part in the informed and shared decision making with all women who have breast cancer increased risk about the medications in order to reduce their risks. Women who are at .high risk for breast cancer and at low for medication effects adverse should be offered with a prescribed risks that reduces medications like the tamoxifen or the ralloxifene (Silver and M, 2004).
Women with family members suffering from breast, tubal, peritoneal or ovarian cancer should be screened by primary care providers. This screening should be conducted using the screening tools made to...
identify the history of a given family that may be associated with a high risk for possible harmful mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes (Winchester and D, 2006). Those with positive screening results should get genetic analysis.
Ways through which the available preventive services can impact decisions related to preventive services. Breast cancer mortality can be reduced through screening with film mammography. Through this, there is a greater absolute decrease for women between 50 to 75 years of age than those between 40 to 49 years. The greatest benefit is found among women aged 60 to 69 years. (Winchester and D, 2006). There is also lack of evidence for benefits of the digital mammography of the breast as a film mammography substitute (Port and E, 2015).
Biopsies, psychological harm and unnecessary imaging tests are harms that are due to the screening for breast cancer in women. It leads to an inconvenience due to the results of false positive screening. The overall harms associated with screening using the mammography are just moderate for each age group considered although the major harm components shift over a given period of time (Port and E, 2015).
Drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.
There are a number of ways through which breast cancer can be treated depending on the stage and type. The tumor can be treated without affecting other parts of the body through local therapies. This can be either through surgery or radiation therapy. These treatments are used in less advanced cancers (Silva et al, 2005).
Drugs can be used to
treat breast cancer. The treatment can either be put directly into the blood stream or given by mouth. Through systematic therapies, all cancer cells can be reached anywhere in the body. Different types of drugs are used depending on the type of breast cancer being treated (Silva et al, 2005). The different types of drugs that can be used include the hormone therapy, targeted therapy and the chemotherapy.
Majority of breast cancer victims undergo a given type of surgery to remove the tumor. This is done basing on the breast cancer type and how advanced it is. Sometimes, one may require other types of treatments either after or before the surgery is conducted. Some treatments are done before and after the treatment. More advanced breast cancers may have surgery as the major part of the treatment (Morrow et al, 2003).
The short-term and long-term implications of breast cancer treatments. Chemotherapy can lead hair loss. Hair loss is visible on the head though it might occur all over the body including the pubic hair and the eyebrows. Ovaries can be damaged by some chemotherapy drugs and even stop the regular menstrual cycles. Women who are under the age of 40 years may have their periods starting again (Morrow et al, 2003). Those over 40 years may begin their menopause earlier that it would have been if they were in their normal condition.
Early menopause can affect bone health. To some victims, it leads to fatigue. They feel like they are tired all the time and as though they lack energy. Even though they rest for a long time, still that does not help them. Chemotherapy treatment may lead to brain cancer (Saunders et al, 2009). Weight gain by women who start their menopause early may occur due to chemotherapy. Heart problems and Leukemia have been associated with cancer treatment.
- Silver, M. (2004). Breast cancer husband: How to help your wife (and yourself) through diagnosis, treatment, and beyond. Emmaus, Pa: Rodale.
- Winchester, D. J. (2006). Breast cancer. Hamilton: Decker.
- Port, E. (2015). The new generation breast cancer book: How to navigate your diagnosis and treatment options — and remain optimistic — in an age of information overload.
- Silva, O. E., & Zurrida, S. (2005). Breast cancer: A practical guide. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders.
- Morrow, M., & Jordan, V. C. (2003). Managing breast cancer risk. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc.
Saunders, C., & Jassal, S. (2009). Breast cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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