Bio Final 12, 14, 15

Flashcard maker : Steven Colyer
Which of the following characteristics do most plants share with land animals?
An embryo that develops within a protected environment
Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms?
They are wind-pollinated.
Why do insectivorous plants trap insects?
They use the raw material for biosynthesis
Branches are to a tree as __________ are to a __________.
hyphae; fungus
What is unique about dodder?
Dodder is a parasitic plant that almost completely lacks chlorophyll and gets its sugar from a host plant.
Which of the following about coleochaetes is TRUE?
They are the closest living relative to plants.
Over the evolutionary history of plants:
There has been a trend toward gametophyte dependence on the sporophyte.
Flowers are to fruits as __________ are to __________.
grape juice and yeast; wine
Which of the following reasons explains why conifers are the longest-lived trees?
None of the above.
Which of the following is not a mechanism of seed dispersal?
Having a way to move on their own
Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ from each other in that:
angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators, whereas gymnosperms tend to rely on wind pollination.
These organisms are the size of a pinhead and only one-cell layer thick. They are believed to be the closest relative of plants. What are they called?
Coleochaetes
Which of the following is a likely way in which plants increase dispersal of their fruit?
All of the above.
In the plant kingdom, all the different species are descended from a single common ancestor. What is the correct term that describes this type of lineage?
Monophyletic
The pollen-producing structure in an angiosperm flower is called the __________.
anther
Which one of the following is a key challenge of stationary living?
All of the above are key challenges of stationary living.
Which is of the following is NOT an example of a group of angiosperms?
Pine trees
What NEW evolutionary innovation is seen in conifers that is absent in more primitive plants?
None of the above.
Which of the following is NOT a fungus?
the photosynthetic part of a lichen
\”Double fertilization\” in angiosperm plants refers to:
the fusion of a sperm cell with the egg, and another with two endosperm nuclei.
Which of the following correctly orders the sequence of events in the life cycle of a gymnosperm?
Male cones release pollen, pollen grains release sperm, fertilization, female cones release seeds
Which of the following substances is INCORRECTLY matched to its utilization in plants?
None of the above.
Which of the following is TRUE about seed plants?
None of the above.
Some plants release methyl jasmonate (MJ) when they are injured. Which is a likely reason for doing this?
To signal other plants to increase their production defensive chemicals
Mosses and ferns differ in their reproductive strategies from gymnosperms and angiosperms in which of the following ways?
Mosses and ferns rely on liquid water for fertilization, whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization.
Which is the best brief description of the vascular system found in the very first terrestrial plants?
The first plants did not develop a vascular system.
Which of the following is TRUE about the endosperm?
All of the above.
A prothallus:
produces the haploid gametes of a fern.
What is the cuticle?
The first and fourth choices are both true.
(The waxy layer that protects the plants from drying)(The material that makes leaves shiny)
In terms of their adaptation to living on land, how are reptiles similar to the seed plants?
The third and fourth choices are correct.
(Seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin to minimize desiccation.)(Reptiles and seed plants have developed structures that house their gametes and protect them from the surrounding environment)
Which of the following statements about male and female cones is TRUE?
A female cone contains ovules on the protruding scales; a male cone releases pollen grains that are dispersed via wind.
Which of the following is a significant new challenge plants faced in moving to land that they did not face in their aquatic environment?
Desiccation
Which of the following most accurately describes Dodder?
Parasitic plant
Which of the following statements about ferns is incorrect?
Their seeds are dispersed via the wind.
Which of the following best explains the following statement: \”Algae are not plants\”?
This statement is true; algae only live directly in water or on very moist land surfaces and are therefore not plants.
Which of the following is characteristic of big-bang reproduction?
The first, second, and third choices are all characteristic of big-bang reproduction.
Because constraints limit evolution, life histories are characterized by trade-offs between investments in growth, reproduction, and _______.
survival
Which of the following represents the growth rate of a population?
r
On average, which leaves more offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce: a pair of elephants or a pair of rabbits?
If both populations are stable, then the pair of elephants and the pair of rabbits will leave the same number of offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce.
Which of the following statements about maximum sustainable yield is false?
The maximum sustainable yield for a population is a useful management guideline for harvesting plant products such as timber, but it is not helpful for managing animal populations.
Which of the following is a major tradeoff in life histories?
Growth for reproduction
There are many causes of death due to aging in humans. This is because:
mutant alleles that cause adverse health effects later in life become more common in a population.
Which of the following factors most influences why a particular species has evolved to follow a particular life history strategy?
The cost of reproductive investment and the likelihood of survival to reproduce repeatedly
Dr. David Reznick has studied life history evolution in guppies that live in streams in Trinidad. Guppies are found in two different types of habitat: sites where predation is higher, and sites where predation is low. Which of the following life history characteristics would you expect to evolve in a guppy population living in a high-predation site?
None of the above
In a population exhibiting logistic growth, the rate of population growth is greatest when N is:
The death rate of organisms in a population exhibiting a type III survivorship curve is:
lower after the organisms survive beyond the earliest age groups.
In a population, as N approaches K, the logistic growth equation predicts that:
the growth rate will approach zero.
Life extension:
has been achieved in the laboratory.
Which of the following survivorship curve type is incorrectly matched to its description and/or characteristic organism?
Type I: Tend to produce a large amount of offspring with little investment: Frogs
Which of the following is a trade-off in life history strategies?
All of the above.
Which of the following is NOT true about life history patterns in general?
The greater the investment in reproduction, the longer a species is likely to live.
Which of the following characteristics is associated with a species whose life history strategy has a greater longevity and survival rate?
Their rate of population growth is low.
The extension of a normal lifespan has been scientifically achieved in _____
fruit flies
Experiments where the longevity of fruit flies was increased yielded insight into longevity and forced evolution. Which of the following statements pertaining to these experiments is FALSE?
The generation time was increased to 6 weeks maximum.
Disease is spread more quickly between individuals who live in close proximity, such as in a nesting colony of penguins. Disease can be considered a(n):
density-dependent factor.
Those species whose risk of death is low, would also be expected to:
age more slowly.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies the difference between a population and an individual?
All of the above exemplify the difference between a population and an individual.
Which of the following is TRUE about estimating human carrying capacity?
Some countries have more resources than their populations currently can use.
Which of the following statements about the hazard factor of a population is INCORRECT?
It is higher for a population of porcupines than for a population of guinea pigs.
Natural selection:
None of the above.
Aging is:
an increased risk of dying with increasing age.
Organisms that live in high-risk worlds would tend to have:
All of the above
The extension of a normal lifespan has been scientifically achieved in:
fruit flies
Ecology is best defined as the study of:
the relationships between all living organisms and their environments.
Which statement about the 10% rule of energy conversion efficiency is NOT true?
It suggests that 10% of what an organism eats is used in cellular respiration or is lost as feces.
Why do beaches on the west coast of the United States have colder water than beaches on the east coast?
The ocean currents in the northern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise direction, so water off the coast of California has just come from the cold north, while water off the coast of New York has just come from the warm south.
\”Top\” carnivores:
consume primarily carnivores.
Which of the following elements is INCORRECTLY matched to its form in the atmosphere?
Phosphorus: Phosphate
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the weather on Earth?
Rising hot air cools down, forming clouds and rain.
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed is known as __________.
parasitism
Coevolution:
All of the above are correct.
What is the FIRST thing that occurs when two species with overlapping niches are put together?
Competition
Rabid animals:
froth at the mouth so as to increase the likelihood that the rabies-causing virus is passed on to another host.
Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of a niche?
The specific geographical location where an organism lives
Which of the following is most likely to lead to the highest levels of biodiversity?
The presence of a keystone species
Which of the following statements about an organism’s niche is INCORRECT?
It allows for only one organism to survive in the niche
When moist wind from an ocean blows onshore toward a mountain range:
as the air goes over the top of the mountain and falls back down toward lower elevations, it holds more moisture, creating a \”rain shadow\” desert with very little precipitation.
What do the following organisms all have in common: vultures, worms, and some arthropods?
They are detritivores.
Keystone species:
play an unusually important role in determining the species composition in a habitat.
If there is a large biomass of consumers found in a rainforest, which of the following pyramids would best demonstrate the primary productivity?
Large-based
Rain shadows:
create deserts.
Why is it hotter at the equator than the poles?
The curvature of the earth leads to a given amount of solar energy being spread out over a smaller area at the equator than at the poles.
Chemical defenses are more common among plants than animals because:
plants cannot move to escape predators and so must develop other deterrents.
While hiking in the woods, you and your dog suddenly come upon a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). You dog begins to growl, and the startled skunk sprays your dog with a foul odor, sending him yelping in the other direction. The skunk spraying your dog is an example of a ________________.
chemical defense
Which of the following correctly orders the events that occur during an El Niño year in the Pacific Ocean?
South America to Southeast Asia winds ease > warm water flows toward South America, warming the air, causing rain > upwelling of nutrient rich water ceases along the west coast of South America leading to fish deaths > unusually dry weather occurs in Australia and Indonesia
Animals that have warning coloration similar to another poisonous animal, but themselves are not poisonous, are said to be:
mimics
The chief difference between primary and secondary succession is that:
primary succession begins with no life or soil, while secondary succession begins with both.
Earth’s largest ecosystems, biomes, are defined primarily by:
All of the above.
Which of the following biomes is characterized by hot temperatures and strong seasonality, having distinct wet seasons and dry seasons?
Savanna
In experiments on prairie and rocky seashore communities, scientists have learned that bison and starfish are:
keystone species.
In which of the following ecosystems is one most likely to find an \”inverted pyramid\” of primary productivity?
A plankton community in the ocean
When the fundamental niches of two species overlap, competition occurs. Which of the following can be an outcome of such competition?
Competitive exclusion or resource partitioning
In a commensal relationship:
one species benefits while the other neither benefits nor is harmed.
Which of the following is NOT true about an ecosystem?
All of these are true about an ecosystem.
An ecosystem consists of ____________________ in a given area.
all the living organisms and all the abiotic factors that influence living organisms
Which of the following is not a part of an organisms’ habitat?
Living organisms in the area
A rain shadow:
All of the above are correct EXCEPT for the fourth choice.
Organisms responsible for primary productivity, such as grasses, trees, and agricultural crops, are known as _______________.
primary producers
Which of the following best explains why it is colder at the Poles than at the Equator?
The angle at which sunlight hits the earth leads to a given amount of solar energy being spread over a larger area at the poles than at the equator.
Clown fish are protected from predators when they hide among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. However, some scientists believe that the clown fish may also eat or chase away some predators of the sea anemone. In the first case, the interaction between fish and anemone is __________; in the second case, the interaction is best described as __________.
commensalism; mutualism
The \”ghost of competition past\” refers to the fact that:
competition often leads to character displacement, which remains even after direct competition is reduced.
Which of the following correctly orders the events of primary succession?
Lichens arrive, mosses arrive, small herbs and wildflowers arrive, shrubs start growing, small trees start growing, tall trees grow

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