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BIO CH 11 – Flashcard

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The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype
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is gene expression.
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Homeoboxes are evidence of
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the common ancestry of eukaryotic organisms.
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Cloning provides evidence that each of the different types of cells (e.g., liver cells, intestinal cells) of an individual,
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while having different functions, retains a complete genome.
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DNA microassay is a technique that
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could tell you how gene activity differs between individuals with and without cystic fibrosis.
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Regulatory genes code for
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repressors.
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Developmental similarities among very different animals can be attributed
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to shared homeoboxes.
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Repressors bind to
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operators.
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Male tortoiseshell cats are likely to be exceedingly rare and
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very likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY.
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Transcription factors attach to
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DNA
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Data suggest that the normal version of BRCA1 functions as a
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tumor-suppressor gene.
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Examining a human cell that functions normally, you determine that it has 45 functional chromosomes and one chromosome that is almost completely inactive. You immediately decide that it is very likely that this cell
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came from a normal human female.
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The operator acts as an
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an on off switch
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In an operon, the ______ acts as an on/off switch.
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operator
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Which of the following turns off transcription by binding to the operator?
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repressor
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Repressors act by blocking the binding of _____ to the operator.
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RNA polymerase
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How can a single RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides?
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There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.
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What would you assume if you found RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E. coli?
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the presence of lactose
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Binding of transcription factors to enhancers is not a
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type of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
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Which of these is most likely to cause the development of a six-legged frog?
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mutation of homeotic genes
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The lac operon is usually in the ______ position and is activated by ______.
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off… lactose
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Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______.
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The production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans Restocking populations of endangered animals The production of genetically identical animals for experimentation
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Many proto-oncogenes regulate ______.
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cell division
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What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?
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Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.
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Jim has become particularly interested in the genetic basis of cancer and has spent considerable time reading published papers about oncogenes. He learned that as early as 1972 researchers suggested that mutations in proto-oncogenes caused by carcinogens can convert them to oncogenes. He asked you to answer a couple of questions about this because he did not have the biology background to totally understand. Jim learned that some cancer cells produce more growth-stimulating proteins than others. What would you give him as a plausible explanation?
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Proto-oncogenes may have mutated to become oncogenes in these cells.
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Jim has become particularly interested in the genetic basis of cancer and has spent considerable time reading published papers about oncogenes. He learned that as early as 1972 researchers suggested that mutations in proto-oncogenes caused by carcinogens can convert them to oncogenes. He asked you to answer a couple of questions about this because he did not have the biology background to totally understand. Jim learned that viruses can sometimes cause cancer and wants to know why. You tell him that ______.
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a human cell can acquire an oncogene from a virus.
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Introns are ______.
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noncoding DNA sequences
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What name is given to a gene that causes cancer?
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oncogene
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A high fiber diet is a
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lifestyle choice that will not increase cancer risk.
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Cells communicate with one another via
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signal-transduction pathways.
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Operon includes
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operator, lactose-utilization gene 1&2, and promoter.
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In eukaryotic cells, repressors proteins inhibit transcription by
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binding to silencers.
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Homeotic genes are genes involved in
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determining patterns of anatomical development.
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When you started out, you were a single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cell. what is the name of this process
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cellular differatitaion
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The possible uses of reproductive cloning is
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the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans, the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation, the production of potentially valuable drugs, the improvement of the quality of farm animals.
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In order to make a clone for a mammalian cell, the cell must
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differentiate.
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A gene Operon consists of
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transcribed genes and a promoter only.
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In prokaryotes,
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the production of a single RNA transcript for a group of related genes is under the control of an Operon.
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There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript into different polypeptides.
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Attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
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plays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
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Proto-oncogenes
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regulate cell division.
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In prokaryotes, Operon is the name given to a
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unit that controls the turning on and off of a specific set of genes.
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The presence of lactose is indicated by
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the presence of RNA transcripts of lactose utilizing genes within E-coli?
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Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers;
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thus, it can be said that predisposition to these cancers is inherited as a recessive trait.
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A mutation in a proto-oncogene will not result in cancer unless (or until)
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there are additional mutations in genes such as tumor supressors.
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More people die of what cancer than any other type?
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lung
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Translation is
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a mechanism of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus?
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DNA packing and unpacking is the first level of
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control of eukaryotic gene transcription.
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The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression is
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the basis of the different functions of different body tissues?
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Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated;
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adult stem cells are partially differentiated. This is the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells.
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Eukaryotic DNA sequences called enhancers
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have a function similar to the operators of prokaryotic operons.
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To initiate a signal-transduction pathway,
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a signal binds to a receptor protein, usually located in the plasma membrane.
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One of the most potent environmental carcinogens is
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uv radiation.
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Tobacco is responsible for
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more cancers than any other carcinogen.
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Cigarette smoke, fat, uvlight and testosterone are all
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carcinogens.
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Introns are
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unexpressed DNA sequences.
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Cancer causing genes are
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oncogenes.
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A mutation of Homeotic genes is most likely
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to cause the development of a six legged frog.
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RNA polymerase binds
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to a promoter.
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The use of therapeutic cloning holds
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promise for the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson’s disease.