Bio Anth Exam 1

The environment does not affect humans’ biological makeup.
False
Physical anthropologists study only Africa, where humans evolved.
False
___________ created the discipline of American anthropology.
Franz Boas
Physical anthropology and biological anthropology are equivalent.
True
Which of the following would a physical anthropologist NOT study to learn more about humans?
Pottery and stone tools
Humankind is still evolving, but recent genetic changes are often less interesting to physical anthropologists than the striking evolutionary changes that differentiated our hominid ancestors from apes. What is a possible reason for this?
Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival.
Physical anthropology is the study of human __________ and human _________.
evolution / variation
Your best friend’s great-uncle went missing in action during his Pacific tour of duty during World War II. Your friend wants to find out what happened to these enlisted men and women and to bring them home. What course of study would you suggest that your friend pursue in college?
Forensic anthropology
New research in Ethiopia in 2001 changed the way we think about human origins by demonstrating that the earliest hominids lived in:
Woodlands
The four branches of anthropology are:
cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology.
Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in their proper order?
Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis.
Modern humans lost the typical primate honing-canine used for food processing because of which invention?
Stone tools
Your professor researches the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya, investigating both the genetic changes that allow them to easily digest milk and the role that dairy animals have played in their history. Your professor most likely uses which of the following methods in her research?
Biocultural approach
Physical anthropology deals with all aspects of human biology, both past and present.
True
A scientific theory is nothing more than a guess.
False
For your physical anthropology research project, you report that you measured the length of 150 gorilla thighbones, and you suggest that the two groups you found represent different sexes. What problem might your professor have with this report?
Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis.
Comparing the skeletons of Aegyptopithecus and Oreopithecus, two extinct species of primates, can provide physical anthropologists information about the human past.
True
The only source of new genetic material is
Mutation
One of the theories put forth to explain the evolution of modern humans is that Homo sapiens arose more or less simultaneously in a variety of major geographical locales in the Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia) through interbreeding of populations. A criticism of this theory based on the forces of evolution is that
There would have been insufficient gene flow among the relatively few Homo sapiens in the world to maintain a single gene pool.
Darwin believed that ________________ was the primary cause of evolution.
Natural selection
The study of taxonomy was enriched by the work of
Carolus Linnaeus.
This naturalist spent five years on the HMS Beagle.
Charles Darwin
Your history professor is interested in genealogy and tells your class that, on his mother’s side, he is descended from the original Amish population in Pennsylvania, a religious and insular group of people who tended to marry within their social circle. He also notes that many of his extended family members have the condition polydactyly, an extra finger or toe. The high frequency of polydactyly in your professor’s ancestry is an example of _________________ in the Pennsylvania Amish.
Genetic drift
Darwin studied species of ____________ in the ____________ Islands when coming up with his ideas about evolution
Finches / Galapagos
The “peppered” moths of northern England range from light-colored to dark-colored. During the Industrial Revolution, soot and smoke covered trees, and the peppered moth population became predominantly dark-colored, as these moths were better able to avoid predation by blending into their surroundings. This example illustrates which force of evolution?
Natural selection
The HMS Beagle, whose path is seen here, circumnavigated the globe.
True
In a simplified example of eye color inheritance, B stands for the allele for brown eyes and is dominant. Blue eyes are represented by the recessive allele b. A child who inherits one of each allele from her parents will have the genotype Bb and therefore have brown eyes.
True
Swine flu (H1N1) is the result of viral evolution.
True
Your cousin insists that he ran into your doppelganger – the spitting image of you – at the mall. You counter this assertion with your knowledge of physical anthropology by replying that:
Both Malthus and Darwin observed that variation exists within a species and no two members are exactly alike.
Darwin did not know about genes but believed that traits passed from parents to offspring by particles called
Gemmules
According to Linnean taxonomy, humans are in the genus and species
Homo sapiens
Darwin’s ideas helped stimulate research in the fields of biology, genetics, comparative anatomy, and physical anthropology.
True
While home for winter break, you start telling your grandmother about your physical anthropology class. She once heard about a man who became a bodybuilder and then produced muscular children, and she asks you to explain how this could happen. You say that
This is an example of Lamarckism, which has some kernels of truth about evolution but is not a wholly accurate theory.
Uniformitarianism, an important idea in geology, was proposed by these two scientists.
Hutton and Lyell
According to Linnean taxonomy, the most specific category and level shared by humans, gorillas, and howler monkeys is
Suborder anthropoidea
Darwin’s ideas about evolution and Mendel’s research in genetics are combined into what we now call the idea of blending inheritance.
False
The four forces of evolution are
Gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and natural selection.
What determines which genetic material is passed on?
Independent assortment
Who discovered that DNA has a right twisted, double helix, ladderlike structure
Watson and Crick
What is the concept that refers to the presence of two or more separate phenotypes for a certain gene in a population? And give an example
Polymorphism, human blood
The somatic type of eukaryotic cells makes up
Bone, muscle, skin, fat, hair, brain
Regulatory or functional proteins include
Lactose, antibodies and testosterone
The largest organelles in a cell are the mitochondria.
False, its the nucleus
As you’re waiting at the doctor’s office, you overhear another patient discussing with the doctor how unlucky he is to be going bald at such a young age. The doctor counters this assertion and explains that
Luck has nothing to do with it; rather an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) can code for susceptibility to baldness, so his problem is genetic.
Human and chimpanzee DNA is about _________ similar.
98%
Blocks of genetic material that do not recombine and are passed on for generations are called
Haplotypes
If one side of the DNA ladder includes the sequence CTAATGT, the complementary base configuration for this sequence will be
GATTACA
This picture demonstrates that E. coli is a prokaryotic bacterium.
True
In RNA, _________ replaces thymine as a nucleotide base.
Uracil
The potato and the guinea pig have more chromosomes than humans do.
True
Your friend who is also taking a physical anthropology class tells you over dinner one night that after learning about dominant and recessive traits, she is certain she is adopted, because
Both of her parents have cleft chins, but she does not.
During a visit to the circus, you and a friend stumble into a tent with a “freaks of nature” display. Your friend points out a photograph of a man whose left arm is protruding from his left hip rather than from his shoulder. You explain to your friend that this condition was likely caused by a mutation in the man’s
Homeotic genes
In protein synthesis, ___________ refers to “unzipping” the DNA and ____________ refers to the formation of polypeptide chains.
Transcription/translation
Is hair composed of functional proteins?
False
The assertion that each parent provides one allele for any inherited trait is known as the Law of Segregation.
True
If a man and a woman who both have the AB blood phenotype have a child, the one blood type that child cannot have is
O
The human karyotype consists of ______ pairs of chromosomes.
23
You and your roommate learned that you shared the same maternal ancestor 15,000 years ago in Europe after doing a genetic analysis on your respective
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
An offspring with the chromosome pair XX will be
Female
Structural proteins found in the human body are not responsible for what
When you go through puberty
If you wanted to sequence the genome of Ötzi, the 5,300-year-old “Iceman” mummy found in the Alps in 1991, which method would you be most likely to use?
PCR: polymerase chain reaction
Prokaryotes have multiple cells while eukaryotes have one.
False
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) differs from ribonucleic acid (RNA) in that:
It is the “recipe” for all biological characteristics and functions.
____________ is the production of body cells, whereas _________ is the production of sex cells.
Mitosis / meiosis
_________ genes regulate embryonic development.
Homeotic (Hox)
In his work on pea plants, Mendel found that plant height was inherited independently of the type or color of the seed coat. This finding:
Applies to the law of independent assortment.
The two alleles that result in the expressed phenotype for hemoglobin are equally expressed. This is an example of:
Codominance
Gametes are:
Haploid
DNA:
Directs cellular function.
The complete set of genes in an individual cell is called the genome.
True
For the human sex chromosomes, males have
An X chromosome and a Y chromosome.
The DNA molecule is made up of ____ chemical bases.
4
Human ABO blood types are:
Controlled by multiple alleles.
DNA replication produces:
Two identical daughter cells.
Each parent contributes one allele at each locus to his or her offspring. This is known as Mendel’s Law of
Segregation
Heritability is a measure of the proportion of total variation that is related to ___________ variation.
Genetic
Meiosis results in the production of:
Four gametes.
Where does transcription occur?
Occurs in the nucleus.
Hox genes:
Appear to function in similar ways across diverse groups of organisms.
Hemoglobin is an amino acid.
False
A doctor finds that the mammary glands of a woman are not functioning due to a genetic abnormality that influences the structural design of the thoracic cavity. This is likely:
The result of a mutation on a Hox gene.
In mammals, the male parent’s gametes determine the sex of his offspring because:
The Y chromosome is present in males only.
One chemical difference between DNA and RNA is that RNA has the base ___ instead of the base T.
U
Imagine a species where there is a locus with two alleles, A and B. Further imagine that A and B are codominant. How many different phenotypes are possible in this species?
3
Somatic cells include all of the following EXCEPT:
Sex cells
The expression of polygenic traits:
Is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction with environmental factors.
Given that humans and apes share over 98 percent of their genetic material, it seems likely that their anatomical differences involve differences in __________ genes.
Regulatory
Traits that are due, in part, to multiple loci are known as _________ traits.
Polygenic
The MN blood group has two codominant alleles. How can a woman with type M blood have a child with type N blood?
The woman could never have a child with type N blood.
The following are complementary bases in DNA:
Adenine and thymine.
The ABO blood group has three alleles (A, B, O) where A and B are codominant and O is recessive. If a man with type O blood mates with a woman with type A blood, the expected proportion of heterozygotes among their offspring is ________ depending on the genotype of the woman.
50 or 100 percent.
Homeotic (Hox) genes are:
Responsible for the development and location of key body parts.
The gene pool includes only the beneficial traits in a population.
False
The genotype that confers protection against malaria while allowing an individual to survive and reproduce is
AS
An online article that your professor asked you to critique states that African Americans cannot contract malaria, even if they go to endemic areas, because of a genetic trait that confers protection from the disease. Your response is that this article is incorrect because
Balanced polymorphism means that not all African Americans are heterozygous for the sickle cell trait.
At the end of last semester, your professor had a baby. In class, she notes that her baby weighed 7.2 lbs at birth. The other babies in the nursery that week weighed 7.0 lbs, 6.8 lbs, 9.2 lbs, 7.5 lbs, and 7.3 lbs. When she asks what phenomenon this pattern of birth weights represents, you raise your hand and correctly answer
Stabilizing selection
Compared to the normal male karyotype, a man affected by Klinefelter’s syndrome has
One more X chromosome
Mutation is the only source of new genetic material.
True
The two main types of mutations are
Spontaneous and induced.
At Thanksgiving dinner, your dad tells the old story about how your great-grandmother’s longevity was related to a daily breakfast of coffee and grapefruit plus broccoli every night with dinner. No one else in your extended family lived to over 100 like she did, and your dad insists that this is because everyone else in the family has failed in their attempt to follow her diet plan. You speak up this Thanksgiving and offer your hypothesis that the dietary failure of the subsequent generations suggests that
Your great-grandmother was a PTC-nontaster whereas everyone else in your family can taste PTC.
What abnormality is not linked to malaria?
Leucism
The three patterns of natural selection are
Stabilizing, directional, and disruptive.
Another name for a reproductive population is
Deme
Lactase deficiency is the most common protein deficiency in the world.
True
Members of a population that can breed and produce viable offspring are considered to be of the same
Species
The case of the peppered moth and industrial melanism during the Industrial Revolution in England illustrates
Change in frequency of the nonmelanic genotype.
Your cousin just started a part-time job at a blood bank. He tells you that a surprisingly large number of Native Americans come in to donate blood. You explain to him that, based on what you learned in physical anthropology class, this is not all that surprising because
Owing to a founder effect, many Native American populations have high frequencies of the O blood type.
A change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next is an example of evolution.
True
If 70% of the hypothetical population passed along allele B, the dominant allele for brown eyes, and 30% passed along allele b, the recessive allele for blue eyes, the proportion of the subsequent generation with brown eyes would be ___________ given Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
91%
Huntington’s chorea is a genetically linked debilitating degenerative disorder with an onset usually after the fourth decade of life. The reason that this disease has not been eliminated through natural selection and is actually quite prevalent among communities in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, is
The onset of the disease after prime childbearing years means it is largely unaffected by natural selection.
Recent research indicates malaria was present in the Americas prior to Columbus.
False
Populations in which reproduction within the group is encouraged are called
Endogamous
What are the four forces of evolution?
Mutation, gene flow, genetic drift and natural selection
According to Darwin natural selection acts on who?
Individuals
When genetic drift happens in separate populations (no gene flow) what happens to the differences over time?
The differences increase
When genetic drift happens in populations what happens to variation within the group over time (# of different alleles present)?
The variation decreases
If we see changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next, what is happening?
Evolution
Can diet and lifestyle change the expression of our genes?
Yes, this is called epigenetics
What is the name of the rare form of albinism that affects an usually high number of people in Puerto Rico? What is this an example of?
Hermansky Pudlak Syndrome type 1, founder effect
What is sickle cell disease?
RBC are sickle shaped, stretched/deformed so they get stuck/clump together, can’t fit through blood vessels, get torn up and oxygen isn’t delivered to tissues, lots of pain
What is Tay Sachs disease?
An incurable, unpreventable, pre programmed in genes disease, at 6 month baby loses control of body, head grows large, becomes blind and essentially a vegetable, dies before age 4
Name three groups that have abnormally high occurrences of Tay Sachs
Eastern European Ashkenazium Jews, French Canadians, Dutch in PA
What other two diseases do Eastern European Jews have abnormally high occurrences of?
Gauchers and Niemann Pick
Eastern European Jews with Tay Sachs have a less likely chance of having what?
Tuberculosis
Natural selection is organisms trying to adapt. (T or F)
False
What is sexual dimorphism?
A sexually determined physical difference
What is a homology and give an example
Body parts that spring from the same embryological parts but may have different functions. Whale’s flippers, human hands, bat’s wings
What is an analogy and give an example
Body parts that serve the same function but have very different developmental origins. Wings in birds and insects
What are vestigial traits and give an example
Leftover parts that seems to no longer serve a necessary function. The appendix in humans and wings for flightless birds such as the ostrich
What is meant by divergent evolution?
Living things become more different overtime
What is meant by convergent evolution?
Random mutation in living things might lead them to similar outcomes or to be more alike
What is the Mendelian Law of Segregation?
One atom of inheritance comes from each parent
What is the Mendelian Law of Dominance?
Some types of traits mask the effects of others, are dominant
What did Gregor Mendel study?
How 7 traits were inherited in pea plants, concluded that offspring receive one discrete unit (gene) from each parent. But his observations did not support a blending theory for inheritance
What are body cells called?
Somatic cells
What are sex cells called?
Gametes
What is the production of body cells called?
Mitosis
What is the production of sex cells called?
Meiosis
DNA replication takes place only during the production of new gametes. (T/F)
False