apush – Flashcard Test Answers

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the taft-harley act delivered a major blow to labor by
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outlawing closed (all-union) shops
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the passage of the servicemen’s readjustment act (gi bill of rights) was partly motivated by
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fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans
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“planned obsolescence” was a marketing tool invented in the postwar era that
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meant changing the design of goods frequently enough so that customers would replace older versions with newer ones
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since 1945, population in the united states has grown most rapidly in the
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sunbelt
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in early 1945, the united states was extremely eager to secure the soviet union’s participation in the projected invasion of japan because
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american casualties were expected to be high if only americans were involved
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the crucial origins of the cold war lay in a fundamental disagreement between the united states and the soviet union over postwar arrangements in
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eastern europe
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one of the most significant structural differences between the old league of nations and the new united nations was that the united nations
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gave a veto in the powerful security council to the five great powers
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when the soviet union denied the united states, britain, and france access to berlin in 1948, president truman responded by
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organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to berlin
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soviet specialist george f. kennan framed a coherent approach for america in the cold war by advising a policy of
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containment
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the immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the truman doctrine was related to the threat of a communist takeover in
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greece and turkey
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under the truman doctrine, the united states pledged to
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support those who were resisting subjugation by communists
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president truman’s marshall plan called for
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substantial financial assistance to rebuild western europe
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postwar japan
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had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in germany
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jiang jieshi and the nationalist government lost the chinese civil war to the communists and mao zedong mainly because
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jiang lost the support and confidence of the chinese people
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in an effort to detect communists within the federal government, president harry truman established the
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loyalty review board
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in 1948, many southern democrats split from thier party to support governor j. strom thurmond because
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president truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights
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president truman’s domestic legislative plan was dubbed the
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fair deal
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nsc-68 called for
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a massive increase in military spending
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president harry truman relieved general douglas macarthur from command of united nations troops in korea when
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macarthur began to openly criticize truman’s orders on military policy
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richard nixon was selected as dwight eisenhower’s vice-presidential running mate in 1952 as a concession to the
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hard-line anticommunists
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richard nixon’s checkers speech, during the 1952 presidential campaign
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demonstrated the new power of television and kept him on the republican ticket
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during the 1952 presidential campaign, republican candidate dwight eisenhower declared that he would ____ to help to end the korean war
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personally go to korea
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senator joseph mccarthy first rose to national prominence by
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charging the dozens of known communists were working within the u.s. state department
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senator mccarthy’s anticommunist crusade ended when he
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attacked the united states army for allegedly sheltering communists
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in the epochal 1954 decision in brown vs board of education of topeka, the supreme court
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declared that the concept of “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites was unconstitutional
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the student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC) was an outgrowth of the
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sit-in movement launched by young southern blacks
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as a part of his new look foreign policy, president eisenhower
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called for open skies over both the united states and the soviet union
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in 1956, when hungary revolted against continued domination by the soviet union, the united states under dwight eisenhower
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did nothing to help to defeat the communists
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the leader of the nationalist movement in vietnam since WWI was
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ho chi minh
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the 1955 geneva conference
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called for the two vietnams to hold national elections within two years
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in response to a supposed soviet threat to middle eastern oil, the american central intelligence agency in 1953
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staged a coup to overthrow the iranian government and install shah mohammed reza pahlevi as dictator-like monarch
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in 1957 eisenhower doctrine empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of _____ that wanted help to resist communist aggression
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the middle east
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in response to the launching of sputnik by the soviet union in 1957
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the federal government began spending billions of dollars to improve american science and language education
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the paris summit conference, scheduled for 1960, collapsed because of the
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u-2 incident
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the factor that may well have tipped the electoral scales for john f. kennedy in the presidential election of 1960 was
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his televised debates with richard m. nixon
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when he became attorney general, robert kennedy sought to refocus the attention of the fbi on
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organized crime and civil rights
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the 1962 trade expansion act
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reduced american tariffs
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john f. kennedy’s strategy of flexible response
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called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis
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the bay of pigs invasion failed when
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the anti-castro exiles were defeated by the cuban military
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when the soviet union attempted to install nuclear weapons in cuba, president kennedy ordered
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a naval quarantine of that island
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in a speech at american university in 1963, president kennedy recommended the adoption of a policy toward the soviet union based on
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peaceful coexistance
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at first, jfk moved very slowly in the area of racial justice because he
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needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic and social legislation
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the freedom riders
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sought to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers
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president kennedy ordered hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of federal troops to force the racial integration of
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the university of mississippi
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american and world public opinion turned strongly in favor of the civil rights movement when
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martin luther king’s peaceful demonstrators were viciously attacked in birmingham
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the 1963 march on washington led by mlk provided critical support for
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the civil rights bill to end segregation
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president kenendy’s alleged assassin was
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lee harvey oswald
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before he became vp and then president of the us, lyndon johnson had exercised great power as
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majority leader of the us senate
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president johnson called his package of domestic reform proposals the
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great society
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besides eliminating segregation and racial discrimination in public facilities and employment, title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 included a provision that
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prohibited sexual as well as racial discrimination
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with the passage of the gulf of tonkin resolution
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congress handed the president a blank check to use further force in vietnam
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the common use of poll taxes to inhibit black voters in the south was outlawed by the
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twenty-fourth amendment
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as a result of the voting rights act of 1965
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white southerners began to court black votes
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the watts riot in 1965 symbolized
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a more militant and confrontational phase of the civil rights movement
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the militant african american leader who most directly challenged mlk’s goal of peaceful integration was
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malcom x
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some advocates of black power made the movement the basis for
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emphasizing african american distinctiveness and separatism
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the latin american nation where lyndon johnson sent 25,000 american troops to counteract alleged communist influence was
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the dominican republic
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the 1967 six-day war intensified the arab-israeli conflict by bringing into constant, direct conflict
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israelis and palestinians
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the most serious blow to lyndon johnson’s vietnam policy
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was the tet offensive of 1968
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during the vietnam war, president lyndon johnson ordered the cia, in clear violation of its charter, to
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spy on domestic antiwar protestors
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the attempt to nominate an antiwar democratic candidate for the president in 1968 suffered a crippling blow when
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senator robert kennedy was assassinated after winning the california primary
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the 1968 democratic party convention witnessed
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a violent conflict between police and antiwar demonstrators outside the convention hall
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the spoiler third-party candidate for president in 1968 was
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george wallace
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the nixon doctrine proclaimed that
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america’s asian allies would have to fight their wars without large numbers of american troops
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perhaps richard nixon’s most valuable asset as he began his presidency in 1969 was his
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expertise in foreign affairs
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president nixon’s policy of vietnamization of the war in vietnam called for
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a gradual handover of the ground war to the south vietnamese
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president nixon’s 1970 invasion of cambodia led to
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dramatic new waves of bitter domestic protest against the war
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the ______ amendment _____ the voting age to ______
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twenty-sixth; lowered; eighteen
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the top-secret pentagon papers, leaked and published in 1971
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exposed the deception that had led the united states into the vietnam war
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president nixon’s chief foreign policy adviser, throughout his administration was
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henry kissinger
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richard nixon’s policy of detente
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ushered in an era of relaxed tensions between the united states the the two leading communist powers, china and the soviet union
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the supreme court’s miranda and escobedo decisions came under sharp attack from many conservatives because they
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guaranteed the rights of criminal suspects against mistreatment by the police
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the supreme court, under chief justice earl warren, outraged religious conservatives in 1962-1963 when it
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ruled that prayer and bible reading in public schools violated the first amendment
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richard nixon’s southern strategy included the policy of
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soft-pedaling civil rights and opposing school busing to achieve racial balance
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as part of the cease-fire agreement in vietnam in 1973
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the us withdrew all its troops from bietnam
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the 1973 war powers act
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required presidential reporting and congressional approval of extended troop commitments
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america’s strong support for israel in the 1973 arab-israeli war led to
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an OPEC oil boycott of the us and a subsequent energy crisis and recession
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richard nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the special prosecutor and the congress by claiming that
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he had executive privilege (confidentiality)
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congressmen gerald ford had become vp of the us when
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spiro agnew resigned on corruption charges and nixon appointed ford under the 25th amendment
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the most controversial action of gerald ford’s presidency was
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pardoning nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed while president
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the helsinki accords, signed by gerald ford and leaders of 34 other nations
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was condemned by west germany as meaningless
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title IX was passed by congress in 1972 to
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prohibit sex discrimination in any federally fudned education program or activity
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the proposed equal rights amendment (ERA) passed by congress in 1972 and eventually ratified by 35 states, stated the following
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“equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the us or any state on the basis of sex”
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the supreme court case of roe vs wade declared state laws prohibiting abortion were unconstitutional because they
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violated a woman’s constitutional right to privacy in her own person
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the supreme court, in the bakke case, held that
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racial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admissions
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james earl (jimmy) carter enjoyed considerable popularity when he won the presidency because
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his emphasis on honesty contrasted with the corruptions of watergate
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the guiding principle of president carter’s foreign policy was
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human rights
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president jimmy carter’s most spectacular foreign-policy achievement was the
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camp david agreement between israel and egypt
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the SALT II treaty between the soviety union and the us died in the senate when the soviets
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invaded afghanistan
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president carter’s malaise speech was notable for
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chiding americans for falling into a moral and spiritual crisis in their quest to acquire material goods
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the most humiliating failure during the iran hostage crisis came when
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president carter’s attempted mission to rescue the hostages ended in disaster

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