APUSH VA NEAL ESSAY African American Leaders Early 20th/ mid 20th

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Frederick Douglass
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freed slave and abolitionist who published the \”North Star\”.
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Booker T Washington
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founder of Tuskegee Institute (1881). Wrote his autobiography, Up from Slavery, in 1900
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Atlanta Compromise
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agreement in 1895 between blacks and southern whites. Blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities. outlined how economically useful African Americans and whites could coexist and prosper together while denying interest in integration
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W.E.B DuBois
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first black American to earn a doctorate in history from Harvard (1895). Only african american of the five activists who formed the NAACP. \”Souls of Black Folk\”
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Ida B. Wells-Barnett
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member of the niagara movement. became co-owner and operator of the newspaper Free Speech and Headlight. In 1892 condemned lynching after three friends were lynched. She left memphis for Chicago when she became the target of white supremacists
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Niagara Movement
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was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. Wanted a \”mighty current of change\”
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Marcus Garvey
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Founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914, which denounced the NAACP and \”white\” blacks who remained servants of racist whites. \”Back to Africa\”
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Chicago Defender
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leading African American newspaper in the nation in 1914, with two-thirds of its readership residing outside of the Chicago area
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William Monroe Trotter
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classmate of DuBois at Harvard. Editor of the Boston Guardian. Militant critic of Washington’s accommodation to whites
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Harlem Renaissance
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african american writers concentrated mostly in upper Manhattan. Focused on social problems of all members of America’s underclass.
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Claude McKay
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First militant Harlem Renaissance author (If We Must Die)
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Langston Hughes
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among the most prolific of the Harlem Renaissance
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Booker T Washington
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self-improvement through education in agriculture. \”accommodationism\”– gradual economic advancement. stressed that blacks must learn useful skills to prepare themselves for full citizenship. encouraged blacks to stop fighting segregation and second-class citizenship. \”Cast down your bucket where you are\”
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Garvey and Fortune
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black pride and separatism, especially extolled all things black, particularly Africanism. Stressed economic independence as essential to black autonomy from white exploitation
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Harlem Renaissanc
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demonstrated the richness and worthiness of the black racial heritage through literature, poetry, and art.
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The New Negro
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1925, collection of black writings that led to interest by white publishers
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Garvey and fortune
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announced the Empire of Africa in 1921 to assure blacks they would have their own economic institutions and the African nation state. advocated use of violence against violence
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most other leaders
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denounced washington’s \”accomodationism.\” supported racial solidarity and economic advancement but never supported the deference to whites that Washington counseled.
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The Crisis, The Messenger, The Defender
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used black publications for muckraking and investigative journalism
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
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1909, used lawsuits in federal courts to attempt the eradication of racial discrimination
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Grinn v. U.S.
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(1915) Supreme Court outlawed the grandather clause (which included poll taxes and literacy requirements for voting) in an Oklahoma law
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Thurgood Marshall
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Chief counsel for NAACP (1940)
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Martin Luther King Jr
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Baptist minister and prominent leader of the civil rights movement. Rose to prominence in Montgomery bus boycott (1955). Helped found and lead the Southern Christian Leadership Council. Led marches for blacks’ right to vote, desegregation, and labor rights. Led 1963 March on Washington; \”I have a Dream\” speech
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Ralph Abernathy
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helped organize the Montgomery bus boycott
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James Farmer
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leader of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Instrumental in organizing \”freedom rides\”
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A. Philip Randolph
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Socialist and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids (1925). Vice President of AFL-CIO (1955). Director of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (1963).
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Ella Baker
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Helped organize the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to gie young blacks a more organized voice in the civil rights movement (1960)
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John R. Lewis
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Member of SNCC and became its chairman in 1963. Organized sitins and took part in the 1961 \”freedom rides.\” A participator in the March on Washington (1963). Led marchers across the Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama on \”Bloody Sunday\” (1965)
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Medgar Evers
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Mississippi NAACP field secretary shot and killed in 1963 by a white supremacist
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James Meredith
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the first black student to successfully enroll at the University of Mississippi (1962). Led the March Against Fear in 1966 to protest voter registration intimidation
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Malcolm X
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Spokesman for Nation of Islam. Advocate of achieving civil rights by \”any means necessary.\” Left Nation of Islam (1963), converted to orthodox Islam (1964), and believed that there could be brotherhood between blacks and whites. Founded organization of Afro-American Unity (1964), its tone was still that of militant black nationalism but no longer separation
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Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
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founded Black Panther party for Self Defense. Militant group that engaged in high-profile, violent confrontations with police. Sought to rid African American neighborhoods of police. Dress code: black leather jackets, berets, slacks, and light blue shirts; afro hairstyles. Raised fist used as a symbol of solidarity; seen in 1968 olympics.
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Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
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used slogan \”Power to the People.\” called on all blacks to arm themselves for the liberation struggle. Originally espoused violent revolution to achieve black liberation, but in 1971 the Panthers embraced a nonviolent strategy and shifted their focus to offering community services to African Americans. Believed in violent confrontations to attain goals of justice and equality for blacks
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Stokeley Carmichael
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began to urge African American communities to confront the KKK, ready for battle. Rejected more moderate leaders and set off a storm of controversy by calling for \”Black Power\”
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Greensboro Four
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began sit-in movement with sit-in at Greensboro, NC, Wolworth’s lunch counter (1960)
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Rosa Parks
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refused to give upher seat on a bus to a white person. Her arrest initiated the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955, making her an insspiration
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Little Rock Nine
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first black teenagers to attend all-white Central High School in Little Rock, AK. Challenged segregation in the Deep South and won
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Goals of African American Leaders (1950-1960)
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End Jim Crow, Equal access and opportunity in education, equal representation under the law, enforcement of 14th and 15th Amendments, protection of voting rights, protection from violence by the white community
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Strategies of African American Leaders, 1950s-160s
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civil resistance, voter registration drives, Voting Rights Act (1965), direct action, primarily through sit-ins, boycotts, \”freedom rides,\” calls for \”Black Power,\” militancy and armed responses (Panthers)

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