APUSH Unit 5 Part One(The Union in Peril)

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The Compromise of 1850
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Slavery becomes outlawed in Washington D.C., California is admitted as a free state, and Utah and New Mexico will determine whether slavery is allowed through popular sovereignty, the new Fugitive Slave Law is passed.
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Henry Clay
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United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states and for outlining the main points of the compromise of 1850.
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Daniel Webster
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United States politician and orator (1782-1817), Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency
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John Calhoun
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Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
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Dual Presidency
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one president from the north and one from the south
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Jefferson Davis/Seward
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President and Vice President of the Confederate States of America
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Fugitive Slave Laws
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a law enacted as part of the compromise of 1850 designed to ensure that escaped slaves captured in the North would be returned into bondage in the South.
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California
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acquired from Mexico in 1848 and admitted as a free state in 1850 without ever having been a territory as a result of the Compromise of 1850. It was admitted as a free state.
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Popular Sovereignty
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The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
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New Mexico
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One of the three states to enter the US as a result of the Compromise of 1850. New Mexico was left to popular sovereignty along with Utah.
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Sectionalism
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loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country
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Stephen Douglas
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Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty in Lincoln-Douglas debates
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Gadsden Purchase
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The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
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Bleeding Kansas
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A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent. (John Brown)
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John Brown
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An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
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Sacking of Lawrence
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An event that marked the beginning of Bleeding Kansas in which proslavery raiders burned part of Lawrence
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Lecompton Constitution
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supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
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Pottawatomie Massacre
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When John Brown (abolitionist) and followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers in Kansas then mutilated their bodies to scare other slave supporters and to keep slavery supporters from moving into Kansas.
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Sumner/Brooks Incident
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1856, caning incident in the Senate over the Kansas-Nebraska Act, North (Sumner) criticizes south, South (Brooks) retaliates and beats him with his cane.
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Harriet Beecher Stowe
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Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
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Uncle Tom’s Cabin
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Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england’s (and the north’s) view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
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Ostend Manifesto
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a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S. for $120 million
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Dredd Scott vs. Sanford
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1857; Supreme Court decision that upheld rights of Southern states to maintain slavery, and ruled slaves were not American citizens, and thus not protected by Constitutional rights.
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Harper’s Ferry
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John Brown’s scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
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Republican Party
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Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
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Election of 1860
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Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
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1. What event brings the issue of slavery back to the forefront in 1850? What proposals are made as part of the Compromise of 1850? What are the roles of Clay, Calhoun, and Webster in this national debate? What does the debate reveal about America during this time period?
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The compromise of 1850; California would be a free state, Utah and New Mexico are decided by popular sovereignty, new fugitive slave law; Clay wrote up the 5 points, Calhoun argued for the new FSL, Webster was in favor of preserving the union; America was very sectionally split during this time period over pretty much everything.
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2. Why does Stephen Douglas push for the idea of popular sovereignty in the territories? Why does this proposal upset northerners? How effective is popular sovereignty about reducing conflict around the issue of slavery?
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because he thought it would remove slavery from national politics, and the people of a community had the right to decide for themselves; because those who were abolitionists didn’t think PS was going to make slavery go away the way they thought it should.
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3. Define the Dredd Scott vs Sanford decision and explain its effect on slavery
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Dredd Scott was a slave who moved from a slave state to a free state, then was moved back into a slave state. He sued his master for his freedom and won in lower courts because at one point he did live as a free man. However, when it reached the Supreme Court the judge overruled it, saying that as slaves were property they could not sue anyone, therefore making it so that no African American was considered a citizen any longer.
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4. What is John Brown’s role during this time period?
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John Brown was an abolitionist who attempted to start a slave revolution, but instead became a MARTYR to northern abolitionists and a THREAT to southern pro-slavery advocates.
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5. Why does the Democratic Party split during the election of 1860? How does this impact the election?
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They split because of slavery (one side was sympathetic to slaveowners and the other was extremely abolitionist.) This allowed the Republican candidate to breeze through and win a large majority of the electoral college votes.

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