Apush Chapter 20 Test Questions

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Woodrow Wilson
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28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women’s suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize. Ran against William Taft.
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New Freedom
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Woodrow Wilson’s program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
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Mexican Civil War
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Wilson’s moral approach to foreign affairs was severely tested by a revolution and civil war in Mexico. Wanting democracy to triumph there, he refused to recognize the military dictatorship of General Victoriano Huerta, who had seized power in Mexico in 1913 by arranging to assassinate the democratically elected president.
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Gentlemen’s Agreement
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Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them.
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Great White Fleet
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1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.”
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William Howard Taft
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27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt’s support and was defeated for a second term.
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Dollar Diplomacy
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Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
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Alaska Purchase
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In 1867, the U.S purchased Alaska from Imperial Russia for 7.2 million dollars. The idea first came from St. Petersburg. The purchase not only gave the U.S a windfall of vast natural resources but also an unlooked-for presence cross the Pacific.
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New Imperialism
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Historians’ term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)
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International Darwinism
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Darwin’s concept of the survival of the fittest was applied not only to competition in the business world but also to competition among nations. Therefore, in the international arena, the US had to demonstrate its strength by acquiring territories overseas, a sort of continuing of the manifest destiny
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Alfred Thayer Mahan
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a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890.
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Pan-American Conference (1889)
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were meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. They were first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors, specifically Latin America. Blaine hoped that ties between the USA and its southern counterparts would open Latin American markets to U.S. trade.
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Venezuela boundary dispute
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Dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela over the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana; British had ignored American demands to arbitrate the matter with Sec. of State Olney saying that Britain was violating the Monroe Doctrine; president Cleveland supported Venezuela and decided to determine the boundary line and if Britain resisted this, the U.S. could declare war to enforce it; Britain eventually agreed to arbitration
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Cuba
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sold to US in the Treaty of Paris (along with the Philippines)
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Jingoism
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N. Extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
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Yellow Journalism
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Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
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Spanish-American War (1898)
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War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
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Sinking of Maine
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One week after the de Lome letter made headlines on February 15,1898, the U.S. battleship Maine was at anchor in the harbor of Havana, Cuba when it suddenly exploded. 260 Americans were killed on board. The yellow press accused Spain of blowing up the ship, even though experts later concluded that the explosion was an accident.
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Teller Amendment
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This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
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George Dewey
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a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines
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Theodore Roosevelt
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26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, “Square Deal,” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
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Philippine Annexation
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options: give islands back to Spanish misrule (dishonorable); abandon islands (cowardly); leave Filipinos to govern themselves (possible anarchy seizure by another power); acquire all islands and perhaps grant freedom to all later (popular and accepted decision), caused division of Imperialists and Anti-Imperialists in Congress.
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Anti-Imperialist League
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objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
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Platt Amendment (1901)
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an amendment added to Cuba’s constitution by the Cuba government, after pressure from the United States; it provided that Cuba would make no treaties that compromised its independence or granted concessions to other countries without U.S. approval. The amendment was abrogated in 1934.
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Sphere of Influence
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A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
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Open Door Policy
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A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
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Big-stick policy
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Roosevelt’s philosophy – In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
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Hay-Paunceforte Treaty
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(November 1901) it was the result of a series of negotiations between the U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and the British Ambassador to Washington Lard Paunceforte that ended with the creation of a canal in Central America. Agreement was hard to come by but the final treaty called for the U.S. to be allowed to construct and manage a Central American Canal, the U.S. was to guarantee the neutrality of the canal was authorized to fortify the area if necessary, and the canal was to be open to all nations with fair and equal rates.
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Panama Canal
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Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South and Central America by using military force
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Lodge Corollary
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A corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in “practical power of control”.

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