Apush ch 38-41 vocab – Flashcards

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Plan to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro and liberate Cuba with a US-trained military force of political exiles; the limited invasion was a military failure and actually strengthened Castro's position in Cuba
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Bay of Pigs (1961)
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A rallying cry for more militant blacks advocated by younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown, beginning in the mid-1960s; it called for African Americans to form their own economic, political, and cultural institutions and challenge M.L. King‟s non-violent, civil disobedience philosophy
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Black power
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An historic peace agreement negotiated between Egypt and Israel at the U.S. Presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland; under the pact Israel agreed to return captured territory to Egypt and to negotiate Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
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Camp David Accords (1979)
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Landmark legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin in employment and public facilities such as hotels, restaurants and playgrounds; it established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Soviet installation of nuclear-tipped missiles in Cuba led President Kennedy to institute a naval quarantine around Cuba, banning additional delivery of weapons; after days of genuine fear on both sides, the two sides agreed that the Soviet Union remove the missiles and the US ended the quarantine and removed missiles aimed at the Soviets from Turkey
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Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
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A relaxation of tensions between the US and the USSR and China that was begun by President Nixon, as evidenced by his visits to both China and the USSR
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Detente
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President of South Vietnam who was initially supported by the US in his attempts to keep communists from taking over; however, his refusal to carry out political and social reforms and his lack of support from the Buddhist majority escalated hostilities; he was assassinated by his own people in 1963
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Ngo Dinh Diem
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This post-Watergate law allows the public and press to request declassification of government documents
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Freedom of Information Act
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Racially-mixed civil rights activists from CORE and SNCC who challenged racially segregated buses and bus terminals to demonstrate that despite a federal ban on segregated travel on interstate buses, segregation prevailed in parts of the South; violence against the riders led President Kennedy to send in federal marshals to protect them
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Freedom riders (1961)
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Author of The Feminine Mystique, the 1963 book that articulated the discontent among white middle class housewives in the "baby boom" era; founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966
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Betty Friedan
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Liberal reform program of President Lyndon Johnson which included civil rights legislation, increased public spending to help the poor, Medicare and Medicaid programs, educational legislation, and liberalized immigration policies
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Great Society (1965)
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Following two reported attacks on the U.S.S Maddox, President Johnson asked for and received this "blank check" authorization from Congress to "take all necessary measures" to repel attacks, prevent aggression and protect American security
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Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)
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Nixon foreign policy that redefined the US role in world affairs during the Cold war; it said that the US had overextended itself militarily and would reduce its obligations to other nations; the US would honor its existing commitments; but in the future, other nations would have to fight their own wars without large numbers of US troops; Nixon told Congress that "America cannot...undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world."
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Nixon Doctrine (1970)
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Iranian students, angry because the US would not return the former Shah to their country to stand trial, seized the U.S. embassy compound in Tehran and held 52 Americans inside hostage for 444 days
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Iranian hostage crisis (1979)
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Spokesman for the Nation of Islam, a black religious and political organization that advocated black nationalism, black separatism, and black-owned businesses and criticized the "white devils"; he left the Nation of Islam in 1964 to form the Organization of Afro-American Unity in 1964, which advocated integration with whites; opponents assassinated him in 1965
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Malcolm X
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President Reagan's pledge of American aid to insurgent movements attempting to overthrow Soviet-backed regimes in the Third World
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Reagan Doctrine (1985)
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Economic conditions of slow economic growth, rising inflation, and high unemployment that characterized the American economy during the 1970s
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Stagflation
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Conservative Republican candidate who lost to LBJ in the 1964 election
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Barry Goldwater
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Foreign policy introduced in the early 1970s that meant that US should set aside rigid ideological differences and pursue actions that were practical and in the best interests of the US; Nixon‟s diplomacy with the communist China, despite US opposition to communism, is an example, as is support for dictators who violated human rights in order to secure regional stability; critics characterized this was immoral
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Realpolitik
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North Vietnam launched this offensive in against twenty-seven South Vietnamese targets; although the US repelled the Tet Offensive, it prompted waves of criticism from those who felt the government had been misleading the American people about whether the US could win the war
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Tet Offensive (1968)
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Barred the use of poll taxes in elections
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24th Amendment (1964)
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This law prohibited literacy tests and sent federal examiners to the South to register voters
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Alabama governor who ran for President in 1968 as a third-party candidate on the American Independent ticket; he rejected forced racial integration and the activities of radical college students; his message appealed to voters upset by the civil disobedience of the civil rights and ant-war movement and he received about thirteen percent of that election's vote
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George Wallace
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Law that limited the presidential power to use military troops overseas by requiring them to get approval from Congress to engage U.S. forces in foreign combat for more than sixty days and to report to Congress within 48 hours after sending troops or enlarging combat units in a foreign country; passed in reaction to the discovery of the secret bombings and troops escalations during the Vietnam War
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War Powers Act (1973)
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During the Presidential campaign, burglars tied to the Nixon White House were caught installing eavesdropping devices in the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate Office complex in Washington, D.C.; President ixon resigned in 1974 due to revelations of White House efforts to obstruct the investigation of the break-in, financial irregularities, and the use of government agencies for political purposes
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Watergate break-In (1972)
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Vice-President under President Nixon who was forced to resign in 1973 for taking bribes and other crimes committed before taking office
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Spiro Agnew
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Native American leader in the 1960s and 1970s who helped organize the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the 1973 Wounded Knee occupation
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Dennis Banks
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Press Secretary to President Reagan who was paralyzed by a gunshot during a 1981 assassination attempt on Reagan; 1994 law that required a five-day waiting period before purchase of a gun was named for Mr. Brady
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James Brady
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Elite, anti-guerilla military units used by JFK as part of the doctrine of "flexible response"
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Green Beret
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President from 1977 to 1981 who advocated concern for human rights in foreign policy and assisted in mediating the Camp David Accords, but faced a difficult economy and a hostage crisis in Iran; his reelection attempt was swamped by the 1980 Reagan landslide
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James Earl Carter, Jr.
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Biologist author of Silent Spring (1962), which exposed harmful effects of pesticides and inspired concern for the environment and new laws like the Clean Water Act and the banning of DDT
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Rachel Carson
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Revolutionary leader who took control of Cuba in 1959; ally of Soviet Union through the 1980s
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Fidel Castro
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Latino leader from 1962 to his death in 1993 who organized the United Farm Workers (UFW) to help migrant farm workers gain better pay and working conditions
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Cesar Chavez
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First African American admitted to the University of Mississippi in 1962; shot during a civil rights march in 1966
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James Meredith
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Defense Department official who leaked that "Pentagon Papers" to the "New York Times" in 1971, showing government lies to the public about Vietnam; charges of treason were dropped when it was discovered that Nixon aides had hired burglars ("plumbers") to steal files from Ellsberg's psychiatrist had tried to bribe the trial judge
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Daniel Ellsberg
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President from 1974 to 1977 who pardoned Nixon and signed the Helsinki Accords; first appointed president and vice-president
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Gerald R. Ford
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Soviet leader whose bold reforms of glasnost and perestroika eventually led to the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991
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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Soviet leader in the 1950s and early 1960s who was forced out of power in 1964 after he failed to keep the missiles in Cuba
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Nikita Khrushchev
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Evangelist and presidential adviser known for leading large-scale religious rallies
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Billy Graham
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Secretary of Defense under JFK and LBJ who promoted flexible response and later came to doubt the wisdom of US involvement in the Vietnam War; resigned in 1968
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Robert McNamara
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Payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain industries
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Subsidy
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President from 1963 to 1969 who expanded social assistance with his Great Society program and increased US involvement in the Vietnam War
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Lyndon B. Johnson
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Member of Congress from Texas who was the first African American woman to represent her state in Congress; gave keynote addresses at 1976 and 1992 Democratic National Conventions
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Barbara Jordan
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President from 1961 to 1963 who was seen as youthful and inspiring; known for his firm handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis; assassinated in 1963
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John F. Kennedy
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Attorney General under his brother, President Kennedy, in the early 1960s; supported civil rights; assassinated while running for President in 1968
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Robert F. Kennedy
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Islamic fundamentalist leader of Iran after the 1979 overthrow of the pro-US Shah, which led economic difficulties for the US and to the taking of US hostages from the embassy in Teheran
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Ayatollah Khomeini
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Secretary of State under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford; used diplomacy to open relations with China, to end the Vietnam War, and to moderate the Middle East conflict
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Henry Kissinger
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Native American leader of the 1960s and 1970s who helped organize the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the 1973 Wounded Knee occupation
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Russell Means
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President from 1969 to1974 who was best known for a détente foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and China and for illegal acts he committed in the Watergate affair that forced his resignation
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Richard M. Nixon
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First woman Supreme Court justice who was appointed by President Reagan in 1981
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Sandra Day O'Connor
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President from 1981 to 1989 who was a popular conservative leader who promoted supply-side economics and created huge budget deficits
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Ronald Reagan
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Conservative activist who led a campaign during the 1970s to block the Equal Rights Amendment
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Phyllis Schlafly
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Washington judge who presided over the Watergate investigation in the 1970s, gave tough sentences to convicted participants, and ordered Nixon to release secret tapes
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John J. Sirica
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US campaign of heavy bombing of North Vietnam
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Operation Rolling Thunder (1965)
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Guaranteed right to vote originally granted to blacks under the 15th Amendment by outlawing literacy tests and allowing federal officials to register voters in states with discrimination; led to the registration of more than 400,000 blacks in the year after the law passed and more than one million new black voters by 1968
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Voting Rights Act (1965)
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Three marches designed to draw attention to white resistance to black voter registration drives in the South that were led by Martin Luther King and other prominent civil rights leaders; first march was nicknamed "bloody Sunday" — when the 600 marchers who left Selma on their way to Montgomery were attacked by state and local police; the second march took place as a symbolic "march to the bridge" in Selma while awaiting court approval for the third march; the third march lasted five days, and the marchers made it all the way to Montgomery, protected by the US military
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March on Selma (1965)
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Supreme Court case which extended the 14th Amendment to protect citizens from state decisions and barred the use of illegally obtained evidence in trials
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Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
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The Supreme Court case which ruled against a required school prayer composed by the New York State Board of Regents
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Engel v. Vitale (1962)
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Supreme Court case which ruled that legal counsel must be given to anyone charged with a crime
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Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
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Supreme Court which ruled that the police must not use coercion to gain a confession from a suspected criminal and that police must honor a suspect's request to have a lawyer present during police interrogations
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Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
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The Supreme Court which ruled that a suspected criminal has the right to be read his rights, including the right to remain silent (because anything said can be used against him), the right to an attorney, and the right to a telephone call
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Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
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The Supreme Court struck down all state laws that prohibited abortions during the first three months of pregnancy because they violated a woman‟s right to privacy in her own person
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Roe v. Wade (1973)
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This reverse discrimination case involved a white, Allan Bakke, who claimed that the University of California at Davis had refused his admission because of minority quotas. The Supreme Court allowed Bakke to attend UC Davis, but upheld the legality of race as one criteria for admission.
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Bakke v. Board of Regents U.C. (1978)
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Policy which gives special consideration to women and members of minorities to make up for past discrimination
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Affirmative action
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A virus that killed many people starting in the 1980s
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AIDS
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President Kennedy's unsuccessful program which provided financial aid to Latin American nations so that they could make democratic and economic reforms
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Alliance for Progress
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Organization formed to obtain economic and political programs to help Native Americans; called attention to past treaty violation and worked to obtain restoration of lands illegally taken from tribes; worked for better conditions for Indians, including the large number living in cities; began schools to encourage cultural pride in youth and worked for control over local matters, especially natural resources on Indian lands; led the occupation of Wounded Knee and Alcatraz
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American Indian Movement (AIM) (1968)
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South African's systematic separation of the white and black race that led Congress in 1986 to pass an economic sanctions bill over Reagan's veto; they limited trade and investment to pressure South Africa to abolish apartheid, including a ban on new investments in South Africa and prohibition of imports of South African products; many private companies and universities also refused to do business with South Africa
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Apartheid
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Dramatic increase in birthrate during and after World War II
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Baby boom (1946 to 1963)
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Barrier built by the East German government to prevent East Germans from escaping to West Berlin
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Berlin Wall (1961)
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Law designed to limit pollution caused by industrial and auto emissions
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Clean Air Act (1970)
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Law designed to limit pollution caused by the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater
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Clean Water Act (1972)
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Arab members of OPEC restricted energy exports to the US in retaliation for US support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbors; led to higher prices and gasoline shortages
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Oil embargo of 1973
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Group of young Americans in the 1960s who rejected conventional customs and traditions
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Counterculture
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Proposed constitutional amendment to prohibit discrimination on account of sex; only 35 states approved, which was three short of the 38 needed for approval
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Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) (1972)
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Protests over the US invasion of Cambodia led to the death of four students by National Guard troops sent to control the protests
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Kent State shootings (1970)
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Multinational agreements on European boundaries and human rights
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Helsinki Accords (1975)
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Supply route through Laos and Cambodia that carried troops and supplies from North Vietnam to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War
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Ho Chi Minh Trail
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Law that ended quotas for individual countries and replaced them with more flexible limits
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Immigration Act of 1965
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Treaty between the U.S. and the Soviet Union calling for the reduction of 2,500 missiles in Europe
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Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987)
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Treaty in which the US and the Soviet Union agreed not to test nuclear weapons above the ground; passed after the scare of nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis
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Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)
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Crusade against economic injustice organized by Martin Luther King, advocating an "economic bill of rights" for all poor people, that would offer massive government anti-poverty job programs and "livable wages"; he planned a march on Washington and traveled around the country to mobilize support; Ralph Abernathy took over SCLC after King‟s death and the "Poor People‟s March to Washington" was held over several weeks, with protesters campaigning at various federal agencies but the "Economic Bill of Rights" was never passed
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Poor People's Campaign (1968)
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Member of the pro-communist group of Nicaraguans who took control of the government in 1979; the Reagan administration secretly and illegally aided the Contra rebels who tried to overthrow the Sandinista government
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Sandinistas
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Repeated trips by a mediator between disputing nations in order to reach an agreement
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Shuttle diplomacy
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Term used by President Nixon to describe Americans who disapproved of the counterculture
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Silent majority
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Arms limitation agreement signed by Carter and Brezhnev that was not ratified by the US Senate because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
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SALT II (1979)
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President Reagan's proposed space-based defense system against Soviet missile attack, popularly known as "Star Wars"; Congress refused to fund the program
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Strategic Defense Initiative
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Peaceful civil rights demonstration for jobs and freedom for African Americans and to focus attention on JFK‟s civil rights bill; more than 200,000 black and white demonstrators listened as King proclaimed, "I have a dream" and then painted a picture of a nation where all people were equal and that he and his children would be "free at last!"
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March on Washington (1963)
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Federal-state program that that provided medical benefits to poor Americans
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Medicaid (1965)
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Federal program that provided medical benefits for older Americans
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Medicare (1965)
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North Carolina senator who conducted the Senate investigation of the Watergate scandal
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Sam Erwin
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Killing of several hundred Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers in 1968; Lt. William Calley was convicted of murder for ordering the shootings and initially sentenced to life in prison but he was released for good behavior after three and one-half years and left the service with a dishonorable discharge
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My Lai massacre
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President Kennedy's proposals to improve the economy, help the poor, and advance the space program
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New Frontier
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A coalition of conservative groups that emerged by 1980
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"New Right"
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Supreme Court justice during the 1950s and 1960s whose decisions involving segregation and protections of the rights of those accused of crimes prompted conservative protests and Nixon's appointment of less "activist" justices in the 1970s
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Earl Warren
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Group of oil-exporting nations that worked together to regulate the price and supply of oil
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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (1960)
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Federal program established to send volunteers to provide technical advice to people in developing nations around the world
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Peace Corps (1961)
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Successful protest movement against Secretary of the Interior James Watt's plan to reduce environmental controls on industrial activities and to open drilling in scenic government-owned lands in the West
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Sagebrush rebellion (1981)
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Agreement between the US and USSR limiting nuclear weapons
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Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) (1972)
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Evangelical Christians who strongly supported the Republican Party in the 1980s
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Moral majority
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Theory that tax reductions will increase investment and thereby encourage business growth
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Supply-side economics
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Latitude line that divided North and South Korea
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38th Parallel
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Union organized by Cesar Chavez to organize Mexican field hands in the West to obtain better wages and working conditions
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United Farm Workers (1962)
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Nixon's policy of gradually withdrawing US troops from South Vietnam while continuing to provide aid for the South Vietnamese to fight the war
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Vietnamization
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African American author and civil rights activist who wrote the bestseller The Fire Next Time (1963), which told how generations of oppression and suffering had blacks stronger, that they were tired of promises
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James Baldwin
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Economic policies supported by Reagan to reduce the size of government; used supply-side theories which emphasized lower taxes and government spending to stimulate production, economic growth, and job creation
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Reaganomics
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Soviet leader whose bold reforms of perestroika and glasnost led to significant reforms and the eventual the breakup of the Soviet Union by 1991
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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Author who wrote The Other America (1962) which described areas of poverty in the otherwise prosperous US
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Michael Harrington
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Candidate in the 1968 Democratic presidential race who opposed the Vietnam War; his strong showing in the primary elections helped convinced LBJ not to run again
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Eugene McCarthy
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Consumer advocate who published Unsafe at any Speed" (1965) criticizing auto safety and inspiring new safety laws
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Ralph Nader
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Egyptian leader in the 1970s who began the Middle East peace process by signing the 1978 Camp David Accords with Israel; later assassinated by Arab leaders opposed to this action
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Anwar Sadat
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Journalist and women's rights leader in the 1960s and 1970s; founded "Ms." magazine in 1972
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Gloria Steinem
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Belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
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Black nationalism
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Vietnam War hero and staff member of the National Security Council who made most of the arrangements for the Iran Contra dealings; his 1989 conviction was overturned on appeal
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Oliver North
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Spanish for "counterrevolutionary"; rebels opposed to Nicaragua's communist government in the 1980s that were secretly and illegally aided by members of the Reagan administration
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Contras
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Reduction or removal of government controls
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Deregulation
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An intercontinental ballistic missile
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ICBM
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Scandal in the Reagan administration involving the use of money from secret Iranian arms sales to support the Nicaraguan contras again communist control
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Iran Contra Affair
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Organization founded by Betty Friedan and others to promote full participation of women in American society
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National Organization for Women (NOW) (1966)
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Organization founded in 1933 by Elijah Muhammad that taught that Allah would bring about a "black nation", a union for all nonwhites, and viewed white society as oppressive; they preached black separation and self-help; were also called the Black Muslims in the 1960s and 1970s
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Nation of Islam
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Government agency that oversees the civilian uses of nuclear materials
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Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1974)
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Negotiations between the US and North Vietnam that began in 1968; US leaders advocating continuing the war in pursuit of continued to advocated of an "honorable peace"
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Paris Peace Talks
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Top-secret government history of US involvement in the Vietnam War that was made public in 1971 when Daniel Ellsberg leaker part of it to the New York Times; public was outraged by revelations of mistakes and deceptions that led to US involvement in the war
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Pentagon Papers (1969)
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Anti-poverty program created as part of the Great Society programs as the domestic version of the Peace; volunteers served in communities throughout the U.S., focusing on enriching educational programs and vocational training for the nation's underprivileged classes
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Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) (1965)
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Commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy; its report conclude that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone to assassinate President JFK
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Warren Commission
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Unsuccessful vice-presidential candidate of Walter Mondale in the election of 1984; first woman nominated for vice-president from a major party
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Geraldine Ferraro
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Music festival in upstate New York state that reflected the counterculture of the youth movement
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Woodstock (1969)
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JFK's program that called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the score and importance of a crisis, including anti-guerilla special forces units
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Flexible response
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Nonviolent protest in which civil rights activists occupied seats in a segregated establishment, such as a lunch counter; coordinated by SNCC and NAACP during the civil rights movement of the early 1960s
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Sit-in
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Civil rights leader of the 1950s and 1960s who advocated the peaceful integration of blacks and whites through nonviolent civil disobedience; assassinated by James Earl Ray in 1968
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
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Vietcong guerrillas attacked an American air base, so Johnson order ordered retaliatory bombing raids against military locations in NV; two weeks later General Westmoreland, commander of US forces in SV, requested combat soldiers to protect the airfields so LBJ ordered 3500 marines to SV to protect US air bases, the first use of US troops for combat not just for advisory purposes
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Pleiku (1965)
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Civil rights campaign to register as many black voters as possible in Mississippi, which had almost totally excluded black voters; the project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools and Freedom Houses in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population; during the ten-week project 4 civil rights workers were killed, 4 were critically wounded, 80 were beaten, and 1000 were arrested; 37 churches were bombed or burned and 30 black homes or businesses were bombed or burned; of the 17,000 Mississippi blacks who attempted to become registered voters, only 1,600 succeeded
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Freedom Summer (1964)
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FBI counterintelligence program started by Hoover in the 1950s to infiltrate communist organizations, that was used against the peace movement by the Johnson administration; the FBI sabotaged peace groups and made false accusations against their leaders; Johnson also ordered the CIA in 1967 to spy on domestic anti-war activists, in clear violation of its charter as a foreign intelligence agency
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Cointelpro
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Civil rights activist in the 1960s who was an integrationist leader of SNCC but later became a black nationalist leader of the Black Panthers; he also popularized the term "black power"
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Stokely Carmichael
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Disagreement between "hawks" and "doves" over the future of US involvement in Vietnam led to a violent clash between police and anti-war demonstrators outside the convention hall
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Democratic Party convention of 1968
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Direct phone line between the president and Moscow‟s leader to be able to better communicate during a crisis; installed after the Cuban missile crisis of 1962
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White House "hotline"
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US refused to send its athletes to the summer Olympic games in Moscow in and sixty other nations joined the boycott; the Soviets retaliated by boycotting the 1984 Olympics held in Los Angeles.
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US boycott of Olympics (1980)
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Federal agency created to set and enforce national air and water pollution control standards
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Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1970)
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Issued and enforced regulations on workplace safety and disclosure of hazards, such as asbestos, to workers
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Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) (1970)
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Government program that provides cash to low-income persons who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled
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Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (1974)
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Law designed to protect species that are in danger of becoming extinct as a result of economic growth and development due to lack of adequate conservation
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Endangered Species Act (1973)
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Nixon‟s plan to expand affirmative action by requiring construction unions working on federal contracts in Philadelphia to establish "timetables" for hiring minority apprentices; similar plans were extended to all federal contracts, which meant that thousands of employers had to meet hiring quotas
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Philadelphia Plan (1969)
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Group founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton to promote civil rights and self-defense for blacks, black leadership of their own communities, and militant self-defense of these communities against brutality by local police; members openly carried guns and patrolled areas where the police were said to commit racially-motivated crimes against blacks; they established community day-care centers and free breakfast programs and called for a redistribution of wealth; one of their members, Eldridge Cleaver, ran for president on the Peace and Freedom Party ticket
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Black Panthers (1966)
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Civil rights activist who was chairman of SNCC in 1967 and the Black Panthers in 1968; once state that "violence is as American as cherry pie" and "If America don't come around, we're „gonna burn it down"; he appeared on the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted List" after avoiding trial on charges of inciting riot and of carrying a gun across state lines
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H. Rap Brown
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Anti-US terrorists attacked and killed more than 240 marines stationed in barracks at Beirut‟s airport as part of an international peacekeeping force
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Attack on marines in Lebanon (1983)
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Nickname of President Reagan because he seemed able to avoid blame for failed policies, such as the Iran-Contra scandal
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"Teflon" president
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US military forces, with the support of other Latin American nations, were sent to stop the takeover of Grenada by rebels who killed their prime minister and brought Cuban-backed radicals to power and had plans to build an airfield for Soviet and Cuban use; the invasion was also to protect over 1000 Americans, about half of them medical students, who lived on the island; the pro-US government was restored to power and US forces remained in Grenada to oversee free elections
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US invasion of Grenada (1983)
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Senator who lost the nomination for Democratic candidate for president to Carter in 1980 due to lingering suspicions about his involvement in a car accident in 1969 in which a young woman was killed
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Edward Kennedy
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Conservative Democrats who supported Reagan‟s policies of tax cutting and budget reduction in the 1980s
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"Boll weevils"
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Law which prohibited sex discrimination in any federally-funded educational program or activity; led to increased spending on women‟s sports and activities
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Title IX (1972)
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Nickname given to the USSR by Reagan in his first term in office
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"Evil empire"
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US forces were sent into Cambodia to eliminate Vietcong bases there; the invasion resulted in massive anti-war protests against the expansion of the Vietnam War, the death of four students at Kent State, and deeper disagreements between hawks and doves; US forces were removed within a few months without completely eliminating the bases
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US invasion of Cambodia (1970)
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Nixon refused Congressional orders and court subpoenas to turn over the taped conversations of his meetings and telephone conversations for the Watergate investigations because it might endanger national security
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Nixon‟s claim of executive privilege (1973)
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The Supreme Court ruling which said that Nixon must turn over the tapes and documents requested by the Watergate investors; "executive privilege" did not give Nixon right to withhold any portion of the tapes needed to investigate criminal activity
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US v. Nixon (1974)
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Treaty that returned ownership of the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000, but let the US maintain the right to take military action to keep it open; Carter believed it would improve the US image in Latin America
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Panama Canal Treaty (1977)
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Plan to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro and liberate Cuba with a US-trained military force of political exiles; the limited invasion was a military failure and actually strengthened Castro's position in Cuba
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Bay of Pigs (1961)
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A rallying cry for more militant blacks advocated by younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown, beginning in the mid-1960s; it called for African Americans to form their own economic, political, and cultural institutions and challenge M.L. King‟s non-violent, civil disobedience philosophy
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Black power
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An historic peace agreement negotiated between Egypt and Israel at the U.S. Presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland; under the pact Israel agreed to return captured territory to Egypt and to negotiate Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
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Camp David Accords (1979)
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Landmark legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin in employment and public facilities such as hotels, restaurants and playgrounds; it established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Soviet installation of nuclear-tipped missiles in Cuba led President Kennedy to institute a naval quarantine around Cuba, banning additional delivery of weapons; after days of genuine fear on both sides, the two sides agreed that the Soviet Union remove the missiles and the US ended the quarantine and removed missiles aimed at the Soviets from Turkey
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Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
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A relaxation of tensions between the US and the USSR and China that was begun by President Nixon, as evidenced by his visits to both China and the USSR
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Detente
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President of South Vietnam who was initially supported by the US in his attempts to keep communists from taking over; however, his refusal to carry out political and social reforms and his lack of support from the Buddhist majority escalated hostilities; he was assassinated by his own people in 1963
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Ngo Dinh Diem
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This post-Watergate law allows the public and press to request declassification of government documents
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Freedom of Information Act
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Racially-mixed civil rights activists from CORE and SNCC who challenged racially segregated buses and bus terminals to demonstrate that despite a federal ban on segregated travel on interstate buses, segregation prevailed in parts of the South; violence against the riders led President Kennedy to send in federal marshals to protect them
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Freedom riders (1961)
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Author of The Feminine Mystique, the 1963 book that articulated the discontent among white middle class housewives in the "baby boom" era; founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966
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Betty Friedan
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Liberal reform program of President Lyndon Johnson which included civil rights legislation, increased public spending to help the poor, Medicare and Medicaid programs, educational legislation, and liberalized immigration policies
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Great Society (1965)
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Following two reported attacks on the U.S.S Maddox, President Johnson asked for and received this "blank check" authorization from Congress to "take all necessary measures" to repel attacks, prevent aggression and protect American security
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Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)
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Nixon foreign policy that redefined the US role in world affairs during the Cold war; it said that the US had overextended itself militarily and would reduce its obligations to other nations; the US would honor its existing commitments; but in the future, other nations would have to fight their own wars without large numbers of US troops; Nixon told Congress that "America cannot...undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world."
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Nixon Doctrine (1970)
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Iranian students, angry because the US would not return the former Shah to their country to stand trial, seized the U.S. embassy compound in Tehran and held 52 Americans inside hostage for 444 days
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Iranian hostage crisis (1979)
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Spokesman for the Nation of Islam, a black religious and political organization that advocated black nationalism, black separatism, and black-owned businesses and criticized the "white devils"; he left the Nation of Islam in 1964 to form the Organization of Afro-American Unity in 1964, which advocated integration with whites; opponents assassinated him in 1965
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Malcolm X
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President Reagan's pledge of American aid to insurgent movements attempting to overthrow Soviet-backed regimes in the Third World
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Reagan Doctrine (1985)
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Economic conditions of slow economic growth, rising inflation, and high unemployment that characterized the American economy during the 1970s
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Stagflation
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Conservative Republican candidate who lost to LBJ in the 1964 election
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Barry Goldwater
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Foreign policy introduced in the early 1970s that meant that US should set aside rigid ideological differences and pursue actions that were practical and in the best interests of the US; Nixon‟s diplomacy with the communist China, despite US opposition to communism, is an example, as is support for dictators who violated human rights in order to secure regional stability; critics characterized this was immoral
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Realpolitik
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North Vietnam launched this offensive in against twenty-seven South Vietnamese targets; although the US repelled the Tet Offensive, it prompted waves of criticism from those who felt the government had been misleading the American people about whether the US could win the war
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Tet Offensive (1968)
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Barred the use of poll taxes in elections
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24th Amendment (1964)
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This law prohibited literacy tests and sent federal examiners to the South to register voters
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Alabama governor who ran for President in 1968 as a third-party candidate on the American Independent ticket; he rejected forced racial integration and the activities of radical college students; his message appealed to voters upset by the civil disobedience of the civil rights and ant-war movement and he received about thirteen percent of that election's vote
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George Wallace
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Law that limited the presidential power to use military troops overseas by requiring them to get approval from Congress to engage U.S. forces in foreign combat for more than sixty days and to report to Congress within 48 hours after sending troops or enlarging combat units in a foreign country; passed in reaction to the discovery of the secret bombings and troops escalations during the Vietnam War
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War Powers Act (1973)
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During the Presidential campaign, burglars tied to the Nixon White House were caught installing eavesdropping devices in the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate Office complex in Washington, D.C.; President ixon resigned in 1974 due to revelations of White House efforts to obstruct the investigation of the break-in, financial irregularities, and the use of government agencies for political purposes
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Watergate break-In (1972)
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Vice-President under President Nixon who was forced to resign in 1973 for taking bribes and other crimes committed before taking office
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Spiro Agnew
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Native American leader in the 1960s and 1970s who helped organize the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the 1973 Wounded Knee occupation
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Dennis Banks
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Press Secretary to President Reagan who was paralyzed by a gunshot during a 1981 assassination attempt on Reagan; 1994 law that required a five-day waiting period before purchase of a gun was named for Mr. Brady
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James Brady
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Elite, anti-guerilla military units used by JFK as part of the doctrine of "flexible response"
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Green Beret
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President from 1977 to 1981 who advocated concern for human rights in foreign policy and assisted in mediating the Camp David Accords, but faced a difficult economy and a hostage crisis in Iran; his reelection attempt was swamped by the 1980 Reagan landslide
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James Earl Carter, Jr.
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Biologist author of Silent Spring (1962), which exposed harmful effects of pesticides and inspired concern for the environment and new laws like the Clean Water Act and the banning of DDT
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Rachel Carson
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Revolutionary leader who took control of Cuba in 1959; ally of Soviet Union through the 1980s
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Fidel Castro
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Latino leader from 1962 to his death in 1993 who organized the United Farm Workers (UFW) to help migrant farm workers gain better pay and working conditions
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Cesar Chavez
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First African American admitted to the University of Mississippi in 1962; shot during a civil rights march in 1966
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James Meredith
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Defense Department official who leaked that "Pentagon Papers" to the "New York Times" in 1971, showing government lies to the public about Vietnam; charges of treason were dropped when it was discovered that Nixon aides had hired burglars ("plumbers") to steal files from Ellsberg's psychiatrist had tried to bribe the trial judge
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Daniel Ellsberg
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President from 1974 to 1977 who pardoned Nixon and signed the Helsinki Accords; first appointed president and vice-president
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Gerald R. Ford
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Soviet leader whose bold reforms of glasnost and perestroika eventually led to the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991
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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Soviet leader in the 1950s and early 1960s who was forced out of power in 1964 after he failed to keep the missiles in Cuba
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Nikita Khrushchev
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Evangelist and presidential adviser known for leading large-scale religious rallies
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Billy Graham
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Secretary of Defense under JFK and LBJ who promoted flexible response and later came to doubt the wisdom of US involvement in the Vietnam War; resigned in 1968
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Robert McNamara
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Payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain industries
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Subsidy
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President from 1963 to 1969 who expanded social assistance with his Great Society program and increased US involvement in the Vietnam War
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Lyndon B. Johnson
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Member of Congress from Texas who was the first African American woman to represent her state in Congress; gave keynote addresses at 1976 and 1992 Democratic National Conventions
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Barbara Jordan
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President from 1961 to 1963 who was seen as youthful and inspiring; known for his firm handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis; assassinated in 1963
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John F. Kennedy
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Attorney General under his brother, President Kennedy, in the early 1960s; supported civil rights; assassinated while running for President in 1968
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Robert F. Kennedy
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Islamic fundamentalist leader of Iran after the 1979 overthrow of the pro-US Shah, which led economic difficulties for the US and to the taking of US hostages from the embassy in Teheran
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Ayatollah Khomeini
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Secretary of State under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford; used diplomacy to open relations with China, to end the Vietnam War, and to moderate the Middle East conflict
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Henry Kissinger
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Native American leader of the 1960s and 1970s who helped organize the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the 1973 Wounded Knee occupation
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Russell Means
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President from 1969 to1974 who was best known for a détente foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and China and for illegal acts he committed in the Watergate affair that forced his resignation
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Richard M. Nixon
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First woman Supreme Court justice who was appointed by President Reagan in 1981
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Sandra Day O'Connor
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President from 1981 to 1989 who was a popular conservative leader who promoted supply-side economics and created huge budget deficits
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Ronald Reagan
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Conservative activist who led a campaign during the 1970s to block the Equal Rights Amendment
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Phyllis Schlafly
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Washington judge who presided over the Watergate investigation in the 1970s, gave tough sentences to convicted participants, and ordered Nixon to release secret tapes
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John J. Sirica
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US campaign of heavy bombing of North Vietnam
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Operation Rolling Thunder (1965)
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Guaranteed right to vote originally granted to blacks under the 15th Amendment by outlawing literacy tests and allowing federal officials to register voters in states with discrimination; led to the registration of more than 400,000 blacks in the year after the law passed and more than one million new black voters by 1968
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Voting Rights Act (1965)
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Three marches designed to draw attention to white resistance to black voter registration drives in the South that were led by Martin Luther King and other prominent civil rights leaders; first march was nicknamed "bloody Sunday" — when the 600 marchers who left Selma on their way to Montgomery were attacked by state and local police; the second march took place as a symbolic "march to the bridge" in Selma while awaiting court approval for the third march; the third march lasted five days, and the marchers made it all the way to Montgomery, protected by the US military
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March on Selma (1965)
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Supreme Court case which extended the 14th Amendment to protect citizens from state decisions and barred the use of illegally obtained evidence in trials
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Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
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The Supreme Court case which ruled against a required school prayer composed by the New York State Board of Regents
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Engel v. Vitale (1962)
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Supreme Court case which ruled that legal counsel must be given to anyone charged with a crime
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Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
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Supreme Court which ruled that the police must not use coercion to gain a confession from a suspected criminal and that police must honor a suspect's request to have a lawyer present during police interrogations
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Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
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The Supreme Court which ruled that a suspected criminal has the right to be read his rights, including the right to remain silent (because anything said can be used against him), the right to an attorney, and the right to a telephone call
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Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
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The Supreme Court struck down all state laws that prohibited abortions during the first three months of pregnancy because they violated a woman‟s right to privacy in her own person
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Roe v. Wade (1973)
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This reverse discrimination case involved a white, Allan Bakke, who claimed that the University of California at Davis had refused his admission because of minority quotas. The Supreme Court allowed Bakke to attend UC Davis, but upheld the legality of race as one criteria for admission.
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Bakke v. Board of Regents U.C. (1978)
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Policy which gives special consideration to women and members of minorities to make up for past discrimination
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Affirmative action
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A virus that killed many people starting in the 1980s
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AIDS
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President Kennedy's unsuccessful program which provided financial aid to Latin American nations so that they could make democratic and economic reforms
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Alliance for Progress
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Organization formed to obtain economic and political programs to help Native Americans; called attention to past treaty violation and worked to obtain restoration of lands illegally taken from tribes; worked for better conditions for Indians, including the large number living in cities; began schools to encourage cultural pride in youth and worked for control over local matters, especially natural resources on Indian lands; led the occupation of Wounded Knee and Alcatraz
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American Indian Movement (AIM) (1968)
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South African's systematic separation of the white and black race that led Congress in 1986 to pass an economic sanctions bill over Reagan's veto; they limited trade and investment to pressure South Africa to abolish apartheid, including a ban on new investments in South Africa and prohibition of imports of South African products; many private companies and universities also refused to do business with South Africa
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Apartheid
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Dramatic increase in birthrate during and after World War II
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Baby boom (1946 to 1963)
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Barrier built by the East German government to prevent East Germans from escaping to West Berlin
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Berlin Wall (1961)
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Law designed to limit pollution caused by industrial and auto emissions
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Clean Air Act (1970)
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Law designed to limit pollution caused by the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater
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Clean Water Act (1972)
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Arab members of OPEC restricted energy exports to the US in retaliation for US support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbors; led to higher prices and gasoline shortages
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Oil embargo of 1973
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Group of young Americans in the 1960s who rejected conventional customs and traditions
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Counterculture
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Proposed constitutional amendment to prohibit discrimination on account of sex; only 35 states approved, which was three short of the 38 needed for approval
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Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) (1972)
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Protests over the US invasion of Cambodia led to the death of four students by National Guard troops sent to control the protests
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Kent State shootings (1970)
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Multinational agreements on European boundaries and human rights
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Helsinki Accords (1975)
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Supply route through Laos and Cambodia that carried troops and supplies from North Vietnam to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War
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Ho Chi Minh Trail
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Law that ended quotas for individual countries and replaced them with more flexible limits
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Immigration Act of 1965
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Treaty between the U.S. and the Soviet Union calling for the reduction of 2,500 missiles in Europe
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Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987)
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Treaty in which the US and the Soviet Union agreed not to test nuclear weapons above the ground; passed after the scare of nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis
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Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)
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Crusade against economic injustice organized by Martin Luther King, advocating an "economic bill of rights" for all poor people, that would offer massive government anti-poverty job programs and "livable wages"; he planned a march on Washington and traveled around the country to mobilize support; Ralph Abernathy took over SCLC after King‟s death and the "Poor People‟s March to Washington" was held over several weeks, with protesters campaigning at various federal agencies but the "Economic Bill of Rights" was never passed
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Poor People's Campaign (1968)
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Member of the pro-communist group of Nicaraguans who took control of the government in 1979; the Reagan administration secretly and illegally aided the Contra rebels who tried to overthrow the Sandinista government
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Sandinistas
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Repeated trips by a mediator between disputing nations in order to reach an agreement
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Shuttle diplomacy
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Term used by President Nixon to describe Americans who disapproved of the counterculture
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Silent majority
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Arms limitation agreement signed by Carter and Brezhnev that was not ratified by the US Senate because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
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SALT II (1979)
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President Reagan's proposed space-based defense system against Soviet missile attack, popularly known as "Star Wars"; Congress refused to fund the program
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Strategic Defense Initiative
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Peaceful civil rights demonstration for jobs and freedom for African Americans and to focus attention on JFK‟s civil rights bill; more than 200,000 black and white demonstrators listened as King proclaimed, "I have a dream" and then painted a picture of a nation where all people were equal and that he and his children would be "free at last!"
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March on Washington (1963)
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Federal-state program that that provided medical benefits to poor Americans
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Medicaid (1965)
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Federal program that provided medical benefits for older Americans
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Medicare (1965)
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North Carolina senator who conducted the Senate investigation of the Watergate scandal
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Sam Erwin
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Killing of several hundred Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers in 1968; Lt. William Calley was convicted of murder for ordering the shootings and initially sentenced to life in prison but he was released for good behavior after three and one-half years and left the service with a dishonorable discharge
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My Lai massacre
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President Kennedy's proposals to improve the economy, help the poor, and advance the space program
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New Frontier
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A coalition of conservative groups that emerged by 1980
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"New Right"
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Supreme Court justice during the 1950s and 1960s whose decisions involving segregation and protections of the rights of those accused of crimes prompted conservative protests and Nixon's appointment of less "activist" justices in the 1970s
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Earl Warren
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Group of oil-exporting nations that worked together to regulate the price and supply of oil
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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (1960)
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Federal program established to send volunteers to provide technical advice to people in developing nations around the world
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Peace Corps (1961)
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Successful protest movement against Secretary of the Interior James Watt's plan to reduce environmental controls on industrial activities and to open drilling in scenic government-owned lands in the West
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Sagebrush rebellion (1981)
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Agreement between the US and USSR limiting nuclear weapons
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Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) (1972)
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Evangelical Christians who strongly supported the Republican Party in the 1980s
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Moral majority
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Theory that tax reductions will increase investment and thereby encourage business growth
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Supply-side economics
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Latitude line that divided North and South Korea
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38th Parallel
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Union organized by Cesar Chavez to organize Mexican field hands in the West to obtain better wages and working conditions
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United Farm Workers (1962)
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Nixon's policy of gradually withdrawing US troops from South Vietnam while continuing to provide aid for the South Vietnamese to fight the war
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Vietnamization
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African American author and civil rights activist who wrote the bestseller The Fire Next Time (1963), which told how generations of oppression and suffering had blacks stronger, that they were tired of promises
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James Baldwin
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Economic policies supported by Reagan to reduce the size of government; used supply-side theories which emphasized lower taxes and government spending to stimulate production, economic growth, and job creation
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Reaganomics
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Soviet leader whose bold reforms of perestroika and glasnost led to significant reforms and the eventual the breakup of the Soviet Union by 1991
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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Author who wrote The Other America (1962) which described areas of poverty in the otherwise prosperous US
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Michael Harrington
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Candidate in the 1968 Democratic presidential race who opposed the Vietnam War; his strong showing in the primary elections helped convinced LBJ not to run again
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Eugene McCarthy
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Consumer advocate who published Unsafe at any Speed" (1965) criticizing auto safety and inspiring new safety laws
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Ralph Nader
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Egyptian leader in the 1970s who began the Middle East peace process by signing the 1978 Camp David Accords with Israel; later assassinated by Arab leaders opposed to this action
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Anwar Sadat
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Journalist and women's rights leader in the 1960s and 1970s; founded "Ms." magazine in 1972
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Gloria Steinem
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Belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
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Black nationalism
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Vietnam War hero and staff member of the National Security Council who made most of the arrangements for the Iran Contra dealings; his 1989 conviction was overturned on appeal
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Oliver North
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Spanish for "counterrevolutionary"; rebels opposed to Nicaragua's communist government in the 1980s that were secretly and illegally aided by members of the Reagan administration
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Contras
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Reduction or removal of government controls
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Deregulation
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An intercontinental ballistic missile
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ICBM
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Scandal in the Reagan administration involving the use of money from secret Iranian arms sales to support the Nicaraguan contras again communist control
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Iran Contra Affair
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Organization founded by Betty Friedan and others to promote full participation of women in American society
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National Organization for Women (NOW) (1966)
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Organization founded in 1933 by Elijah Muhammad that taught that Allah would bring about a "black nation", a union for all nonwhites, and viewed white society as oppressive; they preached black separation and self-help; were also called the Black Muslims in the 1960s and 1970s
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Nation of Islam
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Government agency that oversees the civilian uses of nuclear materials
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Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1974)
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Negotiations between the US and North Vietnam that began in 1968; US leaders advocating continuing the war in pursuit of continued to advocated of an "honorable peace"
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Paris Peace Talks
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Top-secret government history of US involvement in the Vietnam War that was made public in 1971 when Daniel Ellsberg leaker part of it to the New York Times; public was outraged by revelations of mistakes and deceptions that led to US involvement in the war
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Pentagon Papers (1969)
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Anti-poverty program created as part of the Great Society programs as the domestic version of the Peace; volunteers served in communities throughout the U.S., focusing on enriching educational programs and vocational training for the nation's underprivileged classes
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Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) (1965)
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Commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy; its report conclude that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone to assassinate President JFK
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Warren Commission
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Unsuccessful vice-presidential candidate of Walter Mondale in the election of 1984; first woman nominated for vice-president from a major party
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Geraldine Ferraro
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Music festival in upstate New York state that reflected the counterculture of the youth movement
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Woodstock (1969)
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JFK's program that called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the score and importance of a crisis, including anti-guerilla special forces units
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Flexible response
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Nonviolent protest in which civil rights activists occupied seats in a segregated establishment, such as a lunch counter; coordinated by SNCC and NAACP during the civil rights movement of the early 1960s
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Sit-in
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Civil rights leader of the 1950s and 1960s who advocated the peaceful integration of blacks and whites through nonviolent civil disobedience; assassinated by James Earl Ray in 1968
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
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Vietcong guerrillas attacked an American air base, so Johnson order ordered retaliatory bombing raids against military locations in NV; two weeks later General Westmoreland, commander of US forces in SV, requested combat soldiers to protect the airfields so LBJ ordered 3500 marines to SV to protect US air bases, the first use of US troops for combat not just for advisory purposes
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Pleiku (1965)
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Civil rights campaign to register as many black voters as possible in Mississippi, which had almost totally excluded black voters; the project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools and Freedom Houses in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population; during the ten-week project 4 civil rights workers were killed, 4 were critically wounded, 80 were beaten, and 1000 were arrested; 37 churches were bombed or burned and 30 black homes or businesses were bombed or burned; of the 17,000 Mississippi blacks who attempted to become registered voters, only 1,600 succeeded
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Freedom Summer (1964)
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FBI counterintelligence program started by Hoover in the 1950s to infiltrate communist organizations, that was used against the peace movement by the Johnson administration; the FBI sabotaged peace groups and made false accusations against their leaders; Johnson also ordered the CIA in 1967 to spy on domestic anti-war activists, in clear violation of its charter as a foreign intelligence agency
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Cointelpro
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Civil rights activist in the 1960s who was an integrationist leader of SNCC but later became a black nationalist leader of the Black Panthers; he also popularized the term "black power"
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Stokely Carmichael
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Disagreement between "hawks" and "doves" over the future of US involvement in Vietnam led to a violent clash between police and anti-war demonstrators outside the convention hall
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Democratic Party convention of 1968
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Direct phone line between the president and Moscow‟s leader to be able to better communicate during a crisis; installed after the Cuban missile crisis of 1962
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White House "hotline"
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US refused to send its athletes to the summer Olympic games in Moscow in and sixty other nations joined the boycott; the Soviets retaliated by boycotting the 1984 Olympics held in Los Angeles.
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US boycott of Olympics (1980)
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Federal agency created to set and enforce national air and water pollution control standards
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Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1970)
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Issued and enforced regulations on workplace safety and disclosure of hazards, such as asbestos, to workers
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Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) (1970)
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Government program that provides cash to low-income persons who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled
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Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (1974)
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Law designed to protect species that are in danger of becoming extinct as a result of economic growth and development due to lack of adequate conservation
answer
Endangered Species Act (1973)
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Nixon‟s plan to expand affirmative action by requiring construction unions working on federal contracts in Philadelphia to establish "timetables" for hiring minority apprentices; similar plans were extended to all federal contracts, which meant that thousands of employers had to meet hiring quotas
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Philadelphia Plan (1969)
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Group founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton to promote civil rights and self-defense for blacks, black leadership of their own communities, and militant self-defense of these communities against brutality by local police; members openly carried guns and patrolled areas where the police were said to commit racially-motivated crimes against blacks; they established community day-care centers and free breakfast programs and called for a redistribution of wealth; one of their members, Eldridge Cleaver, ran for president on the Peace and Freedom Party ticket
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Black Panthers (1966)
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Civil rights activist who was chairman of SNCC in 1967 and the Black Panthers in 1968; once state that "violence is as American as cherry pie" and "If America don't come around, we're „gonna burn it down"; he appeared on the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted List" after avoiding trial on charges of inciting riot and of carrying a gun across state lines
answer
H. Rap Brown
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Anti-US terrorists attacked and killed more than 240 marines stationed in barracks at Beirut‟s airport as part of an international peacekeeping force
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Attack on marines in Lebanon (1983)
question
Nickname of President Reagan because he seemed able to avoid blame for failed policies, such as the Iran-Contra scandal
answer
"Teflon" president
question
US military forces, with the support of other Latin American nations, were sent to stop the takeover of Grenada by rebels who killed their prime minister and brought Cuban-backed radicals to power and had plans to build an airfield for Soviet and Cuban use; the invasion was also to protect over 1000 Americans, about half of them medical students, who lived on the island; the pro-US government was restored to power and US forces remained in Grenada to oversee free elections
answer
US invasion of Grenada (1983)
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Senator who lost the nomination for Democratic candidate for president to Carter in 1980 due to lingering suspicions about his involvement in a car accident in 1969 in which a young woman was killed
answer
Edward Kennedy
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Conservative Democrats who supported Reagan‟s policies of tax cutting and budget reduction in the 1980s
answer
"Boll weevils"
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Law which prohibited sex discrimination in any federally-funded educational program or activity; led to increased spending on women‟s sports and activities
answer
Title IX (1972)
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Nickname given to the USSR by Reagan in his first term in office
answer
"Evil empire"
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US forces were sent into Cambodia to eliminate Vietcong bases there; the invasion resulted in massive anti-war protests against the expansion of the Vietnam War, the death of four students at Kent State, and deeper disagreements between hawks and doves; US forces were removed within a few months without completely eliminating the bases
answer
US invasion of Cambodia (1970)
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Nixon refused Congressional orders and court subpoenas to turn over the taped conversations of his meetings and telephone conversations for the Watergate investigations because it might endanger national security
answer
Nixon‟s claim of executive privilege (1973)
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The Supreme Court ruling which said that Nixon must turn over the tapes and documents requested by the Watergate investors; "executive privilege" did not give Nixon right to withhold any portion of the tapes needed to investigate criminal activity
answer
US v. Nixon (1974)
question
Treaty that returned ownership of the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000, but let the US maintain the right to take military action to keep it open; Carter believed it would improve the US image in Latin America
answer
Panama Canal Treaty (1977)