AP World History Review Sheet

Flashcard maker : Elizabeth Hill
Why were countries interested in Africa during the First Age of Imperialism?
slaves for Triangular Trade, place to imperialize, evangelize, civilize
Describe the slave trade and its effects on Africa and the World.
used Africans b/c they were resistant to European diseases, Middle Passage = poor hygine, dysentry, disease, maltreatment, average motality rate was 20%; Africa accquired fire arms, destruction of families and communities, forced marches, slave pens, slave wars, imitate western society; world sees increase in economy (especially in sugar), increased \”need\” for slaves
What were the reasons for the first age of imperialism?
gold, glory, God; nationalism, want for land/ power, glory for themselves and their nation, slaves, spices, slaves, new goods, NW Passage, better technology (new ships, compass, astrolabe, better maps), felt duty to evangelize to and evangelize the \”barbarians\”
Why did th Ming dynasty practice isolationism?
disliked mass amounts of Christian conversions, persecutions, bann => open campaign against all Western influence
Who was Zheg He?
led Japanese trade expeditions, sailed w/ 28,000 armed soldiers, exchanged gifts est. trade with foreign rulers, expeditions were cancelledb/c of increased threats from the Mongols and the expense, he was also gaining too much popularity and the gov’t was afraid of him gaining power
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
began in England b/c there were laborers, natural resourses (coal, water), an educated middle class, political stability, and capital; began in the textile industry, new inventions made the processes quicker and products better, colonies could provide needed raw materials
Effects of Industrial Revolution
1)military power increased (troops could mover quicker, kill more)
2)Western areas took over dependant areas (imperialism, markets were dominated)
3)population increased overall (more food, life expectancy up, immigration)
4)westerncivilization spread (language, religion, technology)
5) higher standard of living (cheaper and more goods, medicine, international organizations (red cross, postal system)
*6) pollution
Britain and the rest of Europe during the Industraial Revolution
had necessary \”ingredients\” for Revolution
Agricultural Revolution
farming becomes commercial, new machines increase production, new foods increase population
Inventors of the Industrial Revolution
Watt (engine)
McCormick (reaper)
Stevenson (locamotive)
Tull (seed drill)
philosophs of the Enlightenment
1) Locke (life, liberty, property, religion; against slavery, wanted education)
2) Voltaire (religious tolerance, freedom of speech)
3) Montesquieu (system of checks and balances/ three branches of gov’t)
4) Smith (\”laissez-faire\”/ capitalism = economic system with private owners and little gov’t interference
American Revolution
influenced other colonies and revolutions (France, Central and South America)
causes of French Revolution
Enlightenment, rigid social structure (middle class wanted political power, great poverty among peasants), weak and inefficient King (Louis XVI), fought and lost many wars ( 7 Years’ War), inspired by AMerican Rev)
Political spectrum
1) radical- someone who looks to the future and is willing to use violence
2) liberal- likes change & is willling to experiment, does not use violence
3) moderate- compromiser
4) conservative- likes the \”status quo\”, resists change
5) reactionary- wants to \”turn back the clock\” to the wy things used to be, willing to use violence
Effects of French Revolution
nationalism, liberalism, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, metric, new calendar, universal conscription, king and queen executed, National Assembly/ Parliament
Napoleon
Napoleonic Code est. (promised equality under the law, civil marriage & divorce, inheritance equalized), meritocracy, public school education, religious toleration, Bank of France (nobles had to pay taxes, reformed tax structure), Continental System (tried to blockade Britain), tried to dtorm Russia (scorched earth policy)
Conservative Restoration
1) Congress of Vienna (monarchs restored, Frace surrounded w/ strong countries, victors compensated
2) conservatives tried to stop Enlightenment ideas (middle class pushed for reforms, revolutions broke out in Greece and Belgium)
3) reforms happened despite monarchial disenchentment
Emmiline Pankhurst/ Elizabeth Stanton
fought for women’s rights in England, used violence/ fought for Women’s rights in USA
Industrial Reforms
improvements in child and women’s labor, factories and mines evaluated
political reforms
suffrage for women and men, more rights for women, more representation in cities
Settlement Colonies
large # of people from the mother country move to the area
Dutch Imperialism
Dutch East India Company made deals with the Sultans of Mataram (vassals who paid tributes), intervened with the wars (got land in return), hired natives to fight
British Imperialism
British East India Trading co. made of investors, not part of the gov’t , Meddled in local princes’ affairs (rhajah) to get trade, Used rivalries to gain power, Hired sepoys, Battle of Plassy (British defeat French and Indian rivals), Robert Clive, used natives as spies and soldiers
Types of Imperialism
settlement colony, dependant colony, sphere of influence, annexation, trade concession, protectorate,empire
When and where did the 2nd age of imperialism take place?
Asia, Africa, Ottoman Empire/ Middle East, Pacific region in the 1800s
Causes of Imperialism
army, navy, better technology, nationalism, natural resources, places to invest (capital), new markets, religion (missionaries), White Man’s Burden, Social Darwinism, realpolitik
results of imperialism
cultural diffusion (many ex. in India), colonies (Scramble for Africa, Rhodes), spread of ideas (Christianity) and technology, industrialism increased, missenigation, slavery declined, Lonely Native Syndrome
first colony to gain independence in South America
Haiti (L’Ouveturre) => inspired other slaves, lower classes and made upper classes (creoles)nervous
Independence leaders in S. America
L’ Ouveturre (Haiti)
San Martin (Argentina, Chile, Peru)
Bolivar (Venezuela, Colombia, Equador)
Hidalgo, Morelos, Idurbide (Mexico)
Dom Pedro (Brazil)
Overall results of S. American independence
all countries became republics EXCEPT Brazil, slavery abolished almost everywhere (not Brazil), large provinces formed, rise of caudillos, Federalists vs. Centralists, issue of Church power
Monroe Doctrine
Europe could not imperialize Latin America, England could enforce and got benefits
Mexican- American War
US annexed Texas (Manifest Destiny = the desire to rule from coast to coast, right from God) , Santa Anna fought US troops and lost, USA got 1/2 Mexican territory but only 5% of the population b/c of the Treaty of Guadelupe- Hidalgo
Argentina
Federalists- ranchers supported,CONSERVATIVE
Centralists- LIBERAL, supported education and immigration, Republic after ferderalist system
Society ideas based on where?
Europe/ Enlightenment
Spanish- American War
conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the United States supported Cubans’ fight for indepedence
Reform under Mahmud II
built secret army that successfuly killed janissaries, started Tanzimat Reforms
Problems with janissaries
overpaid => too much gov’t spending, powerful, could depose sultan, too many got paid for doing nothing
Western influence and its effects
increased w. trade harmed local artistans but helped Christian and Jewish merchants, western goods were cheaper
Tanzimat Reforms
1) education based on w. math and science
2) state-run postal and telegraph systems
3) railroads built
4) constitution improved position of religios minority groups
5) treaty with Britain improved trade by removing taxes
Young Turk Movement
helped to spread liberal ideas, overthrew sultan who had returned to absolutism
Egypt and Suez Canal
Egypt relied on only cotton which made it dependant on world prices, khedives borrowed money from Britain to build canal which they couldn’t pay back to the British took possession of the canal
jihad in the sudan
Achmad/ Madhi fought against British and Egyptians, successor to Achmad sets up state w/o drinking, dancing, or foreigners
Manchu leaders defeat teh Ming
Nurhaci organized Manchus, overthrow Ming, form Qing, bring back Civil Service exam and Confucianism
Failure of Civil Service exam
cheating and favoritism, poor scholars could take test for someone else, examiners could be bribed, people could buy positions
Opium War
Commissioner Lin tried to stop the opium trade by destroying the shipments on the dock, Europeans wanted payment but the Chinese refused and thw war began, British defeated China, ended with Treaty of Nanking, Europeans got extraterritoiality, Hong Kong, and became a sphere of influence
Taiping Rebellion
land redistribution, liberties for women, universal education and healthcare, scholar-gentry attacked, gov’t responded w/self-strengthening movement (railroads, factories, modernized army)
Boxer Rebellion
led by students and military officers against foreigners and the Qing gov’t

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