AP Gov Unit 1 FRQ Topics

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What is the Commerce Clause?
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Congress controls trade
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Another name for the Elastic Clause
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Necessary and Proper Clause
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What is the Elastic Clause?
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authorizes Congress to pass all laws \”necessary and proper\” to cary out the enumerated/expressed powers
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Example of an implied power that is supported by the Elastic Clause
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tax
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What is federalism?
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system of shared power between units of government; decentralization of government
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What does federalism allow?
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local action for matters of local concern and federal action for matters of bigger concern
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different types of federalism
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Fiscal Federalism Duel Federalism Cooperative Federalism Devolution Mandates
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What is devolution?
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local and state powers getting more power (ex: welfare reforms)
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example of a mandate
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clean air act, motor voter
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example of an unfunded mandate
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powers drug testing
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Selective Incorporation
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states cannot pass a law that takes away your constitutional rights
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Where does selective incorporation come from?
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the 14th Amendment
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The 14th Amendment contains…
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selective incorporation due process equal protection clause
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another name for selective incorporation
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due process
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first step in formal amendment process
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proposal: 2/3 vote in each house OR national convention (2/3 of the states)
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second step in formal amendment process
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ratified: 3/4 of state legislatures OR state convention (3/4 vote of the the states)
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Informal Amendment Process
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does not to written changes
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the 5 informal amendment processes:
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-basic legislation -executive decision -court decision (court case) -party practices -customs
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example of informal amendment created by custom
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practice of president only serving two terms
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pros of federalism
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-mobilizes political action -interest groups cannot easily take over government -creative experimentation so if one state fails, not all of them fail -keeps government close to people
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cons of federalism
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-confusion of political activity for citizens -small, motivated interest groups can thwart the will of the majority -diverse policies create inequality (welfare benefits) -diverse policies create confusion and are unfair

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