A&P chapter 3 hw questions

question

True/ false? Phospholipids provide the specific functions of the plasma Membrane?
answer

False – Correct definition: Integral and peripheral proteins provide a variety of specific functions at the membrane
question

Which of the following molecules might change over time in a cancer cell?
answer

membrane glycolipids membrane glycoproteins glycocalyx sugars >>>all of the above
question

Which of the following processes requires ATP?
answer

>>Exocytosis<< is a form of vesicular transport. All vesicular transport processes are active processes that require ATP.
question

Which of the following accurately describes a difference between simple and facilitated diffusion?
answer

>>The rate of facilitated diffusion may be controlled by altering the activity or number of transport proteins, but the rate of simple diffusion cannot be controlled. Activating more channels or carrier proteins would increase the rate of facilitated diffusion, and inactivating them would decrease the rate. Simple diffusion relies on lipid solubility and membrane permeability, which are not as easily changed.
question

Which of the following best describes the driving force behind secondary active transport?
answer

>>the concentration gradient produced by primary active transport drives the transport of other materials For example, the sodium-potassium ATPase pump creates a high concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid. This sodium concentration gradient provides the energy to bring other molecules such as glucose into the cell via a symport transport protein.
question

Some white blood cells defend the body from infectious bacteria by the process of __________.
answer

>>Phagocytosis Macrophages and certain white blood cells are called phagocytic cells because their primary function is to ingest foreign substances or bacteria via phagocytosis.
question

In a patient with severely burned skin, the damaged cells that have lost fluid cannot be properly rehydrated because_________.
answer

>>the absence of selective permeability allows water molecules that enter these damaged cells to also leave the cytoplasm none of the above Skin is an organ made up of tissues, and tissues are made up of cells. Selective permeability requires an intact cell membrane.
question

Assume that Na+ is being transported across a membrane via facilitated diffusion. Which of the following conditions would allow for the most transport of Na+ across that membrane?
answer

>>a gradient of more than 50% difference between sides for the Na+ and Na+ diffusing toward Cl− A large gradient will provide a greater kinetic energy that will drive and Na+ will be chemically attracted to the Cl− ; this will create an electrochemical gradient. While this will create a large gradient, consider how the Na+ will interact with the K+.
question

Which of the following is a difference between primary and secondary active transport?
answer

>>In primary active transport, the transport protein gets phosphorylated; in secondary active transport, the transport protein is not phosphorylated. In primary active transport, energy comes directly from the hydrolysis of ATP and the subsequent phosphorylation of the primary active transporter. In secondary active transport, the solute (usually Na+) concentration gradient produced by primary active transport provides the (kinetic) energy to move other solutes, such as ions and glucose, against their concentration gradients. For example, glucose can be transported against its concentration gradient through a Na+-glucose symporter as Na+ moves down its concentration gradient (a gradient produced by the Na+-K+ pump).
question

What is a membrane potential ?
answer

A voltage across the membrane
question

Which is representative of early prophase?
answer

Chromosomes condense as sister chromatid pairs.
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Which is representative of late prophase?
answer

Attachment of chromatid pairs to spindle microtubules.
question

Which phrase below correctly describes metaphase?
answer

Sister chromatids are aligned at the metaphase plate
question

Select the correct activity occurring during anaphase.
answer

Chromosomes move toward opposite poles of cell
question

Which is true regarding cytokinesis?
answer

Cytokinesis usually begins in anaphase
question

What is the function of mRNA during translation?
answer

>>mRNA carries the code for a polypeptide’s sequence of amino acids. Translation involves a number of different RNA molecules. It is mRNA that carries the code for the polypeptide’s sequence of amino acids. The code for each amino acid is a three-base sequence called a codon
question

Which statement best describes the function of tRNA in translation?
answer

>>tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome. During translation, each new amino acid is carried to the ribosome by a tRNA molecule. Each tRNA molecule carries a particular amino acid. This amino acid is dictated by the particular anticodon that the tRNA molecule contains. For a particular mRNA codon, only one tRNA molecule contains the complementary anticodon necessary to bind. Once bound, the amino acid is transferred from the tRNA molecule to the growing polypeptide.
question

What is the purpose of the S phase of interphase?
answer

to form sister chromatids that can be separated during mitosis
question

Which of the following statements best explains why the leading and lagging strands are synthesized using two different mechanisms?
answer

The DNA of the parental template consists of antiparallel strands.
question

What must happen before a body cell can begin mitotic cell division?
answer

Its DNA must be replicated exactly so that identical copies of the cell’s genes can be passed on to each of its offspring.
question

Which of the following organelles is correctly paired with its function?
answer

smooth endoplasmic reticulum: metabolism of lipids
question

What can we infer if we see a large number of mitochondria in a cell?
answer

The cell has a great metabolic demand.

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