Anthro Exam 2 Questions

What is another name for the “one drop rule” that is used for determining race?
Hypodescent

All human beings of every “race” share what percentage of their DNA?
99.9 %

The concept that people of European descent are superior to all others is:
White Supremacy

What is described in the text as “an invisible package of unearned assets” that are the legacy of generations of racial discrimination?
White Privilege

Many societies in the world divide people into groups based on supposed biological and social/intellectual differences. These groups are called:
Races

A sense of historical, cultural, and sometimes ancestral connection to a group of people who are imagined to be distinct from those outside the group is known as a(n):
Ethnicity

What term is used to describe a political entity located within a geographic boundary whose population shares a sense of culture, ancestry, and destiny?
Nation-State

Sometimes a group of people breaks away from an ethnic group to form a new identity, and, in the past, two ethnic groups have combined to form a new and unique identity. These are examples of:
Ethnogenesis

The tendency of many ethnic groups that join American culture to assimilate has been described as a(n):
Melting Pot

Most ethnic groups establish traits that set them apart from others and identify members of their own group. These are known as:
Ethnic Boundary Markers

A person who believes that Italians are somehow “inferior” and therefore refuses to give an Italian person a job is demonstrating:
Individual Racism

Laws in the United States that allowed such things as “white only” swimming pools, restaurants, schools, beaches, and the like, similar to apartheid in South Africa, were known as:
Jim Crow

What country only exists during the ninety minutes its team plays a soccer match?
England

The Bafokeng people of South Africa formed the corporation Royal Bafokeng Nation, Inc. to:
Recover land taken by white settlers

According to Aztec tradition, they wandered across what is today Mexico until they came to an island with an eagle standing on a cactus with a snake in its mouth. According to their prophecy, this would be their new home. The Aztecs established their capital city on an island in Lake Texcoco, where tradition said they found the eagle. This demonstrates the concept of a(n):
Origin Myth

In the United States, ________ are those most subject to nonfatal intimate partner violence.
Women between the ages of twenty and twenty-four

Studies of physical differences indicate that:
Human male and female bodies are more similar than different.

Anthropologists define ________ as the expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to individuals.
Gender

Mapping the global scope of diverse human sexual beliefs and behaviors is called the:
Ethnocartography of human sexuality

In Kano, Nigeria, Rudolf Gaudio found that the code term for men who have sex with other men is:
Masu Harka

The experience of being a middle-class black lesbian
Is a unique status reflecting the intersectionality of race, class, and sexuality.

Contemporary anthropologists study sexuality:
In cultures worldwide, including Western cultures

Which of the following is described as a lack of attraction to others?
Asexuality

The scale describing a spectrum of human sexuality with exclusively heterosexual behavior on one end and exclusively homosexual behavior on the other is known as:
The Kinsey Scale

Machismo is defined as
a strong, sometimes exaggerated performance of masculinity.

Students at Antioch College developed a sexual offense policy centered on which of the following guidelines?
“yes means yes”

According to contemporary cultural anthropologists, humans in most cultures engage in sexual activity:
Both for procreation and fun

Ida Susser’s initial research focused on:
Social Change in Brooklyn (New York City)

Among the eight UN Millennial Goals, one that highlights gender issues specifically is to:
Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

By studying the “fag discourse” in US schools, anthropologists have learned that:
Girls can increase their status by performing masculine behavior.

Clans that do not permit marriages within the group are considered:
Exogamous

Which of the following statements about marriage is true?
Marriage occurs in every culture in some form, but its exact characteristics vary widely.

Which of the following commonly creates socially recognized relationships that may involve physical and emotional intimacy, sexual pleasure, reproduction and raising of children, mutual support and companionship, and shared legal rights to property and inheritance?
Marriage

Which of the following types of descent groups traces kinship through both the mother and the father?
Ambilineal

Families and kinship networks have the power to provide support and to nurture, as well as to ensure reproduction of which of the following?
The next generation

Individuals learn basic patterns of human behavior from their families in a process termed:
Enculturation

Which type of assisted reproductive technology involves the implantation of a woman’s egg that has been fertilized in a laboratory?
In Vitro Fertilization

A patrilineal descent group traces kinships through which side of the family?
Father’s

What is a gift exchange practice that helps stabilize a marriage by establishing a vested interest for both the groom’s and bride’s extended families in the success of the marriage.
Bridewealth

Which type of marriage between two individuals is negotiated in order to form economic and political alliances between larger kinship groups?
Arranged

Cousins who are children of a father’s brother or a mother’s sister are considered which type of cousin?
Parallel Cousins

Early anthropologists identified how many primary systems used to classify relatives in the parental generation, including the bifurcate merging system?
Four

Both matrilineal and patrilineal patterns of descent build kinship groups through either one genealogical line (the mother’s side) or the other (the father’s side), which reflects which type of descent?
Unilineal

Which of the following is the practice of formalizing and legalizing a marriage through the exchange of gifts from the bride’s family to the husband’s family?
Dowry

The practice of requiring an individual to marry someone within their own group is considered:
Endogamy

What are the two basic social units typically found in foraging societies?
Nuclear Family and Band

The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but
Not all cultures define incest the same way.

In what way is exogamy adaptive?
It increases the number of individuals that one can rely on in times of need.

What term is used to refer to a nonhuman apical ancestor of a clan?
Totem

What term refers to a unilineal descent group whose members claim, but cannot demonstrate, common descent from an apical ancestor?
Clan

What is polygyny ?
A situation in which a man has more than one wife at the same time

Which of the following statements about the incest taboo is true?
The incest taboo does not eliminate incest

What is the most stable social group among band societies with a seasonal pattern of population dispersal?
The nuclear family

In matrilineal societies
Descent groups include only the children of the group’s women.

Gezon and Kottak argue that the relatively high incidence of expanded family households among poorer North Americans is
An adaptation to poverty

Biological differences between males and females, other than contrasts in breasts and genitals, is known as
Sexual Dimorphism

Which of the following is not part of the patrilineal-patrilocal complex?
Reduced gender stratification

Which of the following statements about the domestic-public dichotomy is true?
It tends to be more pronounced among food producers than among foragers.

In general, societies with the patrilineal-patrilocal complex are characterized by all of the following except
Inheritance of land and prestige through female lines.

What have recent cross-cultural studies of gender roles demonstrated?
The relative status of women is variable, depending on factors such as subsistence strategy, the importance of warfare, and the prevalence of a domestic-public dichotomy.

Which of the following statements about the patrilineal-patrilocal complex is true?
Men control the distribution of goods outside the domestic sphere.

More than half of American households with incomes below the poverty line
are headed by women

A political system ruled by men in which women have inferior status is known as a(an)
patriarchy

The worldwide increase in female-headed households stems from all of the following except
decreasing divorce rates

The fact that chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates engage in masturbation and same-sex sexual activity suggests that
Flexibility in sexual expression is part of humans’ primate heritage

Which of the following is a major difference between Brazilian and American racial classifications?
In the United States, social race is determined at birth and does not change, but in Brazil, racial identity can change from day to day.

What is the term for identification with, and feeling part of, a cultural group, and exclusion from other cultural groups?
Ethnicity

Some populations like the Polynesians, the San, or the people of northern India have phenotypes that do not fit neatly into “standard” racial categories. This suggests that
Phenotypical variation between human populations involves gradual shifts across different geographic zones, rather than sharp breaks indicative of discrete races.

What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members?
Discrimination

What rule automatically places the children of a union between members of different groups in the minority group?
Hypodescent

Instead of asking about race, what does the Canadian census form ask about?
Visible Minorities

Today, rather than attempting to classify humans into racial categories, biologists and anthropologists are
Seeking to explain why specific biological variations occur.

What term refers to the devaluing of a group because of its assumed behavior, values, abilities, or attributes?
Prejudice

In what sense are nationalities “imagined communities”?
Despite their shared feeling of comradeship, most members of a nationality will never meet; they only imagine that they participate in the group.

What term refers to the destruction of an ethnic group’s culture?
Ethnocide

Which type of a situation is most likely to result in a matrilineal-matrilocal society?
Warfare is infrequent

Which of the following is not culturally constructed?
Sex

Which of the following statements about Etoro conceptions of heterosexual intercourse is not true?
It was permitted to take place only in a couple’s residence.

In most patrilineal-patrilocal horticultural societies
Women are the primary producers of subsistence crops.

A policy of ethnic expulsion or ethnic persecution may create
Refugee Populations

Discrimination that is not legally sanctioned is known as
de facto discrimination.

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