Anatomy: Chapter 27-The Reproductive System

question

The prostate atrophies as a man ages, and it usually causes no health problems.
answer

False
question

The male urethra serves the urinary system only.
answer

False
question

The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.
answer

False
question

A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster.
answer

True
question

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
answer

They regulate the temperature of the testes.
question

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.
answer

peristaltic contractions
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Which of the following glands are responsible for about 70% of the volume of semen?
answer

the seminal glands
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How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?
answer

They move away from the pelvic cavity.
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The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
answer

interstitial endocrine cells
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The duct system of the male reproductive system does not include the ________.
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corpus spongiosum
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Prostate cancer is _______.
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sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
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It is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature for abundant, viable sperm formation.
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True
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When it is cold, the scrotum is pulled away from the body.
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False
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The testis is divided into seminiferous tubules which contain the lobules that produce sperm and the ejaculatory duct that allows the sperm to be ejected from the body.
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False
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Sperm are ejaculated from the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
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False
question

The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
answer

undescended testes
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When a couple is having difficulty conceiving a child, it is necessary to investigate the sperm of the male.
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True
question

Both tetrads and crossovers are seen during meiosis.
answer

True
question

Failure to attain erection is called erectile dysfunction.
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True
question

The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase.
answer

False
question

The secretions of the bulbo-urethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse.
answer

True
question

The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.
answer

False
question

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.
answer

the bulbospongiosus muscles
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Which of the following hormones stimulates the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
answer

GnRH
question

If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?
answer

twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
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Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
answer

they have the same number of chromosomes
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The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.
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mitosis
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Spermiogenesis involves the ________.
answer

formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
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Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?
answer

They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.
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The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.
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sustenocytes
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Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
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Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
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Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?
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stimulates mammary gland development
question

Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?
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The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.
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Spermatogenesis ________.
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involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
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The brain-testicular axis ________.
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involves FSH and LH release
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Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
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GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
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A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
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be sterile
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A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
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decreased testosterone secretion
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A 38-year-old male is upset about his low sperm count and visits a “practitioner” who commonly advertises his miracle cures of sterility. The practitioner is a quack who treats conditions of low sperm count with megadoses of testosterone. The patient experiences a huge surge in libido. Would this treatment result in a higher or lower sperm count, and why?
answer

Lower sperm count. High levels of testosterone inhibit the release of GnRH, inhibiting FSH release, resulting in direct inhibition of spermatogenesis.
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The amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone.
answer

False
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A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
answer

False
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The testes are innervated by the sympathetic division of the ANS only.
answer

False
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Why is the blood testis barrier important?
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because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
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Erection of the penis results from ________.
answer

a parasympathetic reflex
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Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?
answer

inhibin
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Which of the choices below is not a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?
answer

thalamus
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Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
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Each spermatid forms two sperm.
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Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.
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False
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The Pap smear is a test to detect cancerous changes in cells of the cervix.
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True
question

The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium.
answer

True
question

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
answer

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
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The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.
answer

uterine tubes
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Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?
answer

The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.
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Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
answer

The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.
question

Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
answer

uterine tubes
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Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?
answer

labia majora
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Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
answer

serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
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The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material.
answer

True
question

The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen.
answer

False
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Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle.
answer

False
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The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.
answer

False
question

Female orgasm is required for conception.
answer

False
question

The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle.
answer

True
question

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.
answer

identical
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Effects of estrogen include ________.
answer

growth of the breasts at puberty
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Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
answer

corpus luteum
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During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
answer

progesterone levels are at their highest
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Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
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blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
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The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
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in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
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Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?
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The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.
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Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
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The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
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Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
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LH
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Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
answer

High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
question

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
answer

Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
question

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
answer

FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
question

Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
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regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
question

Extremely stressful physical activity in young females can result in excessive bone mass due to large amounts of estrogen production.
answer

False
question

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
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If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
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Sexually transmitted diseases are an important cause of female fertility problems.
answer

True
question

Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?
answer

Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.
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Pain during ovulation is called dysmenorrhea.
answer

False
question

The first sign of puberty in females is budding breasts.
answer

True
question

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
answer

Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.
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Sperm from the male parent determines the gender of the child.
answer

True
question

The “master switch” for male reproductive development is ________.
answer

the SRY gene
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A varicocele may hinder blood flow through the pampiniform venous plexus; the reduced venous drainage and the resulting elevated testicular temperature may be caused by ______.
answer

defective venous valves in the testis
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Which of the following is considered a primary sex organ in females?
answer

ovary
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A man who has had a successful orchiectomy may still be able to have children because ______.
answer

All of the listed responses are correct.
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Why are the male testes located in the scrotum outside the body?
answer

Immature sperm are temperature sensitive.
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Sperm is produced in the __________ of the testes.
answer

seminiferous tubules
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Sperm are stored in the __________.
answer

epididymis
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Which of the following does NOT add substances to seminal fluid?
answer

urethra
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Viable sperm production is optimal at the body’s core temperature.
answer

False
question

Which of the following is the site where sperm are stored until they are ejaculated?
answer

tail of the epididymis
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Which cells produce androgens such as testosterone?
answer

interstitial endocrine (Leydig) cells
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Which of the following is housed within the spermatic cord?
answer

testicular arteries and veins
question

Which portion of the penis is removed through a procedure known as circumcision?
answer

prepuce (foreskin)
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Which of these male accessory ducts transports both sperm and urine?
answer

urethra
question

During vasectomy, what accessory duct is cut as a form of birth control?
answer

ductus (vas) deferens
question

Although effective in treating erectile dysfunction, Viagra has the side effect of reducing systemic blood pressure by causing ______.
answer

relaxation of muscle tissue in arteries
question

What is the product of spermatogenesis?
answer

formation of haploid spermatozoa
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Which of the following organs is NOT a part of the HPG axis?
answer

posterior pituitary gland
question

What is the function of the blood testis barrier?
answer

to prevent activation of the immune system of the male against the developing sperm
question

The number of chromosomes in a human gamete is __________; this is referred to as the __________ chromosome number.
answer

23; haploid
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Genetic variation of individual chromosomes occurs during __________.
answer

prophase I
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Which of the following occurs during spermiogenesis?
answer

sperm are produced
question

Enzymes that allow sperm to penetrate the egg are located in the __________ of the sperm cell.
answer

acrosome
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The release of __________ encourages interstitial endocrine cells to release __________.
answer

luteinizing hormone; testosterone
question

Gametes are produced by meiosis.
answer

True
question

Which of the following inhibits the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary and GnRH from the hypothalamus when the sperm count is high?
answer

inhibin
question

Which of the following keeps the concentration of testosterone in the vicinity of the spermatogenic cells high to stimulate spermatogenesis?
answer

androgen-binding protein (ABP)
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Which hormone promotes the formation of secondary sex characteristics such as the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair, enhanced hair growth on the chest, and a deepening voice?
answer

testosterone
question

Why does meiosis involve two nuclear divisions rather than one, as in mitosis?
answer

Meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half.
question

At what point during meiosis do homologous chromosomes pair up?
answer

prophase I
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During meiosis, what does crossover promote?
answer

Crossover promotes increased genetic variability among gametes.
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Which of the following results from spermiogenesis?
answer

sperm
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Which of the following is the haploid cell produced as a result of meiosis I?
answer

secondary spermatocyte
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Which of the following cells is returned to the basal lamina to continue the pool of dividing germ cells?
answer

type A daughter cell or spermatogonium
question

Which of the following conditions might contribute to an increased probability of having an ectopic pregnancy?
answer

decreased number of cilia in the uterine tubes
question

In cervical cancer, which cancer cells that cover the cervical tip are most likely to be abnormal?
answer

squamous epithelial cells
question

Which of the following may aggravate the symptoms of a prolapsed uterus?
answer

All of the listed responses are correct.
question

If an untrained person induces an abortion and severely punctures the posterior vaginal wall, there is a potential risk of the puncture wound extending onward into the wall of the ______.
answer

rectum
question

Which of the following is an INCORRECT matching of female reproductive structures with their functions?
answer

uterine tube/transport unfertilized ovum to uterus for removal from the body
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Which layer of the uterus is the site for implantation of a fertilized egg?
answer

stratum functionalis of the endometrium
question

Which of the following female sex hormones is most responsible for estrogenic effects?
answer

estradiol
question

The __________ connects the uterus to the vagina.
answer

cervix
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The __________, a layer of the endometrium, is shed during each menstruation and is then regenerated by the __________.
answer

stratum functionalis; stratum basalis
question

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the vagina of an adult female?
answer

The pH of the adult vagina is alkaline.
question

The ovaries are situated in the peritoneal cavity flanking the uterus.
answer

True
question

The mammary glands are present in both sexes.
answer

True
question

What part of the female duct system is the usual site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?
answer

uterine (fallopian) tube (oviduct)
question

Which layer of the uterine wall is made of smooth muscle?
answer

myometrium
question

Which specific layer of the uterus is shed during menstruation, approximately every 28 days?
answer

stratum functionalis of the endometrium
question

Specifically, what encloses the vestibule which houses the openings of the urethra and vagina?
answer

labia minora
question

Which structure of the female’s external genitalia has erectile tissue like the penis?
answer

clitoris
question

What are the two fatty, hair-covered skin folds that run posteriorly from the mons pubis?
answer

labia majora
question

What part of the breast produces milk?
answer

alveoli
question

The mammary glands belong to which of the following systems?
answer

integumentary system
question

What is the pigmented ring of skin situated slightly below the center of each breast?
answer

areola
question

Amenorrhea can occur in women engaged in extremely strenuous physical activity, and also occurs in women who ______.
answer

are pregnant
question

Why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed from one stem cell?
answer

The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus.
question

What is the role of the corpus luteum?
answer

to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy
question

Formation of a secondary oocyte occurs during __________.
answer

the follicular phase
question

A surge in __________ directly triggers ovulation.
answer

luteinizing hormone (LH)
question

During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle __________.
answer

the endometrium prepares for implantation
question

Which of the following is an effect of estrogen in females?
answer

promotes oogenesis
question

Oocytes only complete meiosis II if they are fertilized.
answer

True
question

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the main androgen that is associated with female libido.
answer

True
question

Which of the following cells is released during ovulation?
answer

secondary oocyte
question

Why CAN’T polar bodies be fertilized?
answer

Polar bodies lack nutrient-containing cytoplasm.
question

How many functional gametes are produced by oogenesis?
answer

one functional gamete
question

What event occurs during the proliferative phase?
answer

ovulation
question

During what phase of the female’s uterine (menstrual) cycle is the uterine lining shed?
answer

menstrual phase
question

What hormone promotes ovulation?
answer

luteinizing hormone (LH)
question

Which of the following is NOT a sexually transmitted bacterial disease?
answer

genital herpes
question

Nondisjunction may occur due to ______.
answer

All of the listed responses are correct.
question

If embryonic testes do not produce testosterone, a genetic male develops female external genitalia. However, if embryonic testes properly produce testosterone, but a genetic male nevertheless develops female external genitalia, the cause could be ______.
answer

a mutation in the gene that codes for the testosterone receptor
question

The cause of cryptorchidism is typically not understood, but one possible cause might be a narrowing of the inguinal canal. This narrowing could arise from encroachment by any EXCEPT which of the following muscles?
answer

latissimus dorsi
question

What determines the gender (sex) of a child?
answer

sex chromosomes
question

The __________ develop into the male duct system.
answer

mesonephric ducts

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