American History Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Flashcard maker : Darryl Wooten
Industrial Revolution
effort beginning in Britain in the late 1700s to increase production by using machines powered by sources rather than humans or animals
interchangeable parts
a system of manufacturing in which all parts are made to an exact standard for easy mass- assembly
cotton gin
machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fiber
patent
a license that gives an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for a set period of time
Market Revolution
shift from a home based, often agriculture, economy to one based on money and the buying and selling of goods
manufacturing
making of goods by machinery
centralized
concentrated in one place
free enterprise system-
economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods
specialization
in production, a system in which each worker performs a single part of an entire process
investment capital
money that a business spends in hopes of future gains
bank note
piece of paper that a bank issues to its customers and that can be exchanged for gold or silver coin
section
a geographic region
rural
pertaining to the countryside
urban
relating to a city
industrialization
the growth of industry
tenement
a low-cost apartment building that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort and is designed to house as families as possible
strike
a work stoppage intended to force an employer to meet certain demands as in the demand for higher wages
labor union
organization of workers formed to protect the interest of its members
cotton belt
common 1850s nickname for the band of states from South Carolina to Texas whose economies relied almost completely on cotton production
Turner’s Rebellion
unsuccessful slave revolt led by Nat Turner in 1831
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not interfere with private contracts
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that Congress has the authority to take actions necessary to fulfill its constitutional duties
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not regulate commerce on interstate waterways
Monroe Doctrine
declaration by president Monroe in 1823 that the United States would oppose efforts by any outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere
American System
a combination of government-backed economic development and protective tariffs aimed at encouraging business growth
patronage
practice of hiring political supporters for government jobs
spoils system
system or practice of giving appointed offices as rewards from the successful party in an election; name for the patronage system under President Jackson
Tariff of 1828
a high tariff on imports that benefited the industrial North while forcing Southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods; called the \”Tariff of Abominations\” by Southerners
nullify
to reject, as in when a state judges a federal law to be unconstitutional
states’ rights
the powers that the Constitution neither gives to the federal government nor denies to the states
secede
to withdraw formally from a membership in a group or organization
Indian Removal Act
1830 law calling for the President to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for land taken from them in the East
Trail of Tears
the forced movement of Cherokees in 1838 to land west of the Mississippi River
Black Hawk War
uprising led by a warrior named Black Hawk in which the Native Americans tried to reclaim their land in the Illinois territory
Second Seminole War
1835 war in which the Seminoles tried to retain their land in Florida

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