American Government Chapter 15 Study Guide

Law of Blood
(Jus sanguinis) at least one of your parents was a US citizen when you were born

Law of Soil
Law of Soil
(Jus soli) If you’re born in the U.S you are automatically a citizen. Set into law by 14th amendment and made freed slaves citizens.

Naturalization
A legal process to obtain citizenship- authorized by 14th Amendment.

Denaturalization
The loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process

Expatriation
The legal process by which a loss of citizenship occurs.
Giving up one’s citizenship and living in another country is called

Unrestricted Immigration
Before the 1800s anyone who wanted to come to US could with little or few restrictions. Although tension from people living in the US already and new immigration was hostile.

Refugees
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.

Illegal Aliens
Persons residing illegaly in the nation, sometimes referred to as undocumented residents

Deported
An action where foreigners would be expelled from a country.

Amnesty
A general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution

Ethnic Group
Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics

Prejudice
A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority.

Equal Protection Clause
14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination

14th Amendment
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

Civil Rights
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal

Reasonable Distinction
government distinguish between different groups of people

Rational Basis Test
a test less intensive than the strict scrutiny test that the Supreme Court uses to decide equal protection cases; the test asks whether the classification in question bears a reasonable relationship to the achievement of some proper governmental purpose

Strict Scrutiny Test
a test applied by the court when a classification is based on race; the government must show that there is a compelling reason for the law and no other less restrictive way to meet the interest

De Jure Segregation
Racial segregation that is required by law

Segregation
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites

Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

Sweatt v. Painter
court case involving an African American student entering the University of Texas School of law, ruled that he should be allowed to attend with whites

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 – The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

Swann v. Charlotte- Mecklenburg
Swann v. Charlotte- Mecklenburg
Approved busing and redrawing district lines as ways of integrating public schools

Loving v. Virginia
Loving v. Virginia
1967: This is the court case that declared all laws against
interracial marriage unconstitutional

De Facto Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement

Nonviolent Protests
Nonviolent Protests
Boycotts, Marches, and Sit-ins. During the Civil Rights Movement. Peaceful and non violent

Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
A black seamstress and the Montgomery NAACP’s secretary who became famous for her refusal to stand on a bus when a white man wished to sit, and was subsequently arrested. This began a city-wide boycott of the bus system, which was highly detrimental to those companies and set a movement in place to remove transportation segregation as well.

Sit in
the act of occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment as a form of organized protest

Greensboro Four
Greensboro Four
four college students who sat at Woolworth’s lunch counter and were refused to be served; first 4 Greensboro sit-inners

The March on Washington
The March on Washington
In 1963, Congress was discussing a bill to end segregation in the United States. To show support for the bill, Dr. King and other civil rights leaders organized a protest march in Washington, D.C. Over 200,000 people took part. Dr. King gave his most famous speech at the march. His speech became known as the “I Have a Dream” speech.

Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Civil Rights Leader. Born in Atlanta. Developed a non-violent approach to social change after studying others like Gandhi. Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Gave the “I have a Dream Speech” at the March of Washington

People with disabilities
Civil rights protection extended to people with disabilities. American Disabilities Act (ADA). Forbids employers to discriminate towards people with disabilities.