American Gov. Ch. 1

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globalization
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The increasing interdependence of citizens and nations across the world.
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goverment
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The legitimate use of force to control human behavior; also, the organization or agency authorized to exercise that force.
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national sovereignty
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A political entity’s externally recognized right to exercise final authority over its affairs.
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order
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Established ways of social behavior. Maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government.
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communism
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A political system in which, in theory, ownership of all land and productive facilities is in the hands of the people and all goods are equally shared. The production and distribution of goods are controlled by an authoritarian government.
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police power
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The authority of government to maintain order and safeguard citizens’ safety, health, welfare, and morals.
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political equality
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Equality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally.
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equality of oppurtunity
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The idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life.
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equality of outcome
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The concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status to achieve economic and social equality.
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rights
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The benefits of government to which every citizen is entitled.
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political ideology
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A consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government.
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totalitarianism
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A political philosophy that advocates unlimited power for the government to enable it to control all sectors of society.
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socialism
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A form of rule in which the central government plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry an directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity.
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democratic socialism
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A socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberties such as freedom of speech and religion. Citizens determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties.
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capitalism
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The system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned businesses operating without government regulation).
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libertarianism
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A political ideology that is opposed to to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property.
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laissez faire
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An economic doctrine that opposes any form of government intervention in business.
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anarchism
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A political philosophy that opposes government in any form.
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liberals
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Those who are willing to use government to promote equality but not order.
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conservatives
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Those who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality.
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democracy
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A system of government in which, the people rule, either directly or indirectly.
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procedural democratic theory
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A view of democracy as being embodied in a decision-making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule, and responsiveness.
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universal participation
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The concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision-making.
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majority rule
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The principle–basic to procedural democratic theory–that the decision of a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating; a simple majority.
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participatory democracy
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A system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf.
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representative democracy
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A system of government where citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf.
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responsiveness
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A decision-making principle, necessitated by representative government, that implies that elected representatives should do what the majority of people wants.
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substantive democratic theory
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The view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policy-making procedure.
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minority rights
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The benefits of government that cannot be denied to any citizen by majority decisions.
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majoritarian model of democracy
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The classical theory of democracy in which government for the people is interpreted as government by the majority of people.
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intrest group
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An organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy. Also called a lobby.
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pluralist model of democracy
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An interpretation of democracy in which government by the people is taken to mean government by the people operating through competing interest groups.
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elite theory
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The view that a small group of people actually makes most of the important government decisions.
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oligarchy
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A system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few people.
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The principle of national sovereignty has been used to define a national government’s right to self-determination 1648.
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True
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Government is also defined as the organization or agency authorized to exercise that force.
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True
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National sovereignty is challenged by globalization.
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True
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Why does the United States oppose an international court?
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The United States opposes an international court because it is concerned that U.S. soldiers stationed abroad might be arrested and tried in such a court and because the government fears it would be pressured to abolish capital punishment as many other countries have done.
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Why do international politics and world opinion have an impact on U.S. politics?
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International politics have an impact on U.S. politics for many reasons, including the fact that the United States is closely tied to former enemies through trade, and is also embedded thoroughly in a worldwide economic, social, and political network.
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Governments generally use their coercive powers to promote the sale of public goods.
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False. Governments can legitimately use their coercive powers to promote order or tax citizens for the purposes of spending on public goods such as parks and education.
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The view that property is owned by the people rather than by individuals was an idea set forth by Karl Marx, and served as the ultimate principle of developed communism.
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True
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Since the Great Depression, the U.S. government’s role in redistributing income to promote economic equality has been a major source of policy debate in the United States.
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True
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According to the communist ideology, who is the rightful owner of all land and productive facilities such as manufacturing plants?
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Communist ideology gives ownership of all land and productive facilities to the people.
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What are some ways that government can promote social equality?
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The government can promote social equality through policies that redistribute income and through other means such as permitting same-sex marriage.

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