advertising quiz 3

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Communication
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the \”passing of information,\” the \”exchange of ideas,\” or the \”process of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought between a sender and a receiver.\”
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Describe the various elements of the communications process
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The various elements of the communications process include the sender or source, the message, the channel, the receiver, noise and feedback
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What is the sender/source
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The sender or source of a communication is the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group. The source may be an individual such as a salesperson or spokesperson who appears in a company’s advertisements or a nonpersonal entity such as a company or organization itself.
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What is the message
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The message is the information or meaning the source hopes to convey and may be verbal or nonverbal, oral, written or symbolic.
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what is the channel
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The channel is the method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver. At the broadest level there are two types of channels, personal and nonpersonal. o The channel is the form of medium that is used to deliver the message to the target audience.
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What is a personal Channel
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• Personal channels generally involve direct interpersonal contact with the receiver while nonpersonal channels carry a message without interpersonal contact between the sender and receiver.
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what is a nonpersonal channel
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• Nonpersonal channels are generally referred to as the mass media.
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What is a reciever
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The receiver is the person(s) with whom the sender shares thoughts or information. Generally receivers are the customers in the target market or audience who read, hear, and/or see the marketer’s message.
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what is noise
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Noise refers to extraneous factors in the communications process that can distort or interfere with the communication of a message. Errors or problems in that occur in the encoding of the message, distortions in the transmission of the message, and distractions at the point of reception are possible sources of noise.
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what is feedback
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Feedback refers to the part of the receiver’s response that is communicated back to the sender and may take a variety of forms such as response hierarchy measures including awareness, knowledge, attitudes, purchase intentions, preferences and behavior. The form of feedback of ultimate interest to marketers is, of course, sales.
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Describe the characteristics of early digital adopters and the role they play in the introduction of a new high-technology product.
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Key characteristics of early digital adopters are that they are usually become aware of new products before other consumers and are very knowledgeable about them. They also have a higher propensity for ownership of technology products and own a variety of cross-platform devices such as gaming consoles, computers, and smartphones. They also are heavy users of social media and use blogs to share their knowledge and opinions about new technology with others. They are also well-respected by other potential adopters who look to them for information and advice. Thus, it is important for marketers to identify early adopters and make them aware of their new products as many consumers will pay close attention to what they say and do.
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3. Describe how marketers of low-involvement products such as soft drinks or paper towels would use various IMC tools differently than a marketer of a high-involvement product such as a personal computer or automobile.
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o For a company selling a low-involvement product such as a soft drink or paper towel, the consumer is likely to go through a learn —> do —> feel response hierarchy whereby some minimal level of awareness or passive learning may precede purchase and attitudes are formed after using the product. An advertiser of a low involvement product must recognize that consumers are less likely to give attention to actual message content and may focus more on non-message elements such as music, characters, slogans or jingles. Advertisers may want to use catchy slogans or jingles that will stick in consumers’ minds and become salient when they are in the actual purchase situation. The use of short messages and heavy repetition schedules will also be important. o For a company selling a high-involvement product such as a personal computer or automobile the consumer is likely to go through a standard learning or learn —> feel —> do response hierarchy. Advertisements for high involvement products are usually very detailed and informative and provide the consumer with a great deal of information that can be used for decision-making purposes. Informational displays at point-of-purchase or presentations by salespersons in the store can also be valuable and effective sources of information. Marketers of high involvement products may also want to encourage consumers to visit their web sites where more detailed information about the product can be presented and consumers can select information that is of particular relevance or interest to them.
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4. What factors are included in the Source component of marketing communications?
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A direct source and indirect source
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what is a direct source
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A direct source is a spokesperson who delivers a promotional message, demonstrates a product or service, and/or endorses a product or service. • Spokespeople used in advertisements or a company’s sales representatives are examples of direct sources.
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what is an indirect source
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An indirect source does not actually deliver a message but rather is used to draw attention to or enhance the appearance of a promotional message. • Decorative models are a good example of an indirect source.
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5. What are the 3 basic factors of source attributes?
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o Source Credibility o Source Attractiveness o Source Power
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o Source Credibility
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refers to the extent to which the source is perceived as having knowledge, skill or experience relevant to the communication topic and can be trusted to give an unbiased opinion or present objective information on the issue. Information from a credible source can influence beliefs, opinions, attitudes, and/or behavior through a process known as internalization whereby the receiver desires to have an objectively correct or \”right\” position on an issue. There are two important dimensions to credibility—expertise and trustworthiness.
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o Source Attractiveness
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a commonly used source characteristic in advertising and personal selling is that of attractiveness. Attractiveness also has several sub-components including similarity, familiarity and likability. The process through which attractiveness leads to persuasion is identification whereby the receiver seeks some type of relationship with the source by adopting a similar position.
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o Source Power
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A source has power when he or she can actually administer rewards and punishment to the receiver. Perceived power depends on several factors such as perceived control, concern and scrutiny. Power influences persuasion through the compliance process whereby the receiver accepts the persuasive influence of the source and yields to the advocated position to obtain favorable reactions or avoid punishment.
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6. What factors are included in the Message component of marketing communications?
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o Message Structure o Message Appeals
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o Message Appeals
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an important consideration in the development of a promotional message is the manner or framework used for structuring or communicating the information. An important aspect of message strategy is knowing the best way to communicate message points or elements. A number of message structure considerations are: Order of presentation Conclusion drawing Message sidedness Verbal versus visual messages
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Message Structure
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another important aspect of message strategy concerns the manner or style used to communicate the promotional message. One of the most important creative strategy decisions involves the choice of an appropriate appeal. Some promotional messages uses rational appeals and are designed to communicate information regarding a product or service and appeal to the logical aspects of the consumer decision-making process. Other messages appeal to feelings in attempt to evoke some type of emotional reaction. Three types of appeals are: Comparative Advertising Fear appeals Humor appeals
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what is order of presentation
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should important message points or arguments be placed at the beginning of the message, in the middle or at the end?
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what is conclusion drawing
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should a message draw an explicit conclusion for the audience or allow them to form their own conclusions?
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what is message sidedness
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should a marketing communication use a one-sided message whereby only positive attributes or benefits of a product or service are mentioned or a two-sided message where both strong and weak points or attributes are presented?
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what is verbal versus visual messages
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both the verbal and nonverbal or visual portions of an advertisement influence the way an advertising message is processed. Verbal or copy aspects of the message are important in conveying rational or factual messages while nonverbal or visual elements of an ad are important for developing emotional and image based associations.
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what is comparative advertsing
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comparative advertising refers to the practice of either directly or indirectly naming one or more competitors in an ad and usually making a comparison on one or more specific product or service attributes.
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what is fear appeals
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are used to create anxiety in the audience and arouse individuals to take action. Fear can stress negative consequences that may occur if behavior is not altered such as ads that warn people not to smoke or drink and drive. Fear can also be used through the threat of social disapproval or rejection that an individual might suffer if s/he does not use a particular product or service (such as deodorant, mouthwash or dandruff shampoo).
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what is humor appeals
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are among the most popular and best remembered of all advertising messages. Advertisers use humor for a number of reasons including attracting and holding consumers’ attention, putting them in a favorable mood, creating affect that may transfer to the product or service being advertised, and reduce counter arguing by serving as a distracter.
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7. What factors are included in the Channel component of marketing communications?
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personal vs. nonpersonal channels & clutter
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what are personal vs. nonpersonal channels
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Effective communication also depends on the channel or medium used to deliver the message to the target audience
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what is clutter
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refers to all the non-program material that appears in the broadcast environment including commercials, promotional messages for shows, public service announcements and the like. Clutter has become a major concern to advertisers as there are too many messages competing for viewers and listeners attention.
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8. What is a creative brief and how is it used?
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o The creative brief (which some agencies refer to as a creative platform or work plan or creative contract) is a written document that provides a plan or checklist that is useful in guiding the development of an advertising message or campaign. This document is prepared by the agency team or group assigned to the account and may include creative personnel as well as the account coordinator and representatives from media and research. The advertising manager and/or the marketing and product manager from the client side will also be involved in the process and must approve the copy platform.
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9. Should advertising awards, such as the Cannes Lions that are based solely on creativity, be used in the agency evaluation process?
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o In defense of awards based on creativity, it should be noted that a major challenge given to the artists, copywriters, and creative directors is basically to be creative. They are given the charge of turning advertising and communication objectives, product/services attributes and benefits, and selling premises into a creative concept that will bring the message to life and capture the attention of consumers. o Critics of awards have also noted that many agency personnel have become too obsessed with winning creative awards and too much time, energy and money are devoted to entering advertising award competitions. There is also concern that the creative personnel may be more concerned with the award winning potential of an ad than its ability to sell the client’s product.
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11. Discuss the key characteristics of a unique selling proposition. What are some of the factors an advertiser must consider in developing an advertising campaign that uses a USP as the basis for the major selling idea?
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o The concept of a USP is that it offers the consumer a specific feature or benefit that is important to them and unique to this particular brand. The three characteristics of a USP are that each ad must make a proposition to the consumer that tells them the benefit they will get by buying the brand; the proposition must be one that the competition either cannot or does not offer; and the proposition must have motivating power and thus be able to convince consumers to buy the brand.
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10. Evaluate the debate over creative versus hard-sell advertising. Discuss the arguments for and against each perspective.
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o There has been an ongoing battle in advertising between those who believe ads should move people and those who feel they should just move product. The \”suits\” or \”rationalists\” on the hard-sell side argue that the primary function of advertising is to sell the product or service. They take the position that advertising isn’t creative unless it sells and are driven by sales results rather than creative awards. They argue that the high costs of commercial production and media time are making it more important than ever for advertising to produce measurable results. They also note that there is tremendous financial pressure on businesses to produce results so they are looking for campaigns that can move the sales needle. Those advocating the hard-sell approach often feel that the more selling points or information in an ad, the better its chances of moving the consumer to make a purchase. They argue that the goals of an advertising message or campaign should be to deliver relevant and favorable impressions to consumers which will help sell a product or service. The impact of advertising on sales is the real measure of its creativity and is more important than whether it is innovative or wins awards.
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Describe what an advertising appeal entails?
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o The basis or approach used in the advertisement to elicit some consumer response or to influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause
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Informational/rational appeals
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these types of appeals focus on the consumer’s practical, functional or utilitarian need for the product or service and/or specific reasons for owning a particular brand.
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Types of informational/rational appeals
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• Feature appeals • Competitive advantage appeals • Favorable price appeals • News appeals • Product/service popularity appeals
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Emotional appeals
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relate to consumers’ social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a product or service. decisions are made on the basis of feelings and emotions since rational, functional-based differentiation is often very difficult.
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Transformational advertising
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creates feelings, images, meanings and beliefs about the product or service that may be activated when the consumer uses it and thus \”transforms\” their interpretation of the usage experience
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Additional types of appeals
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other appeal types include reminder advertising, teaser advertising and user-generated content.
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1. Describe some of the reasons why emotion-based advertising appeals are effective.
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o Emotional appeals relate to the consumer’s social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a product or service. Emotional appeals are most appropriate for products and services where social and/or psychological needs and feelings are important or where consumers need to be reached on an emotional level. Many consumer products are difficult to differentiate on a functional/utilitarian basis and advertisers often turn to appeals to emotions to create feelings, images and beliefs that can be activated when the consumer uses the product. Moreover, marketers recognize that commercials must be meaningful to consumers, as well as entertaining, and emotional appeals are often the best way to touch the consumer and hold their interest. Emotional appeals are not, however, limited to consumer products that are difficult to differentiate. Appeals to emotions are also used for major purchases such as automobiles, financial investments, and many other purchases.
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1. Explain what a creative execution entails
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o The manner in which an advertising appeal is carried out or presented. A particular advertising appeal can be executed in a variety of ways and a particular means of execution can be applied to a variety of advertising appeals.
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1. Explain the different types of creative executions.
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Straight-sell or factual message Scientific/technical evidence Demonstration Comparison Testimonials Slice of life Animation Personality symbol Imagery Dramatization Humor Combinations
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Straight-sell or factual message
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this type of execution relies on a straightforward presentation of information about the product or service such as specific attributes or benefits.
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Scientific/technical evidence
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a variation of the straight sell where scientific or technical evidence or information is presented in the ad to support a claim.
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Demonstration
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this type of execution is designed to illustrate the key advantages or benefits of a product or service by showing it in actual use or in some contrived or staged situation.
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Comparison
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this type of execution involves a direct or indirect comparison of a brand against the competition.
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Testimonials
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many advertisers present their advertising messages in the form of a testimonial whereby a person speak on behalf of the product or service based on his or her personal use of and/or experiences with it.
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Slice of life
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this type of execution is often based on a problem/solution type of format. The ad attempts to portray a real-life situation involving a problem, conflict or situation consumers may face in their daily lives. The ad then focuses on showing how the advertiser’s product or service can resolve the problem. Slice-of-life executions are also becoming very common in business-to-business advertising as companies use this approach to demonstrate how their products and services can be used to solve business problems.
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Animation
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this technique used animated characters or scenes drawn by artists or on computer. Animation is often used as an execution technique for advertising targeted at children. A new type of hybrid technique known as rotoscoping has emerged in recent years which involves shooting live-action digital videos of actors and then using a special software to paint over the screen images on a computer to make them look animated. Television commercials for Charles Schwab & Co. use this technique and have been very effective.
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Personality symbol
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this type of execution involves the use of a central character or personality symbol to deliver the advertising message and with which the product or service can be identified. The personality symbol can take the form of a person who is used as a spokesperson, animated characters or even animals (AFLAC duck, Most Interesting Man in the World).
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Imagery
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this type of appeal is used when the goal is to encourage consumers to associate the brand with the symbols, characters, and/or situation shown in the ad. An imagery execution may be based on usage imagery by showing how a brand is used or performs and the situation in which it is used. It can also be based on user imagery where the focus is on the type of person who uses the brand.
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Dramatization
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this execution technique creates a suspenseful situation or scenario in the form of a short story. Dramatizations often use the problem/solution approach as they show how the advertised brand can help resolve a problem.
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Humor
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humor can be used as the basis for an advertising appeal. However, humor can also be used as a way of executing the message and presenting other types of advertising appeals.
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Combinations
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many of these execution techniques can be combined in presenting an advertising message. For example, slice-of-life ads are often used to demonstrate a product or make brand comparisons
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4. Identify the differences between an advertising appeal and a creative execution style.
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o An advertising appeal refers to the basis or approach used in the advertisement to elicit some consumer response or influence feelings toward the product, service, or cause. The creative execution style refers to the way in which a particular appeal is turned into an advertising message and presented to the consumer. A particular appeal can be executed in a variety of ways and a particular means of execution can be applied to a variety of advertising appeals. For example, an informational appeal that focuses on a product’s features or advantages can be executed through a straight-sell or factual message, a demonstration or a comparison. A particular execution technique such as animation could be used for an informational/rational appeal or for an emotional appeal.

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