Adolescent Psychology Chapter 10

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age of adolescence
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age when state laws required school attendance through the early teens (only 5% in 1890)
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school based knowledge
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if economy is not industrialized, _ may be of limited use
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for wealthy males; broad liberal arts
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19th century secondary school
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framework for American high schools as we know it today was established
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1920 secondary school
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expanding school population; curriculum expands to include family life, arts, music, PE
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mid 20th century secondary school
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back to basics movement (less leisure classes)
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1980s secondary school
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virtually all
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adolescents attending secondary school in developed countries
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about 50%
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adolescents attending secondary school in developing countries
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50%
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emerging adults attending college in developed countries
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10%
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emerging adults attending college in developing countries
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comprehensive high school
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secondary education in USA, Canada, and Japan
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college prep, vocational school, professional school
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secondary education in Europe
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european system
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earlier decision making about career directions
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american system
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greater flexibility; but everyone in the same school/classes with widely divergent educational and occupational interests and abilities
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developing countries
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north africa, sub-saharan africa, india, china, latin america
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common themes in developing countries
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girls less likely to attend secondary school, rising enrollment rates for both genders, many schools poorly funded and overcrowded; wealthy can go to high quality private schools
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country’s level of economic development
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key influence on academic performance
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larger schools
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less attachment to teachers and to the school as a whole; more diverse range of classes
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smaller schools
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less diversity in extracurricular activities, but students are more likely to participate; more likely to be placed in positions of leadership and responsibility
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500-1000
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ideal school size for adolescents
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6-3-6, 5-3-4, 8-4
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different types of school lengths
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8-4
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best plan for self-esteem and student engagement
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undermines motivation and self esteem
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teachers’ increased emphasis on control is mismatched with early adolescents’ increased abilities and desires for autonomy
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japan
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country that is often at or near the top in international comparisons of academic achievement
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Japan Schools
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more school days a year, focus on rote learning and memorization, cultural beliefs-all children are capable of learning, national system of entrance exams to high school and college, “cram schools” after school or private tutoring
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americans
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believe that ability matters more
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asian countries
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believe that success or failure in school depends on effort
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effective teachers
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supportive and involved with students; warm; apply firm discipline when necessary, clear communication, high expectations for students’ conduct and academic performance
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effective students
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higher attendance, higher achievement test scores, lower rates of behavior problems, lower rates of depression
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engagement
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the quality of being psychologically committed to learning
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why adolescents are disengaged
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school climate, family environments, peer relations, work and leisure patterns, cultural beliefs
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parental involvement in adolescent’s education
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related to adolescent’s engagement in school and school success
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authoritative parenting
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parenting style with highest levels of engagement in school and school success
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neglectful parenting
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parenting style with worst outcome
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family ses
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positively correlated with adolescents’ grades and achievement test scores and the highest level of education ultimately attained
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how friends’ influence can be greater than parents’ influence in high school
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how consistently adolescents attend class, how much time they spend on hw, how hard they try in school, grades
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beyond the 10 hours a week the more adolescents work,
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lower grades, less time on hw, more cutting class, more cheating, less committed, lower educational aspirations
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negatively
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unstructured socializing is _ related to academic performance
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asian americans
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highest levels of academic achievement of any ethnic group
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asians, whites, african americans, latinos
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academic performance hierarchy
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ethnic differences in high school
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academic performance, social class, parental expectations, friends’ attitudes toward education, perception of prejudice and discrimination
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gender differences in high school
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girls get higher grades, girls less likely to have learning disabilities, be held back a grade, drop out; girls more likely to attend college and graduate, girls tend to enjoy school environment more
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reading disorder
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most common learning disability
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reading, mathematics, disorder of written expression
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three diagnoses for learning disabilities
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learning disabilities
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boys twice as likely, african americans and latinos more likely, high risk for dropping out
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ADHD
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inattention, hyperactivity, impulsiveness, restlessness, distractibility, boys are 4 times more likely to be diagnosed
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causes of adhd
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partly inherited, environmental factors: prenatal period through childhood
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combination of medication and behavioral therapy
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adhd treatment
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tracking system
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upper/college-prep; general-average students; remedial/special education
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advocates of tracking
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all students are engaged in school work that is best suited to their varying levels of ability and achievement
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critics of tracking
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students in lower tracks get a second-rate education and continue to fall further behind
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8
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in 2010, only _ percent of young americans had no obtained a high school diploma or GED by the age of 24
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males, females
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in all ethnic groups, except asians, _ are more likely that _ ato dropout
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what leads to dropouts
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history of school difficulties, dislikes school, aggressive personalities, learning disabilities, parents, substance use and psychological problems, unemployment
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70
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_ percent of recent high school graduates enter college
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90
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_ percent of asian americans enter college
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71
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_ percent of whites enter college
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60%
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_ percent of blacks and latinos enter college
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half
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nearly _ of students who enroll in a 4 year university drop out before getting a degree
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5-6
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years to get a 4 year degree on average
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4
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females are _ times as likely to major in education
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3
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females are _ times as likely to major in psychology
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males
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_ are more likely to major in computer science and engineering
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58%
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current undergrad female population
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collegiate, vocational, academic, rebel
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college subcultures
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collegiate
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dating, drinking, sports, campus fun
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vocational
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practical view of college; gain skills and degree; work 20-40 hours a week
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rebel
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deeply engaged in ideas, but aggressively nonconformist

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