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Abnormal Psych Ch 1 Essay

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Defining abnormality
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mental illness, cultural norms, four D’s of abnormality
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mental illness of abnormailty
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pathological/abnormal behaviors, thoughts, or feelings can be symptoms of a mental illness; no biological tests to diagnose
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cultural relativism
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view that there are no universal standards or rules for labeling a behavior abnormal, thus behaviors can be labeled abnormal only relative to cultural norms
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the four D’s of abnormality
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Dysfunctional, Distress, Deviant, Dangerous
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biological theories
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viewed abnormal behavior as similar to physical diseases, caused by breakdown of the body
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supernatural theories
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viewed abnormal behavior as a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin
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psychological theories
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viewed abnormal behavior as a result of traumas
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trephination
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drill holes in the skull of a person displaying abnormal behavior to allow the spirits to depart
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disorder of hysteria dates back to
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ancient greeks, uterus needs to be put back in proper place
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asylums in early europe
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filth, confinement, unlighted, chained to wall
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asylums in 18th and 19th centuries
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moral treatment began
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mental hygiene movement
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growth of more humane treatment of people with mental health problems
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moral treatment
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(Philippe Pinel) restore patients’ dignity and tranquility
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Wilhelm Griesinger (BIO)
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published The Pathology and Therapy of Psychic Disorders; argued that all psychological disorders can be explained in terms of brain pathology
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Emil Kraepelin (BIO)
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Griesinger follower, developed scheme for classifying symptoms into discrete disorders
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general paresis
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disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death
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Richard Krafft-Ebing (BIO)
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syphilis is the cause of one form of insanity, which supports biological factors
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Franz Mesmer (PSYCHOANAL.)
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believed people have a magnetic fluid in body that must be distributed in a particular pattern to maintain health
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mesmerism
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hypnosis-like state induced
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Bernheim and Liebault (PSYCHOANAL.)
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showed they could induce symptoms of hysteria through hypnosis
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Breuer and Freud (PSYCHOANAL.)
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published On the Psychical Mechanisms of Hysterical Phenomena; discovered hypnosis, the unconscious, and therapeutic value of catharsis
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psychoanalysis
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study of the unconscious
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Ivan Pavlov (BEHAVIOR)
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behavior in terms of stimuli and responses
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Thorndike and Skinner (BEHAVIOR)
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studied how consequences of behavior shape their likelihood of recurrence
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behaviorism
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study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behavior
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cognitions
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thought processes that influence behavior and emotion
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self-efficacy beliefs
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people’s beliefs about their ability to execute the behaviors necessary to control important events
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Bandura
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cognitive psychologist, came up w/ self-efficacy
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Ellis (COG)
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argued people prone to psychological disorders are plagued by irrational negative assumptions about themselves and the world
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deinstitutionalization
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mental patients can recover more fully or live more satisfying lives if they are integrated into the community with the support of community-based treatment facilities
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halfway houses
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offer people with long-term mental health problems the opportunity to live in a structure, supportive environment as they try to reestablish working relationships and ties to family and friends
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day treatment centers
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allow people to obtain treatment during the day, but live at home at night
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managed care
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collection of methods for coordinating care that ranges from simple monitoring to total control over what care can be provided and paid for
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professions in abnormal psychology
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psychiatrist: MD, prescribe meds, can do psychotherapies clinical psychologists: PhD in psych, can conduct psychotherapy but can’t prescribe meds marriage and family therapists: specialize in helping families, couples, and children overcome problems that interfere with well-being clinical social worker: focus on helping people with psychological problems overcome social conditions that contribute to their problems Psychiatric nurses: degree in nursing, specialization in treatment of people with severe psychological disorders