World History Study Guide

The competition between Germany and Great Britain up until the outbreak of World War I was centered on
a naval race
What is human geography?
Study of people, places they live, how societies are organized, and in which they interact.
Constitutional v. Absolute Monarchy
How did a shift in thinking about the natural world during the Renaissance contribute to the start of the Scientific Revolution?
Scientists tried to understand how the world functioned.
How did the Renaissance contribute to the Scientific Revolution?
Renaissance thinkers encouraged people to think about how things worked, and scientists tested these experiments.
How did the Renaissance’s emphasis on humanism help spark scientific thinking?
Church and god weren’t seen as the reason for why everything worked.
How did Copernicus’s work challenge the accepted view of the universe?
He knew planets revolved, but they didn’t revolve around earth.
Why did the Church seek to silence Galileo?
Galileo could prove Copernicus’s theories about the order of the universe.
What did Kepler believe the relationship was between mathematics and the natural world?
Natural world has math and math can be used to study everything
What contribution to modern science was made by Andreas Vesalius?
He made On the Structure of the Human Body which formed basis for modern human anatomy.
How did Descartes and Kepler contribute to the new scientific thinking?
Showed how math and measurement could be used in a scientific investigation
What did Copernicus and Galileo have in common?
Published views that challenged the church
Modern science
Which was not a cause of the European Enlightenment?
the monastic movement
Use the following statement attributed to the Renaissance humanist Desiderius Erasmus to answer the following question:
“Give light, and the darkness will disappear of itself.”–Public Domain

Which of the following did Erasmus’ remark foreshadow?

The Enlightment
Use the following statement from Jean-Jacques Rousseau to answer the question below:
“Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Maker of the world, but degenerates once it gets into the hands of man.” –Public Domain

Rousseau would have supported the idea that

a supreme being, by nature, is good
Which of the following accurately summarizes an idea of English Enlightenment philosopher John Locke?
People have the right to carry out a government if it does not carry out their will.
Which of the following describes a contribution of French Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire?
He wrote the short novel Candide about the ills of society, using humor and irony.
Which of the following accurately summarizes an idea of French Enlightenment philosopher Baron de Montesquieu?
Government should be divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial
Use the following statement from Thomas Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address to answer the question below:
“A wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government…”–Public Domain

Which of the following best agrees with Jefferson’s statement on the role of government?

Adam Smith’s opinions on laissez-faire economics
We know from historical records that The Spirit of the Laws by Baron de Montesquieu was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Catholic Church. Which of the following can one reasonably infer from this fact?
The Enlightenment challenged the traditional authority of the Church.
How did the Enlightenment thinkers influence the government of the United States?
Many ideals of Enlightenment philosophers were incorporated in the U.S. founding documents.
Which of the following statements is true for all European Union countries?
Each has its own democratic government
Why was the Glorious Revolution in England unusual in comparison to political developments in France, Spain, and Russia?
While the French, Spanish, and Russian monarchies were becoming more powerful, the Glorious Revolution gave Parliament more power in England.
Use the excerpt below from the English Bill of Rights to answer the following question:

“That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law…”
Public Domain

How did the English Bill of Rights represent a change from the existing political trends in 17thÚSdm4á| century Europe?

It limited royal power and made Parliament more powerful
How did Sir Francis Bacon’s development of the scientific method make the Scientific Revolution possible?
It established a rational, systematic methodology for research
Why did some philosophers and scientists criticize Margaret Cavendish?
They found it unusual for a woman to publish writings under her own name.
Why did Maria Winkelmann Kirch face challenges in being recognized as a scientist?
Many academic institutions would not consider the scientific ideas of a woman
Use the biblical quotations below to answer the following question:

5 He set the earth on its foundations;
it can never be moved.—Psalm 104:5

5 The sun rises and the sun sets,
and hurries back to where it rises.—Ecclesiastes 1:5

Based on the Biblical quotations above, why was the Catholic Church so opposed to the idea of heliocentrism?

Because accepting heliocentrism implied that the Bible was inaccurate since the Bible seems to support geocentrism
With what scientific discovery is Sir Isaac Newton most commonly associated?
The Theory of Gravity
How did Galileo’s work as an astronomer contribute to the acceptance of Copernicus’s heliocentric system?
Galileo’s refined telescope made astronomical observations possible, which verified heliocentrism.
Which of the following represents a common thread between the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton?
All three developed progressively more accurate models of our solar system
What present-day device did the invention of the transistor most directly influence?
Laptop computer
How did the work of Sigmund Freud affect the lives of ordinary people in the 20th century?
It encouraged people to search for the hidden reasons for their actions.
How did coffeehouses contribute to the development of the Enlightenment?
Coffeehouses provided a setting in which citizens could gather to exchange ideas.
In addition to writing works on important issues, what was the most notable way in which educated wealthy women contributed to the Enlightenment?
By hosting salons for intellectual discussion
How did the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?
It led thinkers to seek out explanations instead of accepting common knowledge.
How did Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire influence French government?
He pushed for social reform.
Why did Adam Smith support the “invisible hand” of the market?
He believed free markets were the only way to keep society from falling into chaos.
How was Benjamin Franklin similar to Enlightenment thinkers?
He believed in the power of reason to improve human life
What was the significance of Voltaire’s novel Candide?
It used humor to show the need for social reform.
John Locke viewed the Social Contract as a choice or “consent of the governed”, where the people possess the power to change government. How did Thomas Hobbes see the Social Contract?
Man is born selfish, but can be protected by government
What is one way that the French Revolution impacted the lower class?
It led common people to believe that they lived in a fairer society.
Why is Bastille Day a symbol of French national pride?
It celebrates a day when the French masses rose up against oppression
Which statement conveys an idea of John Locke’s that influenced both the American and the French Revolutions?
When government violates individual rights, the people have the right to rebel.
Suppose a historian wanted to argue that the Enlightenment had a more positive influence on the American Revolution than on the French Revolution. Which statement below would be the strongest evidence for the historian’s view?
In the French Revolution, the will of the people turned away from justice and toward mob violence, fanaticism, and dictatorship
Why did King Louis XVI call the Estates General into session in May 1789?
He sought the assembly’s permission for new taxes to solve France’s debt crisis
Which of the following is not a reason that Napoleon rose quickly to power?
He promised to lower the taxes levied by the previous king
Which explains a difference between the constitutional monarchy established in England and the absolute monarchy established in Spain?
The powers among the political leaders in England were separated and shared, while the Spanish monarch held complete power over the people.
Why was the Glorious Revolution in England unusual in comparison to political developments in France, Spain, and Russia?
While the French, Spanish, and Russian monarchies were becoming more powerful, the Glorious Revolution gave Parliament more power in England.
How did Islamic influence during the Middle Ages contribute to the Scientific Revolution?
he Islamic Empire placed great value on learning, and later European scientists were able to build on the advancements of Islamic scholars. Correct
The heliocentric model, represented above, is associated with which of the following figures?
Nicholas Copernicus
Ana de Osorio is famous for discovering a cure for
malaria
Why is Sir Francis Bacon sometimes referred to as “The Father of Modern Science”?
Bacon proposed the scientific method.
Who were the philosophes?
. Leading political and social writers of the French Enlightenment
How did the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?
It led thinkers to seek out explanations instead of accepting common knowledge
How did the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau compare to those of John Locke?
Both believed in the theory of a social contract.
Which idea did David Hume contribute to both the philosophy and the science of the Enlightenment?
Knowledge comes only from direct experience through our senses
How did French Enlightenment philosophers like Diderot influence religious beliefs?
They argued for religious tolerance
How did the ideals of Mary Wollstonecraft influence the later development of the Western world?
Wollstonecraft’s ideals helped lead to increased political power for women.
The painting below, The Adoration of the Magi, was painted by Peter Paul Rubens in the early 17th century.
The Church hoped to maintain influence by supporting Baroque art with religious themes.
How did the events of the Tennis Court Oath increase the prestige of the Third Estate?
By showing that the people could overpower the monarch
Which social class was most under attack during the French Revolution?
Urban workers
The influence of John Locke’s philosophy can be seen most clearly in which of the following quotations?
Thomas Jefferson’s phrase “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
The following passage from Baron de Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws was often quoted during the debates on the Constitution of the United States in 1787. Use this passage to answer the following question:

It is natural to a republic to have only a small territory, otherwise it cannot long subsist. In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less moderation…. In a large republic, the public good is sacrificed to a thousand views; it is subordinate to exceptions, and depends on accidents. In a small one, the interest of the public is easier perceived, better understood, and more within the reach of every citizen; abuses are of less extent, and of course are less protected.
Public Domain

A government that replaces the need of many with the needs of a few
The passage below is an excerpt from Robespierre’s On the Moral and Political Principles of Domestic Policy (1794). Use this passage to answer the following question:

We must smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people’s enemies by terror.

If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is not so much a special principle as it is a consequence of the general principle of democracy applied to our country’s most urgent needs.
Public Domain

Which statement best summarizes Robespierre’s argument?

Revolutions must be ruthless in destroying the enemies of the people
What role did the Jacobins play in the French Revolution?
The Jacobins instituted a radicalized government in France.
An intended result of the Latin American revolutions was
continued fighting between the new countries
What is one way the Spanish War of Independence encouraged those in the colonies to seek new political and economic rights?
Colonies took advantage of Spain’s weakened ability to prevent rebellion
Which of the following led to both the French Revolution and the Caribbean and Latin American revolutions?
A rigid class structur
Which of the following events was a primary factor in the outbreak of independence movements in Latin America?
The Spanish War of Independence
Which of the following was not an influence on the people in Latin America who sought independence in the 19th century?
The Mexican-American War
Which of the following caused continued unrest in the newly liberated colonies?
The continuation of the caste system
Which of the following would probably want independence from Spain but not a complete social revolution?
A Creole
Which of the issues that resulted in many Latin American revolutions is illustrated here?
The use of large-scale slavery
The revolutions in Latin America in the 19th century resulted in
political independence from Europe
What does this cartoon indicate about the relationship between the United States and the newly-independent Latin American countries?
The United States hoped to benefit from problems in Latin America.
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the information in the maps?
There are multiple languages spoken within each cultural region of Europe
Which of the following inferences can be made about the religious makeup of Europe around 1600 CE?
Most nations had one primary religion
Which two European regions have the most similar physical geography?
The Northern European Plain and the Central Russian Upland
In which of the following locations would you expect to find the highest human population per square mile?
The Italian coas
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this map?
More people live in Southern Europe than in far Northern Europe
Which of the following inferences can be drawn from this map?
Less than half of the population speaks English in Southern Europe
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the map?
Population growth rates in Eastern Europe are generally lower than Western Europe.
Which two European regions have the most similar physical geography?
The Northern European Plain and the Central Russian Upland
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the information in the maps?
There are multiple languages spoken within each cultural region of Europe.
The set of countries with the greatest population densities are
Germany, Italy, England
Which of the following inferences is supported by the graph?
The population in Europe increased significantly from 1750 to 2000, likely due to advancements encouraged by the Scientific Revolution
How does this map show that Europe has changed greatly since the 17th century?
Many nations are now allied economically to avoid constant conflicts.
How might Leonardo da Vinci’s sketches of the human body, such as the one above, have inspired later scientists?
The sketches showed that the human body could be studied as a system, using scientific principles.
What astronomical model from the Renaissance is expressed in the image above?
Geocentrism
Which of the following topics relates the most to both physicists’ contributions to 20th century science history?
Splitting the atom
What does this painting demonstrate about the Catholic Church’s role in the Enlightenment?
The Church hoped to maintain influence by supporting Baroque art with religious themes
“Capital is reckless of the health or length of life of the laborer, unless under compulsion from society.”

Source: Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter 10 (1867)

In what way is this statement consistent with the ideas of Adam Smith?

Smith knew that the invisible hand of the market was not concerned with the health of the laborer.
Which of the following is a true statement?
Socialists like Robert Owen favored a more even distribution of income
“To save the Russian commune, a Russian revolution is needed.”

Source: English translation of Letter to Vera Zasulich Creative Commons License

Who is most likely to have made this statement?

Karl Marx
“…but I know that society may be formed so as to exist without crime, without poverty, with health greatly improved, with little if any misery, and with intelligence and happiness increased a hundredfold: and no obstacle whatsoever intervenes [interferes] at this moment except ignorance to prevent such a state of society from becoming universal.”

Source: Robert Owen, Rules and Regulations for the Inhabitants of New Lanark.

What is one reason why Marx would disagree with this statement?

This statement ignores the process of revolution.
Which of the following correctly compares capitalism, socialism, and communism?
Capitalism is focused on the market and the individual, while socialism and communism value society collectively.
The ideologies of capitalism, socialism, and capitalism rose during which period of change?
The Industrial Revolution
n the following statement, Adam Smith comments on the individual who uses domestic industry and labor. Use Smith’s statement to answer the question below:
“…he intends only his own security… he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention… By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it.”

Source: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations

How does Smith’s view of the economy expressed in this excerpt compare to Owen’s?

Smith believes that individuals acting in their own self-interest will lead to the maximum social benefit, while Owens does not.
Which of the following systems advocates that the suffering of the worker should be made lighter through intervention by the government?
Socialism
Which of the following correctly compares capitalism, socialism, and communism?
Capitalism is focused on the market and the individual, while socialism and communism value society collectively.
Which two regions were given to France by Cavour in exchange for independence of northern and central Italy?
Nice and Savoy
Who took a diplomatic approach and used compromise to achieve Italian unification?
Cavour
Why did Garibaldi take Naples and the island of Sicily and declare himself dictator of southern Italy?
Which of the following best describes the Concert of Europe?
A meeting of nations to find a balance of power
Which of the following leaders was an accomplished general but was still considered a rebel?
Garibaldi
Why was the Ems telegram of particular importance?
It started the Franco-Prussian War.
What does this cartoon demonstrate about the diplomatic tactics of Bismarck in Germany?
Bismarck was attempting to use alliances to prevent France from regaining power.
Which of the following statements describes the relationship between the third German Emperor Wilheim II and Bismarck, prior to Bismarck’s dismissal from government?
Wilheim II wanted to end Bismarck’s growing influence over German politics.
What was the outcome of the Seven Weeks’ War?
Prussia won and reasserted itself as leader of Germany
Which group led a revolt in Naples with the goal of forcing the Spanish Bourbon king to agree to a constitution?
Cabonari
Why was the Ems telegram of particular importance?
It started the Franco-Prussian War
Why did Garibaldi take Naples and the island of Sicily and declare himself dictator of southern Italy?
He wanted to ride Italy of the Bourbon monarch
Why was Otto von Bismarck nicknamed the “Blood and Iron Chancellor”
He was fearless and determined to use armed force.
Which of the following describes the purpose of the Regeneration group in Mexico?
To remove President Porfirio Diaz from power
The above illustration was created in about 1870 and is entitled The New Fighting the Old in Early Meiji Japan. Based on this image, which of the following statements is accurate about the Meiji Restoration?
Many Japanese resisted the reforms of the Meiji Restoration.
What prompted the early-20th century coup in Brazil?
The urban middle class sought to overturn the coffee elite-controlled government
Why might France have been more motivated to resist independence movements in Algeria than it had in French Indo-China?
Algeria had a large settler community made up of French-speaking Europeans.
How was the process of decolonization in Belize similar to that in Macau?
Both Macau and Belize underwent a prolonged process of decolonization.
In what way did the independence movements in Puerto Rico and Jamaica result in similar outcomes?
Both gained reforms and voice in government without violent wars.
In what way did the movement toward independence in India differ from that of Korea?
Korea achieved independence because Japan lost the war.
In which of the following would this sign have been used?
South Africa in 1980
How did F.W. de Klerk influence democratic reforms in South Africa?
He set up talks between the government and the ANC, ultimately contributing to the elimination of apartheid.
Which of the following forced Jean-Bertrand Aristide out of power in Haiti?
The Haitian military
Which of the following nations used social media sites to organize protests?
Egypt
What role did Prussia play in reforming education within the United States?
Reformers in the U.S. adopted aspects of the Prussian education system, such as compulsory schooling and grade levels.
“…I must speak of the transit of the slaves in the West Indies. This I confess, in my own opinion, is the most wretched part of the whole subject. So much misery condensed in so little room, is more than the human imagination had ever before conceived … Let anyone imagine to himself 6 or 700 of these wretches chained two and two, surrounded with every object that is nauseous and disgusting, diseased, and struggling under every kind of wretchedness! How can we bear to think of such a scene as this?”
–William Wilberforce’s, 1789 Abolition Speech

Based on the above excerpt, why did Wilberforce think that slavery should be abolished?

No person should be submitted to the immense suffering that is perpetrated through slavery.
In what way did the movement toward independence in India differ from that of Korea?
Korea achieved independence because Japan lost the war
“In fact, I believe that I have rendered a service to India and England by showing in non-co-operation the way out of the unnatural state in which both are living…I am endeavoring to show to my countrymen that violent non-co-operation only multiples evil, and that as evil can only be sustained by violence, withdrawal of support of evil requires complete abstention [avoidance] from violence…I am here, therefore, to invite and submit cheerfully to the highest penalty that can be inflicted upon me for what in law is deliberate crime, and what appears to me to be the highest duty of a citizen.”
–excerpt from Mohandas K. Gandhi’s “Statement in the Great Trial”, 1922

Based on this excerpt, how did Mohandas Gandhi’s approach to gaining independence in India differ from the approach taken in Vietnam, or French-Indo China?

Gandhi believed that violence was not an effective means to bring change
Why might France have been more motivated to resist independence movements in Algeria than it had in French Indo-China?
Algeria had a large settler community made up of French-speaking Europeans
In what way did the independence movements in Puerto Rico and Jamaica result in similar outcomes?
Both gained reforms and voice in government without violent wars
Which of the following was General Augusto Pinochet responsible for
The disappearance of thousands of people in Chile
The Triple Alliance consisted of
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
The Allied Powers included
France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and eventually the United States
How did nationalism play a role in sparking World War I?
Slavs ruled by Austria-Hungary wanted their own country
Which of the following was directly caused by Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia?
Russia mobilized its troops.
How did imperialism play a role in sparking World War I?
Germany’s desire for colonies overseas provoked military incidents with established imperial powers.
Which of the following explains why a small conflict in the Balkans spread to all of Europe?
Many of the European powers had entered into alliances requiring them to defend each other.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand might have remained a localized incident if
Germany still had an alliance with Russia
The Triple Entente consisted of
France, Great Britain, and Russia
What aspect of the situation in Europe does this cartoon illustrate?
The Great Powers trying to prevent unrest in the Balkans from becoming war
Which of the following is an example of how nationalism played a role in sparking World War I?
Slavs in Russia wanted to help Slavs in Serbia
Which of the following was directly caused by Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia?
Russia mobilized its troops
How did militarism play a role in sparking World War I?
All major powers believed they could threaten war and no one would call their bluff.
While the European Allied countries did not have to pay reparations like Germany, they did suffer economically because of the
destruction of infrastructure
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey’s economic problems after World War I were compounded by
requirements to pay reparations to the Allies
For the Allied European countries, the economic hardships following World War I resulted from
destroyed industry and depleted resources
Like Hitler, Mussolini encouraged Italy’s economic recovery by
employing the population in militarization of the country
Like Hitler, Lenin maintained his dictatorial control by
limiting the population’s ability to oppose him
Hitler’s form of nationalism was based on the idea that Germany
was racially superior and deserved more land
Francisco Franco’s ability to seize and maintain power rested mainly on his
ability to align himself with powerful groups
Mussolini’s rise to power depended largely on his ability to
give powerful and persuasive speeches
In 1939, British politician Winston Churchill uttered these words: “Between shame and war, we have chosen shame, and we will get war.” To what was Churchill referring?
Chamberlain’s appeasement of Hitler at Munich
What was the Sudetenland, and why did Germany want to annex it?
It was a part of Czechoslovakia where ethnic Germans lived
Which of the following actions explains why Britain officially entered World War II?
The German invasion of Poland
What event officially formed the alliance between Italy and Germany in World War II?
Mussolini and Hitler signed the Pact of Steel to defend each other in a time of war.
What was the outcome of the Yalta Conference?
Decisions were made by the Allies about how to shape postwar Europe
The Allied victory in Europe was sealed after the Allies beat the Nazis at what final German offensive?
The Battle of the Bulge
Why did the Allies land on the beaches of Normandy on D-Day?
To take advantage of false information given to the Germans about an invasion elsewhere
Why did the United States agree to the “Europe First” strategy?
Because its priority was to help its allies first defeat the Nazis
Which of the following is a common argument against the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb?
The Japanese were more willing to surrender than the U.S. military thought.
Many Americans approved of the use of atomic weapons on Japan despite their destructive power because
they believed it would shorten the war and ultimately save American lives
While President Truman ultimately made the decision to drop the atomic bombs, the Manhattan Project and the development of those bombs was a decision made by
President Franklin Roosevelt
The Three Non-Nuclear Principles were intended to
keep Japan from ever developing or using nuclear weapons
Why did President Truman feel he had no choice but to drop the atomic bombs?
He felt that without the bomb, a costly invasion would be necessary
What is the best explanation for why the United States decided to target Hiroshima?
It was a center of communications, military command, and supply point for the Japanese army.
Which of the following is not a long-term health effect of the atomic bombings on Japan?
Inability to undergo x-rays because of false results
Which of the following is a common argument in favor of the development of nuclear weapons?
This development paved the way for non-military use of nuclear energy.
The Potsdam Declaration issued the ultimatum to Japan that it
must surrender immediately to Allied forces
Many Americans approved of the use of atomic weapons on Japan despite their destructive power because
they believed it would shorten the war and ultimately save American lives
The development of the atomic bomb led to later technologies, including
the use of nuclear energy to produce electricity in power plants
What did the use of atomic bombs during World War II lead to?
An arms race between the United States and Soviet Union
Which of the following is a common argument against the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb?
The Japanese were more willing to surrender than the U.S. military thought.
A primary reason for Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan was that he
thought that it would lead to fewer deaths than a land invasion
Which of the following represents part of the reason the United States was interested in supporting the economies of Europe with the Marshall Plan?
The United States wanted to use it to force European countries to join organizations like NATO.
Which of the following statements is not a purpose of the United Nations as described in the United Nations Charter of 1945?
To lay the foundations for a world government that would replace existing nation-states and their militaries
Which of the following actions support Truman’s statement?
The United States enacted the Marshall Plan
Why did the Allies consider the League of Nations when developing the United Nations?
The Allies wanted to understand clearly the weaknesses of the League
Which of the following is a result from the Potsdam Conference?
Germany was divided into four occupation zones, each controlled by an Ally.
Why was West Germany accepted into NATO in 1955?
To prevent communism from spreading to West Germany
What was the combined effect of both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Nuremberg Trials?
They established international humanitarian law
What did Churchill mean by the “Iron Curtain”?
The political divide between Western and Eastern Europe
What is the best interpretation of this poster?
Under the Marshall Plan, the U.S. and European nations can cooperate to rebuild Europe.
What accounts for why the Soviet Union decided to formalize its East European alliance through the Warsaw Pact?
To create a counter-balance to the NATO alliance
Why did the Cold War start?
At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States competed for global influence and power
Which of the following did Mao Zedong rely on for the Great Leap Forward to succeed?
China’s huge population
Which of the following best describes the cause of the Cultural Revolution?
The strong influence and inflexibility of communist ideology
Why did the “special economic zones” (SEZs) of China succeed?
They used foreign investment to stimulate the Chinese economy.
Which statement is true about Mao Zedong at the time of the Cultural Revolution?
Mao Zedong was a radical leader who supported communist ideology.
Mainland China is controlled by the Communists, whereas Taiwan is controlled by
Nationalists
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Chinese Civil War?
The Nationalists lost because the Communists convinced many rural Chinese to revolt against the Nationalists
Which of the following was an effect of Deng Xiaoping’s leadership?
Trade relations between China and other nations increased.
How did the one-child policy result in large numbers of undocumented Chinese?
After their first child, many mothers hid any other children they had, thereby causing them to be undocumented
Which of the following was not an effect of proxy wars?
The rise of democracies in most of Latin America
What accounts for the spikes in American defense spending in the 1950s?
The Korean War
Proxy wars were primarily a product of
the american policy of containment
Which is the best explanation for why the Cold War is not included in this chart?
The Cold War was not a conventional war, and its costs are measured by the individual proxy wars
The Soviets’ exit from Afghanistan led to a
series of transitional governments
Which of the following is a reasonable interpretation of this information?
Korean civilian deaths were very high because the fighting took place on Korea’s soil.
What can be inferred from this chart?
Most of the fighting in the Vietnam War took place in South Vietnam.
Why did the United States eventually stop supporting South Africa?
Popular opinion turned against South African apartheid
What was the primary reason why the United States offered to send aid to Israel during the Yom Kippur War?
They feared a growing Soviet influence in the region
What was the outcome of the Six-Day War of 1967?
Israel added territory, including the Gaza Strip
This emblem shows a Jewish star inside a shape that combines a fortress and a shield. Which of the following did this emblem most likely represent?
Zionism
Jawaharlal Nehru would be considered
an activist Indian leader.
“An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.”

You can tell by the meaning of this quote that this principle was expressed by:

Ghandi
Marxism taught me what society was. I was like a blindfolded man in a forest, who doesn’t even know where north or south is. If you don’t eventually come to truly understand the history of the class struggle, or at least have a clear idea that society is divided between the rich and the poor, and that some people subjugate and exploit other people, you’re lost in a forest, not knowing anything. –Fidel Castro, 2009

Fidel Castro, long-time leader of Cuba, made the above statement during an interview in 2009. The statement is in response to a question about what influenced him to become a Cuban nationalist. Which of the following can be inferred from this statement?

Society’s rich should not exploit the poor
An effect of the Yom Kippur War was
increased arms for the Israelis
Nationalist conflict in Haiti has resulted in
economic turmoil
“His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of the object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious’ rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” –excerpt from the Balfour Declaration, 1917
Public Domain

What does this excerpt from the Balfour Declaration argue for

The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine
“Palestine is the cement that holds the Arab world together, or it is the explosive that blows it apart.” –Yasser Arafat

Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat made the above statement during an interview with Time Magazine (November 11, 1974). Based on this quote, with which of the following statements would Arafat also agree?

If Palestinian peace is not achieved, all Middle East nations will descend into chaos and violence.
The desired outcome for Basque nationalists in Spain is
complete indepenence
What was the primary reason for the economic boom that occurred in the United States after World War II?
It wasn’t necessary to rebuild land and industries
What was the precursor to the Baby Boom?
World War II
What prompted Indians to relocate to London and the United Kingdom?
Availability of work in the metropole
Cultural diffusion was most advanced by
the contact of business people with foreign cultures
What is the best example of how the media creates cultural diffusion?
By presenting the ideas of others
Which of the following is not an example of an effort to curb cultural diffusion?
Having a rock concert in a public park in Japan
In what way will membership in the European Union most benefit candidate nations?
Economically
What is the primary purpose of a trading bloc?
To reduce or eliminate tariffs
According to this graph on world poverty, what are the trends of the world average and Sub-Saharan Africa?
The lines are trending in opposite directions; the world average is less poor, while Sub-Saharan African average is trending more poor.
What is a criticism of labeling countries as developed?
They often must adhere to a Western-style economy to be considered developed.
According to the World Bank (WB), what is the requirement to be in the “developing nation” category?
A country must have a low- or middle-income.
Advances in which of the following areas increased globalization the most?
Education, technology, transportation
Which is not an example of cultural diffusion in the United States?
Eating a hotdog at a barbeque
All of following are true about how the European Union differs from NAFTA except
the European Union has tariffs, while NAFTA does not
Which of the following is a negative aspect of American and European consumerism?
Chinese workers will work long hours for lower wages than most Western workers.
European nations that aligned with the United States after World War II
capitalistic and democratic
The Warsaw Pact was a union of
Eastern European nations
In which of the following ways did communist nations differ from capitalist nations during the Cold War?
Communists believed that wealth should be owned by the state.
How might Soviets have viewed American segregation laws in the American South?
As hypocritical because the U.S. criticized the Soviet Union for limiting individual rights
Mao Zedong’s formation of the Red Guards led to
attacks on personal liberty
Why did Cuba partner with the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The Soviet Union had previously supported Castro’s attempts to promote communism in the Americas.
Why did the United States involve itself in a civil dispute on the Korean peninsula in the 1950s?
To exercise the policy of containment
Why would citizens in the newly independent country of Latvia remove this statue of former Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin?
Lenin’s communist ideals were no longer supported by the people
Why were the Camp David Accords important?
Leaders began negotiations for peace between Israel and Palestine
Which was not a principle that Jawaharial Nehru and Gandhi would have supported?
Religious Fundamentalism
A goal of Fidel Castro was to
bring communism to Cuba
The conflict in Kashmir is rooted primarily in
religion
An effect of Gamal Abdel Nasser’s rule in Egypt was the spreading of
Pan-Arabism in the Middle East
In the late 20th century, immigrants who moved from former colonies to their former imperial nations tended to settle in
metropoles where jobs were available
A criticism of the American suburbs in the post-World War II era was (5 points)
that they laced racial diversity
Criticism over Turkish accession to the EU include all of the following except that it
is a predominately Muslim nation
Which of the following is an economic benefit of investment in a developing nation by a developed nation?
A low-wage work force
The War on Terrorism is considered an “invisible war” because
victims usually have no warning or immediate knowledge of the attacker
What role did religious fundamentalism play in the 1998 American embassy bombings?
A religious fundamentalist group carried out the attacks on a date and on targets that symbolized their rejection of U.S. influence.
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