An Evaluation of the Performance of the United Nations Essay Example
An Evaluation of the Performance of the United Nations Essay Example

An Evaluation of the Performance of the United Nations Essay Example

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  • Pages: 15 (3995 words)
  • Published: July 28, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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The United Nations was established after World War II with the goal of preventing immediate war. Although it did not fully achieve this objective, the United Nations continues to play a crucial role in resolving global issues.

This has prompted examination into the activities and personal businesss of the United Nations with the purpose of measuring the strengths and failings of the organisation. This survey takes a critical expression into the constructions and duties of the political and security variety meats of the United Nations with the purpose of placing failings and doing proposals on how better on the public presentation of the organisation.


Introductory Paragraphs

The challenge of insecurity in international dealingss remains one of the biggest menaces confronting the universe today. Despite legion spirited attempts by states throughout the universe to procure the international system fro


m the of all time skulking dangers of international wars.

The definition of corporate security has been difficult since the formation of the United Nations (UN) in 1945. Over time, the international community has encountered various security challenges, notably during the Cold War and post-September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. However, despite these difficulties, the United Nations was founded with a firm commitment to promoting corporate security.

Growing concerns surround the effectiveness of the United Nations in fulfilling its responsibilities, as past incidents have revealed the organization's lack of capability and authority to enforce global security. As Goldstein (2003) points out, "The UN Charter establishes a framework for global security by uniting all nations in their efforts to prevent aggression" (p. [page number]).

Chapter 7 of the Charter (267) expressly grants the Security Council authority to utilize military force as a response to aggression, in

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cases where peaceful measures delineated in chapter 6 prove ineffective. As per the UN Charter, the United Nations possesses the prerogative to intervene when a nation commits acts of aggression or presents security risks.

Despite being selectively enforced, a study by Roberts & Kingsbury (1994) found that the veto powers of major nations hinder the UN's ability to effectively prevent acts of aggression conducted by or with support from these powerful nations. Therefore,

Chapter seven was only used once during the Cold War, specifically in the Korean War, when the Soviet deputation made the foolish decision to boycott the Security Council proceedings (p. 61). "The U.S."

According to Roberts & Kingsbury, the flying of the U.N. flag during both the North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950 and the invasion of Iraq in 1990 was a violation of international law as stated in the UN charter.

According to Goldstein (2003), the UN authorized the use of force to reverse Iraq's aggression against Kuwait in 1990 under Chapter 7 of the Charter (p. 269) (1994, p. 63).

Roberts, Kingsbury, and A (1994) state that the United Nations did not respond with military action to either the illegal Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 or the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982.

According to Kochler (2002), the clear signs indicate that the United Nations is limited by power politics within the international system. He argues that there is a fundamental absence of laws in the international system, allowing major powers to maintain control over both the international system and the United Nations.

The Survey aims to illustrate the relationship between the League of Nations and the United Nations, two organizations that originated from

World Wars I and II. It is important to note that both entities did not significantly challenge national sovereignty or change the existing balance of power among countries. Moreover, it should be acknowledged that the United Nations further established the dominant status of major powers, particularly those who emerged victorious in World War II.

Although the United Nations does not possess a monopoly on the legitimate use of force required to establish a global government and enforce order with superior power and authority, this study evaluates its crucial capacities in pursuing and attaining collective security in the international system.

Research Question:

The increasing dangers to worldwide security have prompted a comprehensive investigation into the pivotal role played by the United Nations in preserving collective security.

Although the United Nations, as an international governmental organization (IGO), does not possess absolute power and authority in imposing global peace, it is not rendered insignificant or powerless. While facing obstacles related to state sovereignty that hinder enforcement of international law, the United Nations still holds the ability to shape state behavior and offer organized channels for communication that surpass those found in a lawless state.

In summary, this research focuses on analyzing the United Nations' performance in maintaining corporate security in the international system. The core hypothesis of this study suggests that the United Nations has not been successful in upholding corporate security. This survey holds great significance as the United Nations Charter is built upon unifying principles that guide the organization's efforts. One crucial principle is the recognition of equal autonomy among all member states, granting them equal authority over their respective territories.

Each member province has one vote in the General Assembly, but

they are not equal in wealth and power. Additionally, only five major powers have permanent seats on the Security Council. Both critics and supporters acknowledge that the United Nations perpetuates international inequality because the Charter contains idealistic rules that have little connection to reality. Therefore, this survey is crucial as it will focus on the numerous challenges that the United Nations encounters while striving to maintain global security and provide appropriate recommendations for addressing those specific challenges.

Research Restrictions

The survey is limited by the lack of literature on the United Nations' role in corporate security. Existing literature focuses more on the successes rather than failures of the United Nations.

Definition of Terms

This study relies on the definitions of international relations.

Summarizing the definitions of key terms in international relations:

  • International relations: The interactions between state and non-state actors in the international system.
  • International system: Relationships between global states, governed by rules that determine their rights and responsibilities.
  • Terrorism: The intentional targeting of civilians to gain advantage in international negotiations, aiming to damage morale and attract media attention.
  • International organizations: Entities that operate across multiple countries and have political relevance.
  • Corporate security: Promoting collective defense against aggression towards member states, as outlined in the UN Charter.

The United Nations was established in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, which had failed due to a lack of equal power and authority. Mesler (1997) notes that the failure of the League of Nations was caused by instability in the international system and the US Senate's unwillingness to ratify the agreement that formed the organization (p. 11).


The aggression against a UN member is considered an aggression against

all, as stated in Chapter 7 of the Charter. This chapter specifically grants the Security Council the power to use military force in response to aggression, if non-violent measures defined in Chapter 6 prove ineffective.

The United Nations was created with implicit rules that resembled those of the League of Nations. However, a significant distinction in terms of support existed between the two. While the League of Nations did not receive backing from the US Senate, both the Senate and President strongly endorsed and supported the United Nations. Thus, as an international governmental organization (IGO),

The theory of pragmatism best exemplifies the foundation and importance of the United Nations. According to this theory, there are no universal authorities or political authorizations that are superior to individual states.

According to Roberts and Kingsbury (1994, p. 19), the international system lacks a central political structure that can enforce laws and maintain order among its member states or nation-states.

The theory emphasizes the importance of the province or nation-state as the ultimate political authority in global politics. The theory of pragmatism is founded on the belief that all provinces are primarily motivated by self-preservation and the pursuit of power maximization.

According to Roberts and Kingsbury (1994), stability in the international system can be achieved by maintaining a balance of power. They argue that this balance arises from unrestricted interaction among states, where the most powerful state acts as a balancer (p.19).

According to Goldstein (2003), the theory of pragmatism in international relations acknowledges that low politics, involving economic and social matters, are subordinate to high politics, involving military and security (p. 265). The United Nations was established based on this assumption, serving as the

overarching political entity responsible for enforcing law and order in behavior.

The United Nations' approach to achieving peace involves addressing aggression against one member as aggression against all and collectively overcoming the wrongdoer. This approach is supported by the theory of idealism in international relations. Idealism, based on Immanuel Kant's philosophical theory, emphasizes the collective capacity of humans rather than their selfishness and desire for power. In his book Ageless Peace, Kant argued that just as a consensual government brings order and domestic peace within states.

According to Roberts and Kingsbury (1994), the constitution of a universe Congress among republican provinces is responsible for ensuring ageless peace to the universe as a whole and putting an end to war for all time.

According to Kant's belief, a peaceful brotherhood should consist of republican provinces with representative authorities. He believed that if the decision to go to war was in the hands of the people rather than princes, they would always choose to avoid it.

They are the ones who must bear the burden of warfare. These republican authorities would establish a global Congress to resolve conflicts and prevent the possibility of violent conflict. "Kant ultimately provided the philosophical foundation not only for the contemporary theory of idealism, but also for its corresponding institutionalization through international governmental organizations (IGOs) like the United Nations" (Roberts & Kingsbury, 1994, p.).

Pragmatism and liberalism are two contrasting theories, but they both differ greatly from the theory of liberalism, as noted by Roberts & Kingsbury in 1994, within the international system.

Liberalism theory acknowledges that state preferences, rather than state capabilities, are the main influencers of state behavior (p. 44). As noted by Roberts

& Kingsbury (1994), this is in contrast to the view in pragmatism theory, which sees the state as a unified actor.

According to the doctrine of liberalism, different states are supported in various actions (p. 45). Additionally, liberalism theory suggests that the interaction between states encompasses not only high-level political affairs like military and security matters but also lower-level political issues such as economic and societal concerns.

Thus, the situation eliminates disorder in the global system as nations have ample opportunities to interact through wider economic and cultural cooperation. Despite varying arguments on the founding principles of international organizations, both pragmatism and liberalism theories acknowledge the significance of enduring peace and security in the global system. The longing for peace and security motivated the inception of the United Nations. This organization was formed with the main goal of ensuring international peace and security through peaceful resolution of conflicts.

The United Nations has the duty to enhance economic and social cooperation through collaboration with non-governmental organizations and promotion of global human rights. The principles outlined in the United Nations Charter are founded on the belief that all nations have equal status in international law, possess full sovereignty over their own affairs, should maintain complete independence and territorial integrity, and must fulfill their international obligations. These obligations include respecting diplomatic privileges, refraining from aggression, and adhering to signed treaties (Goldstein, 2003).

According to the United Nations website, the organization's structure and operating methods are outlined in the United Nations Charter (p. 206). The General Assembly is included in this structure.

The Security Council, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council, and Secretariat.

The United Nations is composed of two primary entities: the

secretariat, which is responsible for administration and led by the Secretary General, and the International Court of Justice located in The Hague, Netherlands.

The International Court of Justice, the main judicial body of the United Nations, is comprised of 15 Judges who are elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms. It is necessary that each Judge represents a distinct country. The decisions made by this Court hold legal authority; however, it does not possess any mechanisms for enforcement. On the other hand, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) plays a role in coordinating the specialized agencies within the United Nations. Additionally, trust territories' administration falls under the supervision of the Trusteeship Council.

Weiss & A ; Dhows ( 2007 ) state that the General Assembly and the Security Council are the most important organs that handle issues concerning the principle of collective security ( p. 149 ) . The General Assembly is the only organ where every member state is represented, with each state having one vote based on the principle of sovereign equality. Linda ( 2003 ) further explains that the General Assembly primarily functions as a platform for discussions.

The General Assembly's decisions, although usually approved by a two-thirds majority, do not always ensure enforcement. The Security Council, comprising of five permanent members with veto powers, includes the United States and Britain.

Russia, China, and France are three members of the Security Council. In addition to these three countries, there are 10 other members who are typically proposed by the General Assembly and serve for a 2-year term. The decisions made by the Security Council are binding and enforceable, as stated by Weiss,

A., & Dhows (2007).

The Security Council is responsible for addressing corporate security and peacekeeping upon request from involved parties. Additionally, it has the authority to investigate any situation that may pose a threat to international peace and security and recommend ways to resolve it. Moreover, the Security Council actively engages in negotiating ceasefires and deploying military forces as means to resolve conflicts.

However, the powers of the Security Council are restricted in two ways: first, the council's decisions are entirely dependent on the involvement of member states, meaning ambassadors representing the states cannot alter a council declaration without authorization from their respective governments; and secondly,

According to Goldstein (2003), member provinces often attempt to mitigate the impact of adhering to Security Council declarations. However, Goldstein warns that these declarations can only be enforced if influential nations show sufficient support (p. 272). The Security Council has established a formal mechanism for coordinating multilateral military action in response to acts of aggression.

The Military Staff Committee, composed of military officers from the lasting council members, was established under chapter 43 of the United Nations charter. However, the commission has never been used because the United States opposes placing its forces under non-US commanding officers (Goldstein, 2003).

p. 272). "According to Goldstein (2006), this is the reason why military forces, reacting to aggression under the protections of the Security Council declarations, have always remained under their respective national bids, as was the case during the Gulf War where the U.

According to page 273, the US forces carried out a UN declaration mission without displaying any UN insignia or flags. The Cold War rivalry between the US and the Soviet Union posed

a major challenge for the United Nations Security Council. This competition caused a division among member states, resulting in the excessive use of veto powers by both the US and the Soviet Union.

According to the UN Committee Report on subscribers, the United Nations is funded through contributions from member states, which are assessed based on their economic strengths. The United States has consistently been the largest contributor to the United Nations.

The United States used to contribute 25% of the UN budget until 1997, when it was reduced to 20% under Secretary General Kofi Annan's leadership. The poorest countries in the General Assembly pay less than 1%, while the top 10 wealthiest contributors cover 75% of the budget, but have less than 75% of the voting power.

Here are the major contributors to the regular UN budget for 2006:

Member State Contribution % of entire UN budget
United States 22.00 %
Japan 19.47 %
Germany 8.66 %
United Kingdom 6.13 %
France 6.03 %
Italy 4.

89 %

Canada 2.

81 % Spain 2. 52 % China 2. 05 % Mexico 1.

The text above shows the percentage (%) values for different countries. Canada has a percentage of 2.81%, Spain has a percentage of 2.52%, China has a percentage of 2.05%, and Mexico has a percentage of 1%.

88 %

Australia 1. 59 % Brazil 1. 52 %

Starting from: World Wide Web. unstats. United Nations. org The above data represents a sample of fiscal data from various UN member states.

All member provinces contribute to the UN.


The proposed survey follows a pre-post design, meaning that performance evaluation was based on events occurring during the Cold War, as well as events after the Cold War and after September 11.

In response to the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, individuals were requested to express their opinions and respond to inquiries about the United Nations' performance in fulfilling its core responsibilities of ensuring collective security for all member states. The study primarily comprised a demographic questionnaire with 15 items intended to gauge participants' attitudes towards

the roles of the United Nations in maintaining global peace and security. The study included a comprehensive approach aimed at promoting tolerance and stability.

The acceptance of the rule of corporate security as a politically tolerable action is known as tolerance, while stability refers to its domestic and international legitimacy. The demographic questionnaire also included details about the participants, such as age, sex, religion, and nationality.

The survey explored topics related to gender and race, as well as conducted extensive research from various literature sources to assess the relevance of international relations and international law theories to the principles on which the United Nations was founded.

Data Aggregation

The survey used graded random samples from both online college populations and the general population. Simple random sampling was then employed within each group. The aim was to include diverse and varied audiences by targeting both theoretical and accessible populations. The insights obtained from the collected data provided valuable information on the opinions and attitudes of individuals from different age groups.

Gender, faith, nationalities, and races play a role in how the United Nations is perceived by the public in terms of its international responsibilities. The study included participants aged 18 and above.



An analysis of discrepancy was used to measure the data.

Repeated measurements were conducted to evaluate various sentiments and attitudes towards the corporate security initiatives of the United Nations.

Limitations: In this survey, limitations refer to factors that may have hindered individuals from participating or providing accurate responses to the questionnaires. The main limitation of this study was geographical constraints. As the United Nations has over

200 member states, it was challenging to involve participants from all of them. Additionally, some participants lacked in-depth knowledge and understanding of international relations, resulting in incorrect interpretation of the questions. Some individuals may have also declined to participate due to the large number of questionnaire items, totaling 15.


Despite its important role in international relations, the United Nations has failed to meet its expectations. Since its establishment, the organization has been influenced by the superpowers.

Contrary to expectations, the United Nations did not fundamentally challenge national sovereignty, nor did it alter the existing distribution of power among nation-states. Instead, it established and solidified the dominant position of the great powers, specifically those that emerged victorious in World War II.

According to Goldstein (2003), the United Nations did not acquire the monopoly on the legitimate use of force, which was essential for it to become a global government with the power to maintain order through superior force (p. 270).

The issue of equality among provinces in the UN raises multiple concerns among member provinces. According to Roberts ; Kingsbury (1994), although the United Nations recognizes the autonomous equality of all member provinces and grants each member province one vote in the General Assembly, this is far from reality due to the unequal distribution of wealth and power among member provinces (p. 97). Additionally,

Simply put, the United Nations is criticized for perpetuating global inequality through its Security Council seats and idealistic rules. The credibility of the institution is questioned regarding its authority in maintaining law and order in the international system. Roberts ; Kingsbury (1994) argue that this is a major reason for skepticism towards

the UN.

S. displayed the U.N. flag when countering the North Korean aggression in South Korea and the Iraqi invasion in 1990. These actions were both violations of international law according to the UN charter.

According to Roberts and Kingsbury, it is surprising that the United Nations did not militarily intervene in the illegal Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 (116).

According to (1994, p. 117), these clear indicators demonstrate that the United Nations is restricted by power politics within the international system.

According to Kochler (2006), the international system is fundamentally without laws, with the great powers maintaining control over the international system and the United Nations itself (p. 21). One of the major challenges that the United Nations faces today is power struggles. Kochler (2002) points out that like states, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are primarily created by dominant powers to serve their own interests (p.

23) According to Kochler (2002), the purpose of the United Nations is to maintain global peace and security. However, this peace and security is dependent on existing power agreements, as well as the economic and political systems that uphold them (p. 24). An example illustrating this point is the 1989 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. The United Nations responded to this invasion primarily because the United States held influence over the Security Council and the invasion posed a threat to global oil prices.

The text discusses the authoritative power and political relations within the framework of a "new world order" (Roberts; A; Kingsbury, 1994, p. 123). However, the United Nations General Assembly received widespread disapproval for their actions.

The United States executed a full invasion of

Panama despite disapprobations and with little regard for international concerns. These instances were a result of the apparent failure in the construction of the United Nations.

Roberts, A., & Kingsbury (1994) express concern about the United Nations granting greater enforcement powers to the Security Council compared to other organizational bodies. They note that the Security Council, which is predominantly controlled by major powers, primarily prioritizes their own national interests (p. 128). Another issue raised pertains to the level of equality in participation within the United Nations.

In kernel, cooperation does not necessarily imply equal participation or interests. States cooperate in institutions that exploit them because they perceive no alternative.

Merely as the instance with the UN. which clearly executes its authorization in favour of the involvements of the ace powers while pretermiting the hapless states. A measure by measure analysis of the UN during and after the Cold War every bit good as after the September 11. 2001 terrorist act onslaughts upon the United States reveals some of the most dismaying failings in the abilities of the United Nations to implement permanent peace and security in the international system.

The United Nations during the Cold War

The period between 1945 and 1955 went down as one of the most difficult periods in the history of the United Nations.

During the Cold War, the United Nations faced a deadlock between the United States and the Soviet Union, resulting in minimal progress. The frequent use of veto powers by these two countries hindered advancements within the UN (Mesler, 1997, p. 14). A major challenge that arose was the enlargement of member states, as both the US and Soviet employed their veto powers to

prevent the admission of new countries perceived to be aligned with the opposing side.

Mesler (1997) reports that the United Nations only recognized nine new members between 1945 and 1955 (p. 16). However,

A trade in 1955 allowed the admission of 16 new members, 8 on each side of the axis. Deadlock was prevented through frequent audiences, bargaining, and caucusing. The United Nations also faced significant support differences amid the Cold War.

The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was sent to create a buffer between Israel and Egypt after the 2nd Arab-Israel war in 1956. However, the Soviet Bloc and several Arab States refused to provide support to the UNEF (Mesler, 1997, p. 19).

During the Cold War, the United Nations had limited success in international security. This war occurred when Egypt, under Nasser, attempted to nationalize the British-controlled Suez Canal. As a result, Britain, France, and Israel declared war in response. Goldstein (2003) acknowledges this event.

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