World History Sem 1 Final – Flashcards

question
Which of the following regions did not become part of the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Britain
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Which of the following was located in the Eastern Roman Empire? (5 points)
answer
Anatolia
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In the above map, prefecture refers to a district of the Byzantine Empire. Which of the following did Justinian I reconquer? (5 points)
answer
Prefecture of Africa
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Which of the following would be the longest distance to travel by sea? (5 points)
answer
Spain to Palestine
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In which of the following cities would people have found the center of the Byzantine government in Italy? (5 points)
answer
Ravenna
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Which of the following cities was known as the Byzantine Empire's economic and religious center? (5 points)
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Constantinople
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In what ways is the Holy Land an important site for all three monotheistic faiths?
answer
The Holy Land is extremely important to all three of the monotheistic religions. For Jews, it is considered the promise land that God had long planned for them to reach. For Christians, it is the place where Jesus himself was resurrected for the world's sins. Lastly, for Muslims it is a recognized stopping point in the journey of Muhammad.
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The three major monotheistic religions are sometimes described as branches of the same family tree. If this is true, how would you describe the trunk of the tree.
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The trunk of the tree would be Abraham, for he started the family line over 4,000 years ago in Canaan.
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What is 1 similarity of the 3 religions?
answer
All three religions look to Abraham as the father of the earthly religion. They just choose to look at him differently. For example, Abraham had two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, Christians and Jews focus on Isaac and his family line (Moses and Jesus). While Muslims focus on Ishmael who is a descendant of Muhammed.
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What is 1 difference between the three religions?
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One large difference is in the books these religions follow. Christians read and follow the bible, while Jews read the Torah, and Muslims read the Qur'an.
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What types of internal differences and divisions exist within each religion?
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Within christianity, there are many different groups and divisions. For example, there are baptist christians, Catholic Christians, etc. Within Judaism, there are difference divisions as well, like orthodox Jews or reformist Jews. In Islam there are two different main groups, Sunni and Shi'a Islam. Their beliefs differ on who they believe should run the Islamic community.
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What impact did the Frankish leader Charles Martel have on Christian Europe's relations with Muslim Spain in the eighth century? (5 points)
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He stopped the Muslim advance from Spain into France.
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If you traveled to the Spanish city of CĂłrdoba in the 10th century, which of the following would you not find? (5 points)
answer
A government free from Islamic influence
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Which of the following statements best describes Islam's spread from the 7th century through the 17th century? (5 points)
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Military conquests by the Arab Empire and traders of Islamic faith were the primary means for spreading Islam to Africa, Europe, and Asia.
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From this 16th-century illustration, we can see that which of the following played a large part in the Mughal Empire's rise to power? (5 points)
answer
It had the advantage of gunpowder.
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What was the significance of the battle at Poitiers in France in 732 CE? (5 points)
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It showed that Europeans were unwilling to allow further Islamic expansion into Europe.
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In what way was the Islamic expansion into India similar to the way Islam expanded in other areas? (5 points)
answer
Islamic expansion into India was facilitated by both Islamic merchants and conquerors.
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"The city of Baghdad formed two vast semi-circles on the right and left banks of the Tigris, twelve miles in diameter. The numerous suburbs, covered with parks, gardens, villas and beautiful promenades, and plentifully supplied with rich bazaars, and finely built mosques and baths, stretched for a considerable distance on both sides of the river. In the days of its prosperity the population of Baghdad and its suburbs amounted to over two millions! ...The long wide estrades at the different gates of the city were used by the citizens for gossip and recreation or for watching the flow of travelers and country folk into the capital. The different nationalities in the capital had each a head officer to represent their interests with the government, and to whom the stranger could appeal for counsel or help." —William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 365-367 Considering this excerpt written by the Arab geographer Yakut in the 13th century, what can we say about Islamic Baghdad at that time? (5 points)
answer
It tolerated a diverse population.
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"Andalus (the Iberian peninsula), which was conquered in the year 92 of the Hijra, continued for many years to be a dependency of the Eastern Khalifate, until it was snatched away from their hands by one of the surviving members of the family of Umeyyah (Umayyad), who, crossing over from Barbary, subdued the country, and formed therein an independent kingdom, which he transmitted to his posterity. During three centuries and a half, Andalus, governed by the princes of this dynasty, reached the utmost degree of power and prosperity, until civil war breaking out among its inhabitants, the Muslims, weakened by internal discord, became every where the prey of the artful Christians, and the territory of Islam was considerably reduced, so much so that at the present moment the worshippers of the crucified hold the greatest part of Andalus in their hands, and their country is divided into various powerful kingdoms, whose rulers assist each other whenever the Muslims attack their territories." —Ibn Said, Book of the Maghrib, in Ahmed ibm Mohammed al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, translated by Pascuual de Gayangos s, (London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1840), 1, 95-102 According to this source, why did Muslim al-Andalus fall? (5 points)
answer
It fell because the divisions within the empire made it vulnerable to attack.
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How did religious leaders attempt to resolve the Iconoclast Controversy? (5 points)
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Religious councils were formed to try to settle the issue.
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Which of the following correctly describes Prince Odoacer's role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire? (5 points)
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Prince Odoacer forced Augustulus to hand over his crown, and Germanic kingdoms claimed the land.
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How did Constantinople's Church of Hagia Sophia demonstrate how the Byzantine Empire blended with the old Roman Empire? (5 points)
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The church combined both Greek and Roman architecture, and became a melting pot where Eastern and Western cultures came together.
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When Constantine rebuilt Byzantium, it was called "New Rome" because Constantine (5 points)
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built it to resemble "Old Rome"
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How did the political and religious ideas of the Byzantine Empire compare with the Western Empire? (5 points)
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The Byzantine emperor was considered to be the highest political and religious figure. In the Western Empire, the highest political and religious figures were two different people.
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Which statement best describes what happened when Constantine tried to establish "New Rome"? (5 points)
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He was successful in building a new political center in the East, unified by the Christian religion.
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Who was John of Damascus? (5 points)
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He was a writer/monk who strongly defended the use of icons.
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Cyril and Methodius were missionaries to the Slavs who (5 points)
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translated the Bible into the new alphabet written for the Slavic language
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What was an effect of the Iconoclastic Controversy? (5 points)
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The revolts against Byzantine rulers began, illustrating a severe break in relations between East and West.
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Which statement describes an impact of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire on Europe? (5 points)
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Former Roman lands were split up and claimed by Germanic kingdoms.
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"But when the corn-lands had no more grain and all the Romans (Byzantines) had come into an exceedingly evil plight, they surrounded Belisarius and tried to compel him to stake everything on a single battle with the enemy (Goths), promising that not one of the Romans (Byzantines) would be absent from the engagement." —History of the Wars, Book VI, Article III According to the passage, why did the Byzantines want Belisarius to stake everything in a single battle against the Goths? (5 points)
answer
To prevent starving to death
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about Justinian I? (5 points)
answer
He supported the building of the Hagia Sophia.
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Why did Justinian I fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old Roman Empire? (5 points)
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His army and finances were weakened by plague.
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Justinian Code? (5 points)
answer
It supported a woman's right to inherit property.
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"A person who takes a thing belonging to another by force is liable to an action of theft, for who can be said to take the property of another more against his will than he who takes it by force?" —Justinian Code, Institutes, Book IV, Chapter 2 According to the law above, which of the following is a thief? (5 points)
answer
A person who takes another person's wallet by force
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How did Justinian gain the throne? (5 points)
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His uncle made him co-emperor.
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Which of the following were members of the aristocracy in Byzantine society? (5 points)
answer
Wealthy landowners
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This mosaic shows a Byzantine emperor and his attendants. Examine the image and use the clues you find there to answer the question. Which of the following types of attendants are represented in this mosaic? (5 points)
answer
Soldiers
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"Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master. 2. But at the present day none of our subjects may use unrestrained violence towards their slaves, except for a reason recognized by law. For, by a constitutio of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, he who without any reason kills his own slave is to be punished equally with one who has killed the slave of another." —The Institutes, Book I, Chapter VIII According to the above law, which of the following statements is true? (5 points)
answer
Masters were allowed to kill their own slaves, if they had a reason for doing so.
question
The lines below express a belief recited by followers of Islam. "All praise is due to ALLAH alone, Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, the Merciful. Master of the day of Judgment." In which of the following do these lines appear? (5 points)
answer
Qur'an
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Which of the following best describes the hajj for Muslims? (5 points)
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A duty of Muslims to journey to the sacred city of Mecca
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What do the three Abrahamic faiths—Christianity, Islam, and Judaism—have in common? (5 points)
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All believe in one god.
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Which of the following is believed by Christians, but not by Muslims? (5 points)
answer
Jesus rose from the dead.
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Which of the following was a cause for revolt against Islamic rule in conquered territories? (5 points)
answer
Higher taxes required of non-Muslims
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What does the map reveal about the early expansion of Islam? (5 points)
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Expansion efforts originated in the city of Medina.
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Which of the following was not a goal of the Crusades? (5 points)
answer
Modernizing the technology of Europe
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What was the primary effect of cultural exchange between Europe and the Islamic world? (5 points)
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Muslim goods and knowledge led to some advancements in European society.
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Which religious group has resisted Islamic influence and power in India? (5 points)
answer
Hindus
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What is Al-Azhar? (5 points)
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An Islamic center of learning in Cairo, Egyp
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What was the main purpose of the House of Wisdom, built by the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad? (5 points)
answer
Translating ancient great works of literature into the Arabic language
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Which of the following best describes the architectural style of the Islamic Golden Age? (5 points)
answer
Ornate and patterned
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What city did the Abbasid dynasty build in a strategic location to serve as the capital of the Islamic Empire? (5 points)
answer
Baghdad
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Suppose an archeologist finds a 10th-century gold coin from the Abbasid Caliphate in a Viking grave in Norway, thousands of miles away. For what purpose is the coin most useful as a primary source? (5 points)
answer
Evidence about 10th-century trade networks
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Which of the following is true of the Roman Empire at the end of the fourth century CE? (5 points)
answer
Christianity was the official religion, as established by Constantine the Great.
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Use the image of Constantine the Great and the Roman sun god to answer the following question: Image of a gold coin showing Constantine with a Roman sun god. Public Domain What does this image suggest about Constantine? (5 points)
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He understood that he ruled an empire with many faiths.
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Which of the following disagreements was the root cause of the Iconoclast Controversy of the eighth and ninth centuries? (5 points)
answer
Whether images of people should be part of church worship
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Use the image of Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I holding up an icon and standing on Patriarch John VII of Constantinople to answer the following question: Image of Nikephoros I holding up an icon and standing on Patriarch John VII of Constantinople. Public Domain Based on the image, which of the following conclusions can be drawn about the Iconoclast Controversy? (5 points)
answer
The dispute about the use of icons caused conflict within the Eastern Church, as well as with the Western Church.
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Which Byzantine leader restored the use of icons in 843 CE, after the death of Theophilus? (5 points)
answer
Theodora
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Which statement describes a similarity between the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Both empires shared like laws and traditions.
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Which of the following statements about the idea of combining secular government with religious authority in both the Roman and Byzantine empires is true? (5 points)
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Constantine's efforts to rule in church affairs within the Byzantine Empire marked a change in the relationship between the church and government.
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What great contribution did monks make during the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Preservation of Greek and Roman works
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What Byzantine city was a wealthy center of trade that maintained the commercial links between Europe and Asia? (5 points)
answer
Constantinople
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Which of the following leaders attempted but failed to regain the provinces of the Western Roman Empire under the Byzantine Empire due to financial problems? (5 points)
answer
Justinian I
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Which of the following was part of the Byzantine Empire in 565 A.D. (CE) and 1360 A.D. (CE)? (5 points)
answer
Constantinople
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Which of the following cities did the Byzantine Empire not control during its height? (5 points)
answer
Babylon
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In what way did the Christian Crusades contribute to the decline of the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Latin Crusaders turned against the Byzantines, leading to the loss of much territory.
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What event was the most significant in damaging the strength of the Byzantine Empire during the Crusades? (5 points)
answer
Alexius failed to deal with the Venetians and other Crusaders after he enlisted their help.
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What group conquered Constantinople in 1453 CE, ending Byzantine rule? (5 points)
answer
Ottoman Turks
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All of the following represent innovations in land use in the Middle Ages except (5 points)
answer
the ownership by individuals of small farms
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In medieval European society, was the king or the pope the most powerful figure? (5 points)
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Neither, because the power dynamic shifted between the church and the kings
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Why did earlier historians consider the Medieval Period the "Dark Ages"? (5 points)
answer
A limited amount of written records survived to shine light on this time period.
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Which of the following individuals would likely have had the most education in the medieval society? (5 points)
answer
A nun
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Which best describes the relationship between the Church and feudal states? (5 points)
answer
The Church and the states constantly struggled for supreme power.
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How might a second-born son hope to achieve success under the system of primogeniture? (5 points)
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He could seek training to become a knight in the military.
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Scholasticism provides an example of which of the following? (5 points)
answer
The blending of Greek and Roman philosophies with Christian ideas
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During the High Middle Ages, monasteries were considered religious centers, as well as (5 points)
answer
learning centers
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Charlemagne first came to power using which of the following tactics? (5 points)
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He allied with the Lombards to overtake his brother.
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Use the excerpt to answer the following question: "The precepts of the law are these: to live honestly, to injure no one, and to give every man his due. The study of law consists of two branches, law public and law private. The former relates to the welfare of the Roman State; the latter to the advantage of the individual citizen. Of private law then we may say that it is of threefold origin, being collected from the precepts of nature, from those of the law of nations, or from those of the civil law of Rome." Source: From The Institutes of Justinian, B. Moyle, trans.3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1896), pp. 3-5. This excerpt from the Justinian Code shows how the Byzantine Empire (5 points)
answer
preserved Greco-Roman culture
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Which of the following was not a primary concern of Charlemagne? (5 points)
answer
Conquering the Norse-held lands of Sweden and Denmark
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Christian monks taught laypeople the art of stained glass, which served which of the following functions in medieval Europe? (5 points)
answer
Taught religious scripture to illiterate peasants through images
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The use of local languages in medieval literature was most revolutionary because (5 points)
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it reached a wider audience of people
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Which of the following is a characteristic of illuminated manuscripts? (5 points)
answer
They featured decorated borders and artwork that often overshadowed the text.
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Which of the following groups would be most likely to create a song out of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales? (5 points)
answer
Troubadours
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Which of the following statements about Dante Alighieri is true? (5 points)
answer
The modern Italian language was strongly influenced by his writings.
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Beowulf and The Divine Comedy are similar in that both works (5 points)
answer
influenced the development of the language in which they were written
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Use the image below to answer the following question: This is a photograph of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France. It has multiple tall and pointed arches throughout the front facing towers. One circular stained glass window is visible above the main entrance, while a similar but larger circular window is directly above the smaller one. Notre Dame Cathedral - Paris © 2012 Christopher Kramer Creative Commons, Attribution 2.0 Generic license This cathedral is built in the style known as (5 points)
answer
Gothic
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Which of the following is an example of a medieval guild? (5 points)
answer
Vassals who united to pay taxes to their feudal lords with money, as well as crops and goods from their estates
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Which answer correctly compares the first medieval merchants to merchants of the High Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
The first medieval merchants were peddlers who held little status or wealth, while merchants during the High Middle Ages formed guilds and often served in government council positions in their towns.
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Which of the following describes trade in the Late Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
Far-reaching
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Why did a money economy begin to replace the barter economy in the High Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
As trade expanded to cover greater distances, a unit of exchange became more important.
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During the Middle Ages, merchants, artisans, and their guilds contributed to the (5 points)
answer
creation of the middle class
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Why did craft guilds form in the Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
To provide structure and support for artisans who shared a trade
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The guilds, banks, and money systems, which began in Medieval Europe, (5 points)
answer
were the start of modern market economies and trade unions
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A key role of moneychangers was to help (5 points)
answer
merchants from different places exchange one type of coin for another
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The Magna Carta played a key role in the development of the system of checks and balances we use today. What purpose does this system serve? (5 points)
answer
It keeps one person or group in government from having too much power.
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Establishment of the first English Parliament gave the people (5 points)
answer
a voice in political decisions
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What role did the invasion of William the Conqueror play in the development of a national identity for England? (5 points)
answer
William the Conqueror took control of most of England's lands and, eventually, a set of common laws was established for all Englishmen.
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Which of the following was a major step in reunifying the kingdoms in Spain? (5 points)
answer
The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
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What political practice that is still in effect today has roots in the Magna Carta? (5 points)
answer
The leader of the country should consult with others before making important decisions for the people.
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How did the Magna Carta affect the development of a national identity in England? (5 points)
answer
It resulted in the establishment of the legislative body known as the English Parliament.
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Which basic principle that we use today was established by the Magna Carta? (5 points)
answer
People accused of a crime have the right to be judged by a jury of peers before receiving punishment.
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How did Alfred the Great contribute to the development of a national identity in England? (5 points)
answer
He defeated the Danes and drove them out of England.
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What is one way Feudal Europe was different than Feudal Japan? (5 points)
answer
Different estates sent warriors to fight religious wars in Europe.
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Bushi who served a lord eventually came to be called (5 points)
answer
samurai
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The samurai in Feudal Japan were similar to what social class in Feudal Europe? (5 points)
answer
Knights
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What influenced the Japanese belief that merchants did not contribute much to society? (5 points)
answer
Confucianism
question
Feudal estates sent knights to the Holy Land in the Crusades for religious reasons. What fueled warfare in Feudal Japan? (5 points)
answer
Power and wealth
question
What is one common cause of the development of feudalism in both Europe and Japan? (5 points)
answer
A weak central government
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The shogun and daimyo in Feudal Japan were similar to what social class in Feudal Europe? (5 points)
answer
Lords
question
How did tax exemptions for land reclamation programs affect the central government of Japan? (5 points)
answer
It was weakened and could not provide military protection.
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What geographical feature accounts for why camel caravans were an important innovation in trade in West Africa? (5 points)
answer
Sahara Desert
question
What geographical feature contributed to why North Africa developed so differently from southern Africa? (5 points)
answer
Sahara Desert
question
In what way was the empire of Ghana different from the later empire of Mali? (5 points)
answer
Ghana was mostly animists, and Mali had a Muslim-following leadership.
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Who was Sunni Ali? (5 points)
answer
He was a great leader of Songhai.
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Which of the following contributed to the start of civil wars and Mali's decline? (5 points)
answer
Struggles over the line of succession
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How did Mansa Musa elevate the standing of the Mali Empire in the world? (5 points)
answer
His lavish pilgrimage to Mecca made the empire of Mali and its wealth widely known.
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What important natural resource in West Africa did the Songhai Empire control? (5 points)
answer
Salt mines in the Sahara Desert
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Why was Timbuktu an important location in Mali's empire? (5 points)
answer
It was a center for learning.
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Which event marks the final stage in the collapse of the Songhai Empire? (5 points)
answer
An invasion from Morocco
question
Who founded the Kingdom of Ghana? (5 points)
answer
The Soninke
question
The Nazca civilization was established in the valleys of the Andes on the coast of which South American country? (5 points)
answer
Peru
question
Which works of art by the Olmec civilization are considered its most recognizable artifacts? (5 points)
answer
Massive carved stone heads
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Which statement about the culture of the ancient Olmec civilization is correct? (5 points)
answer
Their traditions and culture continue to survive today in modern Zapotec people.
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How do we know the Olmecs were technologically advanced? (5 points)
answer
They used latex from trees to create rubber.
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Which works demonstrate that the ChavĂ­n civilization was highly organized? (5 points)
answer
Complex drainage systems to keep structures from flooding
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Which statement accurately describes the Zapotec city of Monte AlbĂĄn? (5 points)
answer
It included pyramids, tombs, and a ball field.
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What did glyphs left by the ancient Olmec civilization tell us about their religious practices? (5 points)
answer
They believed in many gods.
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What was significant about the Olmec civilization? (5 points)
answer
The Olmec civilization had a great deal of influence on neighboring and later cultures.
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Which of the following diseases likely killed Huayna Capac and many other Inca? (5 points)
answer
Smallpox
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Incas? (5 points)
answer
The Incas spoke Quechua and did not have a written language.
question
What factor allowed the Incas to use their military efficiently? (5 points)
answer
They developed an extensive system of paved stone roads.
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Why did Pacal the Great make a connection between his mother and the divine First Mother of the Mayan religion? (5 points)
answer
To add legitimacy and stability to his reign
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How were Aztec chinampas constructed? (5 points)
answer
Raised plots for crops were built from mud in the lake bed with canals between them.
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How did Pacal the Great impact the importance of Palenque in Mayan civilization? (5 points)
answer
He conquered neighboring western Mayan states and expanded Palenque's power.
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Why did Moctezuma reorganize the Aztec government? (5 points)
answer
To better handle disasters
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A Spanish soldier describes Tenochtitlan: "The great city...has many broad streets, though among these are two or three pre-eminent. All travel by...canoes, as I have said, and without these they could neither leave their houses nor return to them." —Anonymous Spanish soldier Aztec Civilization by Lois Warburton, Lucent Books, 1995, page 60. Which of the following does this excerpt imply? (5 points)
answer
Tenochtitlan has water canals throughout the city.
question
In the matrilineal society of Ghana, who was supposed to become king when the old one died? (5 points)
answer
The son of the king's sister
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How did Mansa Musa affect the Mali Empire? (5 points)
answer
He made a pilgrimage to Mecca that boosted trade.
question
What important natural resource did the Songhai Empire control? (5 points)
answer
Salt
question
What caused the downfall of Ghana? (5 points)
answer
Climate change and Berber battles
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What did the city of Great Zimbabwe become known for? (5 points)
answer
Stone architecture
question
When Emperor Lalibela established the kingdom of Ethiopia around 1185 CE, what religion was widely practiced there? (5 points)
answer
Christianity
question
Based on the map, what can be said about the difference between trade from Songhai and trade from Mogadishu (on the eastern coast)? (5 points)
answer
Trade from Songhai was done by land, while trade in Mogadishu was done by boat.
question
Which of the following is true of the people of Great Zimbabwe? (5 points)
answer
They were skilled craftsman and builders.
question
What was the source of Axum's prosperity in the fourth century CE? (5 points)
answer
Its strategic location in the middle of African, Mediterranean, and Asian trade networks
question
What could a historian infer about the Maya from the codex pages? (5 points)
answer
Mayan writing was in the form of images.
question
Which of the following statements does the image above support? (5 points)
answer
The Nazca decorated their pottery with bold colors and a mix of figures.
question
In which modern South American country was the Moche civilization located? (5 points)
answer
Peru
question
Which fact provides clear evidence that the Maya were influenced by the Olmec? (5 points)
answer
Olmec-influenced artifacts have been found within Mayan ruins.
question
Some archaeologists debate the type of influence the Olmec had on later Mesoamerican cultures. They generally argue one of these ideas: 1) All later Mesoamerican cultures all derived from the Olmec. 2) The Olmec freely communicated ideas with other contemporary peoples. Which of the following possible scenarios, if true, supports the second argument? (5 points)
answer
The Olmecs developed the idea of the ball court and disseminated this idea to other later cultures like the Aztecs and Maya.
question
What happened as a result of the Zapotecs agreeing to be ruled by the Spanish? (5 points)
answer
The Zapotec king became Christian.
question
Which of the following resulted from the formation of the "Triple Alliance"? (5 points)
answer
The continued expansion and conquests of the Aztecs
question
What did the Aztec and Spanish calendars have in common? (5 points)
answer
They had days designated for religious observances.
question
Which of the following is true of the time measurement systems used by ancient Mesoamerican and South American cultures? (5 points)
answer
The Incas, Aztecs, and Mayans all had calendars.
question
What conclusion did historians draw about the Incas after the discovery of Machu Picchu? (5 points)
answer
The Incas were skilled engineers.
question
If a historian knew the dates of all the pyramids, what could he or she tell by comparing the 10 different styles? (5 points)
answer
Which cultures influenced each other
question
Who was at the top of the Inca social structure? (5 points)
answer
The emperor
question
What role did runners play in Inca society? (5 points)
answer
They carried messages between different parts of the empire.
question
What did conquered peoples have to do in Incan society? (5 points)
answer
They had to pay a labor tax by working for the government.
question
Consider the Mayan writing on this stone stele. How does this writing system differ from that of the Inca? (5 points)
answer
The Maya had picture writing, while the Inca used knotted cords.
question
In what way was the Mayan civilization different from the Aztec and Inca civilizations? (5 points)
answer
The Aztec and Inca had large, united empires, but the Maya did not.
question
What motivated Moctezuma I to reorganize the Aztec government? (5 points)
answer
The massive toll of the famine
question
Apart from military conquest, what features do the reigns of Pacal the Great, Huayna Capac, and Moctezuma I have in common? (5 points)
answer
Large-scale public works projects
question
During Pacal the Great's reign, he rebuilt much of Palenque, placing his name and likeness on most of the buildings. What might have motivated him to do this? (5 points)
answer
He felt the need to justify the legitimacy of his claim to the throne.
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What might account for the fact that developed countries were more affected than developing countries during the H1N1 pandemic? (5 points)
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People in developed countries traveled more and exposed more people.
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Use the following excerpt from Boccaccio's The Decameron to answer the following question: "In the year of our Lord 1348, there happened at Florence, the finest city in all Italy a most terrible plague; which, whether owing to the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the Levant (Middle East) and, after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc all the way, had now reached the west..." Public Domain How does Boccaccio let you know that he recognized that the plague spread widely from one location to another? (5 points)
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He states that it spread from the Middle East.
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How could the spread of AIDS in Africa affect the economies of that continent? (5 points)
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A drop in the number and productivity of workers
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What does this map indicate about the dispersion of H1N1 cases in 2009? (5 points)
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The developed countries were affected more than the developing countries.
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Use the following excerpt from Boccaccio's The Decameron to answer the following question: "In the year of our Lord 1348, there happened at Florence, the finest city in all Italy a most terrible plague; which, whether owing to the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the Levant (Middle East) and, after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc all the way, had now reached the west..." Public Domain According to Boccaccio, what did some people believe to be the cause of the plague? (5 points)
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Sins
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Use the following excerpt from Boccaccio's The Decameron to answer the following question: "In the year of our Lord 1348, there happened at Florence, the finest city in all Italy a most terrible plague; which, whether owing to the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the Levant (Middle East) and, after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc all the way, had now reached the west... " Public Domain Based on the passage, how would Boccaccio likely feel about the actions of the flagellants, who warned Christians to repent? (5 points)
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He would find their actions appropriate because he believed human sin may have caused the plague.
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Which of the following was not an effect of the Great Famine of 1315? (5 points)
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Southern European countries were more heavily affected than northern European countries.
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Considering the dangers associated with spreading a disease, why are people who are affected by communicable diseases told not to travel on airplanes? (5 points)
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The tight cabin space makes it easier for the disease to spread.
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How did Milan grow to be an important city-state in Italy? (5 points)
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It had a strong, aggressive military force that conquered many cities.
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How did Venice acquire the nearby cities of Verona and Padua? (5 points)
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It hired professional soldiers called mercenaries to conquer the lands.
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Rome's income was mostly provided by (5 points)
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religious pilgrims and church business
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What is an appropriate label for the yellow line in this map (5 points)
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Venetian Sea Trade Routes
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Which of these choices best describes Italy in the 15th century? (5 points)
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A collection of small kingdoms and city-states
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Who held the most power in the Italian city-states? (5 points)
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The wealthiest people
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How were 12th century Italian communes governed? (5 points)
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With a form of democratic government
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Unlike the monarchy in a feudal system, the wealthy and powerful citizens who controlled Italian city-states were more focused on (5 points)
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economic activity and development
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Which of the following represents one of Desiderius Erasmus's main contributions to the move toward the Protestant Reformation? (5 points)
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Exposing corruption in the Church
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Jan Hus is known for his criticism of (5 points)
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simony and the sale of indulgences
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Huldrych Zwingli's supporters, the Anabaptists, believed (5 points)
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adults, not children, should be baptized
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What was the Counter-Reformation? (5 points)
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A series of actions by the Catholic Church intended to spread and defend the Catholic faith
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How did the Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Reformation? (5 points)
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The pope called for a meeting of all church leaders.
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What were Martin Luther's 95 Theses? (5 points)
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Critical statements about the Church nailed to a church door
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Desiderius Erasmus worked to (5 points)
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establish a middle ground between Catholics and Protestants
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Which of the following represents a contrast between the ideas of Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin? (5 points)
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Calvin believed in the creation of a Christian state, while Zwingli thought church and state should be separate.
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The creation of the Index of Forbidden Books by the Church was in part a result of which of the following? (5 points)
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A lack of trust in the ability of the faithful to read texts without being led astray
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Why were medieval ships unsuited for long-distance voyages? (5 points)
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Medieval ships were designed mostly for battle.
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How did mercantilism operate as a push factor for some European states during the Age of Exploration? (5 points)
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Mercantilism pushed some states to find more profitable trade routes to the east.
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What does the trade deal Vasco da Gama made in India demonstrate about some of the motivations for exploration? (5 points)
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It demonstrates that the Portuguese were hoping to profit from exploration.
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Which of the following explorers led a voyage that ultimately circumnavigated the globe? (5 points)
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Ferdinand Magellan
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How were the explorations of John Cabot and Christopher Columbus similar? (5 points)
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Both were commissioned explorers.
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Which of the following was a pull factor that caused the Dutch to explore the Indies? (5 points)
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The desire to profit from the trade of pepper and other spices found in the Indies
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How was the Dutch expedition to the Indies different from the Portuguese attempts to find new trade routes? (5 points)
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The Dutch expedition was funded as a private enterprise.
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Why did the Catholic Church express interest in the exploration of foreign lands? (5 points)
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The Catholic Church was interested in gaining new converts to the religion.
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Why might the Italian city-states have resisted the exploration around the world? (5 points)
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The discovery of new trade routes to the east threatened the city-state's control over that trade.
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What might be the cargo of a ship moving from New England to West Africa in the trans-Atlantic slave trade? (5 points)
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Rum
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How do scholars believe slavery most likely began? (5 points)
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Prisoners captured during war were forced to farm land for their captors.
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Why did the Atlantic slave trade from Africa begin? (5 points)
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European powers needed African workers for their sugar plantations.
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How were slaves used by the Maya and the Aztecs? (5 points)
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Slaves were sometimes used as a sacrifice to the gods.
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How was the Atlantic slave trade beneficial for merchants in Europe? (5 points)
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They had a new market in West Africa for their manufactured goods.
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Works like the autobiography of Olaudah Equiano helped expose (5 points)
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the brutal conditions of slavery
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In East Asia, one way slaves were acquired was through which of the following? (5 points)
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Capture in war
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How did the Atlantic slave trade benefit the Africans? (5 points)
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Africans eliminated warriors in rival tribes by selling or trading captured prisoners to slave traders.
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Abraham
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There is a painting by Anthony Van Dyke, painted around 1617 CE, showing what the artist imagined Abraham and Isaac to look like. Who: A Mesopotamian man thought to have lived around 1800 BCE. Abraham features prominently in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an and is an important figure in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Significance: Abraham is believed to be the patriarch of the three major monotheistic religions. Abraham was one of the first people to teach the idea that there is only one God.
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Moses
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There is a painting that shows an artist's imagining of Moses holding a tablet that represents the Ten Commandments. Who: Moses was a Jewish prophet and leader, descended from Isaac, who lived during the 14th century BC. According to tradition, he led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt in what is known as the Exodus. Significance: He is the most important figure in Judaism, believed to have written the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible). Moses is an important prophet in both Christianity and Islam.
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Jesus
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There is a painting showing a depiction of Jesus as Christ. Jesus is seen holding an open book, presumably the Bible. Who: Jesus was a Jewish man and teacher believed by Christians to be the Son of God and the Messiah. He lived in the Roman province of Judaea (now part of modern-day Israel) during the first century CE. Significance: He is the most important figure in Christianity, held by tradition to have been the Son of God. Christians believe that Jesus allowed himself to be crucified by the Romans to atone for the sins of humanity.
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Muhammad
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There is an image of a Western artist's portrayal of Muhammad. Muhammad is shown wearing a turban while holding a book and gesturing with his right hand. Who: Muhammad was an Arab merchant who lived during the sixth and seventh centuries CE. He spent most of his life in the city of Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula (modern-day Saudi Arabia), before migrating with his followers to Medina. Significance: Muhammad is the founder of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the last in a line of prophets of God. His prophesies, collected in the Qur'an, are believed by Muslims to be the word of God.
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Five Pillars of Islam
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There is an image of Muslim pilgrims arriving at Mecca to perform the hajj, one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The pilgrims are all dressed in similar white robes, and their feet are bare. What: The Five Pillars of Islam are a set of acts considered by Muslims to be central to their faith. They are shahadah (statement of belief), salat (daily prayers), sawm (fasting) during Ramadan, zakat (alms-giving), and hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). Significance: Muslims believe that observation of the Five Pillars is a sign of commitment to Islam.
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Merovingian
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There is a painting of King Clovis I. He is shown with a long red beard and long red hair. He wears a red robe and gold crown. He holds a golden staff in his right hand (the viewer's left) and has his left hand (viewer's right) on his sword which is in its scabbard. What: The Merovingians were a line of Frankish kings beginning with Clovis I. The Merovingians were a group of Germanic Franks that established a kingdom in the old Roman province of Gaul in the wake of the collapse of the Western Empire. The Frankish line began in 481 CE, though it had its roots in earlier tribal leaders. Clovis I, who converted to Christianity, was a brutal man who expanded his territory at the expense of other kingdoms, and even his own relatives. Significance: The Merovingians ruled Gaul (present-day France) for approximately 200 years. But the expansion of the kingdom and Clovis's acceptance of Christianity helped to spread the influence of Christianity across Europe.
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Charlemagne
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There is a painting of Charlemagne being greeted by monks. At the left of the image is a man on a horse. He is being greeted by a man in the center of the picture who wears a cape and crown. To the right of the man in the cape and crown are three figures of monks and a castle. Who: Charlemagne was a Frankish king who united the Franks and conquered neighboring lands in the old Roman province of Gaul. Born in 742 CE, Charlemagne was a pious Christian who sought to reform the church and improve education in his kingdom. Significance: Charlemagne laid the groundwork for political and economic patterns that would dominate the rest of the medieval period in Europe; conquests formed the basis of what would be the Holy Roman Empire.
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Holy Roman Empire
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There is a map showing Europe with the area of the Holy Roman Empire colored pink and all other land colored grey. The Holy Roman Empire is bounded by France to the west, the Baltic Sea to the north, and Poland to the east, and it extends into northern Italy in the south. What: The Holy Roman Empire was an empire composed of lands in Central Europe, largely comprising what is now Germany. Its origins go back to the empire of Charlemagne, but the actual Holy Roman Empire didn't begin until 962 with Otto I. Significance: The empire was a major political power in Europe for a long time, and continued to exist for over 800 years. The empire, and its relationship with the Church in Rome, helped to spread the influence of Christianity throughout northern Europe.
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Crusades
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There is a map of the First Crusade. The Christian lands included the Holy Roman Empire (Central Europe), the Byzantine Empire (the Balkan Peninsula and western Turkey), Portugal, Leon, Castile, the Kingdom of Sicily, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, England, and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Seas. The Muslim lands included Africa, southern and eastern Spain, the Arabian Peninsula, and Southwestern Asia. The first Crusade spread through Metz, Regensburg, Constantinople, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, Acre, Jerusalem, Genoa, Rome, and Venice. What: The Crusades were a series of military expeditions between the 11th and 13th centuries on behalf of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches to establish control over the Holy Land. Christians had been making pilgrimages to the Holy Land for years. But, these pilgrimages stopped as a product of the prohibitive tactics of the Seljuk Turks. When the Byzantine emperor was looking for a way to check the Turkish advance, he used the general Christian passions about the Holy Land to launch holy wars against Turks. Significance: While the Crusades ultimately failed to maintain control of the Holy Land, they did succeed in expanding the medieval European world, bringing Muslim knowledge to medieval Europe, and increasing the wealth and power of the Catholic Church.
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Pope Urban II
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There is a painting of Pope Urban II standing at a pulpit inside a large cathedral, with hundreds of men seated before him. Pope Urban II is wearing a red robe and holding a staff in his left hand. Each of the men seated are wearing tan, red, and blue robes. Along the sides of the building are individual statues placed upon pedestals at the base of extremely tall walls. Who: Pope Urban II was a Roman Catholic pope between the years 1088-1099. He is most famous for responding to the Byzantine emperor's plea for help defending the empire against the Turks by vigorously calling for Christians to begin a holy war. Significance: Pope Urban II called the Council of Clermont and issued a call for the First Crusade.
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Richard the Lionheart
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There is a painting of King Richard and Philip II receiving the keys to Acra. The painting shows the two kings sitting in a tent while two raggedly dressed men kneeling before them offer up a key. In the background is a large castle. Who: English King Richard I was known as "the Lionheart" for his bravery and leadership in battle. He is most famous for participating in and leading the Third Crusade. He battled with and won many victories against the Muslim military leader Saladin; however, he was never able to win back Jerusalem. Significance: While his leadership in the Third Crusade is his most famous achievement, he is also prominent in some English folklore. According to the legend, it is in King Richard's absence that the circumstances that brought about Robin Hood resulted.
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Saladin
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There is a painting of Saladin after the battle of Hattin in 1187. Saladin is sitting under a tent and is surrounded by armed guards, soldiers, and horses. There are several other tents and many other soldiers in the background. Christian knights are laying down their swords in front of him. Who: Saladin was a Kurdish Muslim warrior who gained prominence fighting in the Holy Land against the Crusaders. In 1187, he successfully conducted a coordinated force that retook Jerusalem in 1187. Significance: Saladin is most important for his role in uniting the Muslims of Egypt, Syria, and surrounding lands and in driving the Christian Crusaders out of Jerusalem. Before Saladin, the major weakness of the Muslim defenders was their disunity.
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Sundiata Keita
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There is a two-color map that shows the extent of the Mali Empire at its height. The image shows West Africa with the Mali Empire colored in green. The green of the Songhai Empire covers parts of what are now Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania, and Mali. The cities of Koumbi Saleh, Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenna are also marked. Who: Sundiata Keita, whose name means "hungering lion," was the first king of Mali. He founded the kingdom in 1235 CE. Later, he expanded the kingdom's territory to include parts of the Kingdom of Ghana. Significance: Sundiata Keita was the founder of the Kingdom of Mali. He reestablished the gold and salt trade. He is also a major figure in the oral histories of West Africa.
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Mansa Musa
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There is a detailed color drawing of a map showing Mansa Musa. It is from an atlas of the known world created in 1375 CE. The image shows a bearded black man center, seated on a low throne with a red pillow or cloth. The man's legs are crossed. He wears a European-style gold crown and holds a gold scepter in his right hand and a gold nugget in his left. He is surrounded by symbols, lines, and writing that refer to other elements of the map. Who: Mansa Musa was a king of the Mali Empire who came to power in 1312 CE and ruled for 20 years. During his reign Mansa Musa went on an extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca. The volume of gold he spent during this pilgrimage was so high that it was reported to have altered the value of gold in the area. Significance: Mansa Musa's devotion to Islam caused the religion to flourish in the region. His pilgrimage to Mecca made Mali famous, which in turn increased trade and made the Kingdom of Mali richer and more powerful. Finally Mansa Musa brought Arab and Islamic scholars, scientists, and architects to Timbuktu, fostering developments in learning and making the city an important intellectual center.
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Sonni Ali the Great
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There is a two-color map that shows the extent of the Songhai Empire. The image shows West Africa with the Songhai Empire colored in green. The green of the Songhai Empire covers parts of what are now Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, and Niger among others. The cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenne are also marked. Who: Sonni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire who ruled from 1464 to 1492 CE. By the end of his reign, the Songhai Empire grew larger even than the Mali Empire. Though not a Muslim, Sonni Ali allowed the practice of Islam, and practiced a kind of Islam which combined elements of the religion with local animist beliefs. Significance: Sonni Ali was the founder of the Songhai Empire. His acceptance of Islam and his unusual practice of it helped to spread the religion into more areas of West Africa.
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Askia Muhammad
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There is a color picture of Askia Muhammad's tomb. It shows a square-ish mud-brick structure with sticks protruding from the brick. Who: Askia Muhammad ruled the Soghia Empire from 1593 to 1628 CE. He was overthrown by his son. During his reign, Askia Muhammad expanded the empire and increased its power. Significance: Askia Muhammad strengthened the Songhai Empire and founded the Askia Dynasty. Muhammad Askia practiced traditional Islam and he made that religion the official religion of the Songhai Empire. The empire's civil code became the Quran, and the official language became Arabic.
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Bantu Migration
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There is a map of Africa showing the Bantu migrations. It shows the continent of Africa with three sets of broad arrows emanating from West Africa around the area of present-day Nigeria and Congo to East, Central, and South Africa. What: Beginning around 2000 BCE, Bantu-speaking peoples of the Niger and Bhenu River Valleys moved into East, Central, and South Africa. Significance: The Bantu migration changed the culture of East, Central, and South Africa. They spread their language and traditions, which included their agricultural skill and knowledge of ironworking into these new areas. The Bantu also helped smaller communities grow into kingdoms.
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Swahili Coast
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There is a color photograph of the three modern Dhow sailboats. The Dhow has one very large triangular sail. The ships are open and relatively small. They are sailing through choppy waters. What: Swahili means "of the coast" in Arabic. The Swahili Coast was an area of east Africa where in the eighth century CE, Arab and Indian traders established new port cities along the Indian Ocean. These cities included Mogadishu, Malindi, Mombasa, and Kilwa. Significance: The Swahili Coast became an important and powerful trading region. The combination of cultures in these trading centers created the language Swahili, a combination of Bantu languages and Arabic, as well as a unique Swahili culture.
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Great Zimbabwe
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There is a black-and-white sketch of part of the ruins at Great Zimbabwe. It shows a large curved stone wall in the right foreground with a large open entryway. What: Great Zimbabwe was a kingdom from the 11th through the 15th centuries CE in southeastern Zimbabwe, known today for its pottery and curved stone architecture. Significance: Great Zimbabwe was a major African kingdom and city-state. It sent interior trade goods to cities along the Indian Coast, especially gold.
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Kilwa
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There is a color photograph that shows part of the Great Mosque at Kilwa. This image is of a series of gracefully-curved stone columns and arches. What: Kilwa is an island just off the coast of Tanzania. Kilwa was also an important trading city along the Swahili Coast. It was founded in the 10th century CE by the Persian Prince Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi, who began the city as a sultanate. Significance: Kilwa was among the most powerful cities on the East African coast, and it also helped spread Islam and Islamic culture throughout the region.
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Prince Henry
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Image Description: This is a color illustration of Prince Henry of Portugal. It shows the head and shoulders of a white, middle-aged man. He has a mustache and short hair. He wears a black hat with long drooping sides and an orange robe with a small black collar. Who: Prince Henry was a prince of Portugal and an early explorer. Prince Henry sailed along the coast of Africa where he "discovered" the island of Madeira (1419), passed Cape Verde, and landed on the Azores (1427). In 1445, Prince Henry and his men reached Senegal, where they constructed the first European fort on the African continent. Significance: Prince Henry's journeys established Portuguese dominance in early exploration. The contact with West Africa gave the Portuguese a foothold on the continent and in the later African slave trade.
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Bartolomeo Dias
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Image Description: This image shows Bartolomeo Dias's route. It is a map of the world with an arrow from Portugal around Africa. Who: Bartolomeo Dias was a Portuguese explorer in the late 15th century. In 1488, he was the first European to sail around the base of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. This journey provided Europe with a sea route from Europe to India. Significance: This journey gave Portugal a distinct edge in the lucrative spice trade. Dias's journey also brought knowledge of coastal Africa to Europe, which led ultimately to the Portuguese slave trade.
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Vasco da Gama
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Image Description: This image shows Vasco da Gama's route. It is a map of the world with an arrow from Portugal around Africa, across the Indian Ocean, to the east coast of India. Who: Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer who, in 1497, sailed around Africa to the east coast of India. He then negotiated a good trade deal between India and Portugal. Significance: Da Gama's explorations brought Portugal increased wealth and power and provided new sea routes to India.
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Christopher Columbus
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Image Description: This is a map of Christopher Columbus's four journeys from Spain to America. It shows the western portion of Spain and West Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, and portions of North, Central, and South America. Each journey is represented by an arrow in a different color. The arrows all originate in Spain. They each cross the Atlantic at different latitudes and touch upon the Caribbean Islands and portions of northern South America that Columbus visited. Who: Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer who sailed for Spain. He was the first European since the Vikings to visit the Americas. Columbus made four voyages; his most famous was the first in 1492. The other three took place in 1493, 1498, and 1502. Significance: Columbus's "discovery" of the land between Europe and Asia set off the conquest of those lands, particularly by Spain. It also began the Columbian Exchange of animals, plants, and diseases. This exchange changed the world and led to the destruction of many Native American people, who died from contact with European diseases.
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Ferdinand Magellan
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Image Description: This image shows Ferdinand Magellan's route around the world. It is a map of the world with an arrow from Spain across the Atlantic and around the bottom of South America, then across the Pacific Ocean, then between Indonesia and Australia, across the Indian Ocean, around the bottom of Africa and, up the African coast back to Spain. Who: Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer in the late 15th and early 16th century. In 1519, sailing for Spain, Magellan set out to find a route to Asia by sailing west. The expedition reached the Philippines in 1522, where Magellan was killed. The remainder of his ships and crew returned to Spain the same year, becoming the first expedition in history to sail all the way around the earth. Significance: Magellan's journey gave Spain enormous power and prestige. It also gave Europeans a route around South America and introduced Europe to the Pacific Ocean. The journey added to European knowledge of the earth.
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Hernan Cortés
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Image Description: This is a contemporary image of Hernan Cortés. It shows the head of a man who has short hair, slightly receding hairline, and a sparse beard and mustache. He wears a high collared jacket with some lace at the top of the collar. Tilted to the side on his head is a black beret-like hat with a feather coming out of it. Who: Hernan Cortés was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. From 1519 to 1521, he led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire of Mexico. Significance: Cortés' conquest of the Aztecs earned him awards and enemies in the Spanish empire. Ultimately, however, his conquest of the Aztecs gave Spain control over Mexico.
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Francisco Pizarro
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Image Description: This is a black-and-white image of Francisco Pizarro. It shows the head and torso of a white man wearing armor. He has a long beard and across the armor is a sash. Feathers sprout out of the top of his helmet. Who: Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan people of Peru and Ecuador in 1533. Significance: Pizarro's conquest gave Spain control over the west coast of South America, much of the Andes mountain range, and all the Incan wealth.
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Triangular Trade
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Image Description: This is a map of the triangular trade between Africa, the Americas, and Europe. It shows the Atlantic Ocean bordered by portions of North and South America, Africa, and Europe. There are three big red arrows on the map. These arrows go roughly from Africa to the Americas, from the Americas to Europe, and from Europe to Africa, and together form a triangle. Beside each arrow is what was exchanged as that area's part of the triangular trade. Next to Africa the text reads "Textiles, rum, and manufactured goods to Africa". Next to the Americas the text reads, "Slaves to the Americas". Next to Europe the text reads, "Sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Europe". What: The triangular trade is the name for the trade between Africa, the Americas, and Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the trade, slaves were brought from Africa to the Americas. The slaves provided the labor to grow the sugar, tobacco, and cotton, which were then sold to Europe. The sugar and cotton were manufactured in Europe into textiles and rum, which were then traded in Africa (along with other manufactured goods) for slaves. Significance: The triangular trade provided for much of Europe's growth and prosperity in this era. It was crucial to the development and prosperity of the American colonies. It enslaved or killed millions of Africans.
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Bartolome de las Casas
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Image Description: This is a painting of Bartolome de las Casas. It shows him wearing a monk's rob and seated at a desk writing. Who: Bartolome de las Casas was a Spanish missionary who traveled to the New World in the early 16th century as a missionary. He was horrified by what he saw: the brutal treatment, enslavement, and murder of Native people. He wrote several essays and a book. For this work, he became known as "Apostle to the Indians." Significance: By publicizing the condition of native people, de las Casas helped to bring about some reforms. Today, his work also serves as a rare and important history of the Spanish conquest.
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Olaudah Equiano
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Image Description: This is an image of Olaudah Equiano. This image shows him dressed in European clothing and holding a book with his right hand. Who: Olaudah Equiano, also known as Gustavus Vassa, was an African who was kidnapped and forced into slavery in about 1756. As an adult, he was able to purchased his own freedom. In 1789, he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. This work describes the brutal conditions of slavery and the slave trade. Significance: Equiano became an important abolitionist. His book influenced many people to join the abolition movement. Its influence helped pass the law that ended the British slave trade
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question
Which of the following regions did not become part of the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Britain
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Which of the following was located in the Eastern Roman Empire? (5 points)
answer
Anatolia
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In the above map, prefecture refers to a district of the Byzantine Empire. Which of the following did Justinian I reconquer? (5 points)
answer
Prefecture of Africa
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Which of the following would be the longest distance to travel by sea? (5 points)
answer
Spain to Palestine
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In which of the following cities would people have found the center of the Byzantine government in Italy? (5 points)
answer
Ravenna
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Which of the following cities was known as the Byzantine Empire's economic and religious center? (5 points)
answer
Constantinople
question
In what ways is the Holy Land an important site for all three monotheistic faiths?
answer
The Holy Land is extremely important to all three of the monotheistic religions. For Jews, it is considered the promise land that God had long planned for them to reach. For Christians, it is the place where Jesus himself was resurrected for the world's sins. Lastly, for Muslims it is a recognized stopping point in the journey of Muhammad.
question
The three major monotheistic religions are sometimes described as branches of the same family tree. If this is true, how would you describe the trunk of the tree.
answer
The trunk of the tree would be Abraham, for he started the family line over 4,000 years ago in Canaan.
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What is 1 similarity of the 3 religions?
answer
All three religions look to Abraham as the father of the earthly religion. They just choose to look at him differently. For example, Abraham had two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, Christians and Jews focus on Isaac and his family line (Moses and Jesus). While Muslims focus on Ishmael who is a descendant of Muhammed.
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What is 1 difference between the three religions?
answer
One large difference is in the books these religions follow. Christians read and follow the bible, while Jews read the Torah, and Muslims read the Qur'an.
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What types of internal differences and divisions exist within each religion?
answer
Within christianity, there are many different groups and divisions. For example, there are baptist christians, Catholic Christians, etc. Within Judaism, there are difference divisions as well, like orthodox Jews or reformist Jews. In Islam there are two different main groups, Sunni and Shi'a Islam. Their beliefs differ on who they believe should run the Islamic community.
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What impact did the Frankish leader Charles Martel have on Christian Europe's relations with Muslim Spain in the eighth century? (5 points)
answer
He stopped the Muslim advance from Spain into France.
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If you traveled to the Spanish city of CĂłrdoba in the 10th century, which of the following would you not find? (5 points)
answer
A government free from Islamic influence
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Which of the following statements best describes Islam's spread from the 7th century through the 17th century? (5 points)
answer
Military conquests by the Arab Empire and traders of Islamic faith were the primary means for spreading Islam to Africa, Europe, and Asia.
question
From this 16th-century illustration, we can see that which of the following played a large part in the Mughal Empire's rise to power? (5 points)
answer
It had the advantage of gunpowder.
question
What was the significance of the battle at Poitiers in France in 732 CE? (5 points)
answer
It showed that Europeans were unwilling to allow further Islamic expansion into Europe.
question
In what way was the Islamic expansion into India similar to the way Islam expanded in other areas? (5 points)
answer
Islamic expansion into India was facilitated by both Islamic merchants and conquerors.
question
"The city of Baghdad formed two vast semi-circles on the right and left banks of the Tigris, twelve miles in diameter. The numerous suburbs, covered with parks, gardens, villas and beautiful promenades, and plentifully supplied with rich bazaars, and finely built mosques and baths, stretched for a considerable distance on both sides of the river. In the days of its prosperity the population of Baghdad and its suburbs amounted to over two millions! ...The long wide estrades at the different gates of the city were used by the citizens for gossip and recreation or for watching the flow of travelers and country folk into the capital. The different nationalities in the capital had each a head officer to represent their interests with the government, and to whom the stranger could appeal for counsel or help." —William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 365-367 Considering this excerpt written by the Arab geographer Yakut in the 13th century, what can we say about Islamic Baghdad at that time? (5 points)
answer
It tolerated a diverse population.
question
"Andalus (the Iberian peninsula), which was conquered in the year 92 of the Hijra, continued for many years to be a dependency of the Eastern Khalifate, until it was snatched away from their hands by one of the surviving members of the family of Umeyyah (Umayyad), who, crossing over from Barbary, subdued the country, and formed therein an independent kingdom, which he transmitted to his posterity. During three centuries and a half, Andalus, governed by the princes of this dynasty, reached the utmost degree of power and prosperity, until civil war breaking out among its inhabitants, the Muslims, weakened by internal discord, became every where the prey of the artful Christians, and the territory of Islam was considerably reduced, so much so that at the present moment the worshippers of the crucified hold the greatest part of Andalus in their hands, and their country is divided into various powerful kingdoms, whose rulers assist each other whenever the Muslims attack their territories." —Ibn Said, Book of the Maghrib, in Ahmed ibm Mohammed al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, translated by Pascuual de Gayangos s, (London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1840), 1, 95-102 According to this source, why did Muslim al-Andalus fall? (5 points)
answer
It fell because the divisions within the empire made it vulnerable to attack.
question
How did religious leaders attempt to resolve the Iconoclast Controversy? (5 points)
answer
Religious councils were formed to try to settle the issue.
question
Which of the following correctly describes Prince Odoacer's role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire? (5 points)
answer
Prince Odoacer forced Augustulus to hand over his crown, and Germanic kingdoms claimed the land.
question
How did Constantinople's Church of Hagia Sophia demonstrate how the Byzantine Empire blended with the old Roman Empire? (5 points)
answer
The church combined both Greek and Roman architecture, and became a melting pot where Eastern and Western cultures came together.
question
When Constantine rebuilt Byzantium, it was called "New Rome" because Constantine (5 points)
answer
built it to resemble "Old Rome"
question
How did the political and religious ideas of the Byzantine Empire compare with the Western Empire? (5 points)
answer
The Byzantine emperor was considered to be the highest political and religious figure. In the Western Empire, the highest political and religious figures were two different people.
question
Which statement best describes what happened when Constantine tried to establish "New Rome"? (5 points)
answer
He was successful in building a new political center in the East, unified by the Christian religion.
question
Who was John of Damascus? (5 points)
answer
He was a writer/monk who strongly defended the use of icons.
question
Cyril and Methodius were missionaries to the Slavs who (5 points)
answer
translated the Bible into the new alphabet written for the Slavic language
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What was an effect of the Iconoclastic Controversy? (5 points)
answer
The revolts against Byzantine rulers began, illustrating a severe break in relations between East and West.
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Which statement describes an impact of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire on Europe? (5 points)
answer
Former Roman lands were split up and claimed by Germanic kingdoms.
question
"But when the corn-lands had no more grain and all the Romans (Byzantines) had come into an exceedingly evil plight, they surrounded Belisarius and tried to compel him to stake everything on a single battle with the enemy (Goths), promising that not one of the Romans (Byzantines) would be absent from the engagement." —History of the Wars, Book VI, Article III According to the passage, why did the Byzantines want Belisarius to stake everything in a single battle against the Goths? (5 points)
answer
To prevent starving to death
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about Justinian I? (5 points)
answer
He supported the building of the Hagia Sophia.
question
Why did Justinian I fail to regain all of the former provinces of the old Roman Empire? (5 points)
answer
His army and finances were weakened by plague.
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Justinian Code? (5 points)
answer
It supported a woman's right to inherit property.
question
"A person who takes a thing belonging to another by force is liable to an action of theft, for who can be said to take the property of another more against his will than he who takes it by force?" —Justinian Code, Institutes, Book IV, Chapter 2 According to the law above, which of the following is a thief? (5 points)
answer
A person who takes another person's wallet by force
question
How did Justinian gain the throne? (5 points)
answer
His uncle made him co-emperor.
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Which of the following were members of the aristocracy in Byzantine society? (5 points)
answer
Wealthy landowners
question
This mosaic shows a Byzantine emperor and his attendants. Examine the image and use the clues you find there to answer the question. Which of the following types of attendants are represented in this mosaic? (5 points)
answer
Soldiers
question
"Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master. 2. But at the present day none of our subjects may use unrestrained violence towards their slaves, except for a reason recognized by law. For, by a constitutio of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, he who without any reason kills his own slave is to be punished equally with one who has killed the slave of another." —The Institutes, Book I, Chapter VIII According to the above law, which of the following statements is true? (5 points)
answer
Masters were allowed to kill their own slaves, if they had a reason for doing so.
question
The lines below express a belief recited by followers of Islam. "All praise is due to ALLAH alone, Lord of all the worlds. The Gracious, the Merciful. Master of the day of Judgment." In which of the following do these lines appear? (5 points)
answer
Qur'an
question
Which of the following best describes the hajj for Muslims? (5 points)
answer
A duty of Muslims to journey to the sacred city of Mecca
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What do the three Abrahamic faiths—Christianity, Islam, and Judaism—have in common? (5 points)
answer
All believe in one god.
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Which of the following is believed by Christians, but not by Muslims? (5 points)
answer
Jesus rose from the dead.
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Which of the following was a cause for revolt against Islamic rule in conquered territories? (5 points)
answer
Higher taxes required of non-Muslims
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What does the map reveal about the early expansion of Islam? (5 points)
answer
Expansion efforts originated in the city of Medina.
question
Which of the following was not a goal of the Crusades? (5 points)
answer
Modernizing the technology of Europe
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What was the primary effect of cultural exchange between Europe and the Islamic world? (5 points)
answer
Muslim goods and knowledge led to some advancements in European society.
question
Which religious group has resisted Islamic influence and power in India? (5 points)
answer
Hindus
question
What is Al-Azhar? (5 points)
answer
An Islamic center of learning in Cairo, Egyp
question
What was the main purpose of the House of Wisdom, built by the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad? (5 points)
answer
Translating ancient great works of literature into the Arabic language
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Which of the following best describes the architectural style of the Islamic Golden Age? (5 points)
answer
Ornate and patterned
question
What city did the Abbasid dynasty build in a strategic location to serve as the capital of the Islamic Empire? (5 points)
answer
Baghdad
question
Suppose an archeologist finds a 10th-century gold coin from the Abbasid Caliphate in a Viking grave in Norway, thousands of miles away. For what purpose is the coin most useful as a primary source? (5 points)
answer
Evidence about 10th-century trade networks
question
Which of the following is true of the Roman Empire at the end of the fourth century CE? (5 points)
answer
Christianity was the official religion, as established by Constantine the Great.
question
Use the image of Constantine the Great and the Roman sun god to answer the following question: Image of a gold coin showing Constantine with a Roman sun god. Public Domain What does this image suggest about Constantine? (5 points)
answer
He understood that he ruled an empire with many faiths.
question
Which of the following disagreements was the root cause of the Iconoclast Controversy of the eighth and ninth centuries? (5 points)
answer
Whether images of people should be part of church worship
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Use the image of Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I holding up an icon and standing on Patriarch John VII of Constantinople to answer the following question: Image of Nikephoros I holding up an icon and standing on Patriarch John VII of Constantinople. Public Domain Based on the image, which of the following conclusions can be drawn about the Iconoclast Controversy? (5 points)
answer
The dispute about the use of icons caused conflict within the Eastern Church, as well as with the Western Church.
question
Which Byzantine leader restored the use of icons in 843 CE, after the death of Theophilus? (5 points)
answer
Theodora
question
Which statement describes a similarity between the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Both empires shared like laws and traditions.
question
Which of the following statements about the idea of combining secular government with religious authority in both the Roman and Byzantine empires is true? (5 points)
answer
Constantine's efforts to rule in church affairs within the Byzantine Empire marked a change in the relationship between the church and government.
question
What great contribution did monks make during the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Preservation of Greek and Roman works
question
What Byzantine city was a wealthy center of trade that maintained the commercial links between Europe and Asia? (5 points)
answer
Constantinople
question
Which of the following leaders attempted but failed to regain the provinces of the Western Roman Empire under the Byzantine Empire due to financial problems? (5 points)
answer
Justinian I
question
Which of the following was part of the Byzantine Empire in 565 A.D. (CE) and 1360 A.D. (CE)? (5 points)
answer
Constantinople
question
Which of the following cities did the Byzantine Empire not control during its height? (5 points)
answer
Babylon
question
In what way did the Christian Crusades contribute to the decline of the Byzantine Empire? (5 points)
answer
Latin Crusaders turned against the Byzantines, leading to the loss of much territory.
question
What event was the most significant in damaging the strength of the Byzantine Empire during the Crusades? (5 points)
answer
Alexius failed to deal with the Venetians and other Crusaders after he enlisted their help.
question
What group conquered Constantinople in 1453 CE, ending Byzantine rule? (5 points)
answer
Ottoman Turks
question
All of the following represent innovations in land use in the Middle Ages except (5 points)
answer
the ownership by individuals of small farms
question
In medieval European society, was the king or the pope the most powerful figure? (5 points)
answer
Neither, because the power dynamic shifted between the church and the kings
question
Why did earlier historians consider the Medieval Period the "Dark Ages"? (5 points)
answer
A limited amount of written records survived to shine light on this time period.
question
Which of the following individuals would likely have had the most education in the medieval society? (5 points)
answer
A nun
question
Which best describes the relationship between the Church and feudal states? (5 points)
answer
The Church and the states constantly struggled for supreme power.
question
How might a second-born son hope to achieve success under the system of primogeniture? (5 points)
answer
He could seek training to become a knight in the military.
question
Scholasticism provides an example of which of the following? (5 points)
answer
The blending of Greek and Roman philosophies with Christian ideas
question
During the High Middle Ages, monasteries were considered religious centers, as well as (5 points)
answer
learning centers
question
Charlemagne first came to power using which of the following tactics? (5 points)
answer
He allied with the Lombards to overtake his brother.
question
Use the excerpt to answer the following question: "The precepts of the law are these: to live honestly, to injure no one, and to give every man his due. The study of law consists of two branches, law public and law private. The former relates to the welfare of the Roman State; the latter to the advantage of the individual citizen. Of private law then we may say that it is of threefold origin, being collected from the precepts of nature, from those of the law of nations, or from those of the civil law of Rome." Source: From The Institutes of Justinian, B. Moyle, trans.3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1896), pp. 3-5. This excerpt from the Justinian Code shows how the Byzantine Empire (5 points)
answer
preserved Greco-Roman culture
question
Which of the following was not a primary concern of Charlemagne? (5 points)
answer
Conquering the Norse-held lands of Sweden and Denmark
question
Christian monks taught laypeople the art of stained glass, which served which of the following functions in medieval Europe? (5 points)
answer
Taught religious scripture to illiterate peasants through images
question
The use of local languages in medieval literature was most revolutionary because (5 points)
answer
it reached a wider audience of people
question
Which of the following is a characteristic of illuminated manuscripts? (5 points)
answer
They featured decorated borders and artwork that often overshadowed the text.
question
Which of the following groups would be most likely to create a song out of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales? (5 points)
answer
Troubadours
question
Which of the following statements about Dante Alighieri is true? (5 points)
answer
The modern Italian language was strongly influenced by his writings.
question
Beowulf and The Divine Comedy are similar in that both works (5 points)
answer
influenced the development of the language in which they were written
question
Use the image below to answer the following question: This is a photograph of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France. It has multiple tall and pointed arches throughout the front facing towers. One circular stained glass window is visible above the main entrance, while a similar but larger circular window is directly above the smaller one. Notre Dame Cathedral - Paris © 2012 Christopher Kramer Creative Commons, Attribution 2.0 Generic license This cathedral is built in the style known as (5 points)
answer
Gothic
question
Which of the following is an example of a medieval guild? (5 points)
answer
Vassals who united to pay taxes to their feudal lords with money, as well as crops and goods from their estates
question
Which answer correctly compares the first medieval merchants to merchants of the High Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
The first medieval merchants were peddlers who held little status or wealth, while merchants during the High Middle Ages formed guilds and often served in government council positions in their towns.
question
Which of the following describes trade in the Late Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
Far-reaching
question
Why did a money economy begin to replace the barter economy in the High Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
As trade expanded to cover greater distances, a unit of exchange became more important.
question
During the Middle Ages, merchants, artisans, and their guilds contributed to the (5 points)
answer
creation of the middle class
question
Why did craft guilds form in the Middle Ages? (5 points)
answer
To provide structure and support for artisans who shared a trade
question
The guilds, banks, and money systems, which began in Medieval Europe, (5 points)
answer
were the start of modern market economies and trade unions
question
A key role of moneychangers was to help (5 points)
answer
merchants from different places exchange one type of coin for another
question
The Magna Carta played a key role in the development of the system of checks and balances we use today. What purpose does this system serve? (5 points)
answer
It keeps one person or group in government from having too much power.
question
Establishment of the first English Parliament gave the people (5 points)
answer
a voice in political decisions
question
What role did the invasion of William the Conqueror play in the development of a national identity for England? (5 points)
answer
William the Conqueror took control of most of England's lands and, eventually, a set of common laws was established for all Englishmen.
question
Which of the following was a major step in reunifying the kingdoms in Spain? (5 points)
answer
The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
question
What political practice that is still in effect today has roots in the Magna Carta? (5 points)
answer
The leader of the country should consult with others before making important decisions for the people.
question
How did the Magna Carta affect the development of a national identity in England? (5 points)
answer
It resulted in the establishment of the legislative body known as the English Parliament.
question
Which basic principle that we use today was established by the Magna Carta? (5 points)
answer
People accused of a crime have the right to be judged by a jury of peers before receiving punishment.
question
How did Alfred the Great contribute to the development of a national identity in England? (5 points)
answer
He defeated the Danes and drove them out of England.
question
What is one way Feudal Europe was different than Feudal Japan? (5 points)
answer
Different estates sent warriors to fight religious wars in Europe.
question
Bushi who served a lord eventually came to be called (5 points)
answer
samurai
question
The samurai in Feudal Japan were similar to what social class in Feudal Europe? (5 points)
answer
Knights
question
What influenced the Japanese belief that merchants did not contribute much to society? (5 points)
answer
Confucianism
question
Feudal estates sent knights to the Holy Land in the Crusades for religious reasons. What fueled warfare in Feudal Japan? (5 points)
answer
Power and wealth
question
What is one common cause of the development of feudalism in both Europe and Japan? (5 points)
answer
A weak central government
question
The shogun and daimyo in Feudal Japan were similar to what social class in Feudal Europe? (5 points)
answer
Lords
question
How did tax exemptions for land reclamation programs affect the central government of Japan? (5 points)
answer
It was weakened and could not provide military protection.
question
What geographical feature accounts for why camel caravans were an important innovation in trade in West Africa? (5 points)
answer
Sahara Desert
question
What geographical feature contributed to why North Africa developed so differently from southern Africa? (5 points)
answer
Sahara Desert
question
In what way was the empire of Ghana different from the later empire of Mali? (5 points)
answer
Ghana was mostly animists, and Mali had a Muslim-following leadership.
question
Who was Sunni Ali? (5 points)
answer
He was a great leader of Songhai.
question
Which of the following contributed to the start of civil wars and Mali's decline? (5 points)
answer
Struggles over the line of succession
question
How did Mansa Musa elevate the standing of the Mali Empire in the world? (5 points)
answer
His lavish pilgrimage to Mecca made the empire of Mali and its wealth widely known.
question
What important natural resource in West Africa did the Songhai Empire control? (5 points)
answer
Salt mines in the Sahara Desert
question
Why was Timbuktu an important location in Mali's empire? (5 points)
answer
It was a center for learning.
question
Which event marks the final stage in the collapse of the Songhai Empire? (5 points)
answer
An invasion from Morocco
question
Who founded the Kingdom of Ghana? (5 points)
answer
The Soninke
question
The Nazca civilization was established in the valleys of the Andes on the coast of which South American country? (5 points)
answer
Peru
question
Which works of art by the Olmec civilization are considered its most recognizable artifacts? (5 points)
answer
Massive carved stone heads
question
Which statement about the culture of the ancient Olmec civilization is correct? (5 points)
answer
Their traditions and culture continue to survive today in modern Zapotec people.
question
How do we know the Olmecs were technologically advanced? (5 points)
answer
They used latex from trees to create rubber.
question
Which works demonstrate that the ChavĂ­n civilization was highly organized? (5 points)
answer
Complex drainage systems to keep structures from flooding
question
Which statement accurately describes the Zapotec city of Monte AlbĂĄn? (5 points)
answer
It included pyramids, tombs, and a ball field.
question
What did glyphs left by the ancient Olmec civilization tell us about their religious practices? (5 points)
answer
They believed in many gods.
question
What was significant about the Olmec civilization? (5 points)
answer
The Olmec civilization had a great deal of influence on neighboring and later cultures.
question
Which of the following diseases likely killed Huayna Capac and many other Inca? (5 points)
answer
Smallpox
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Incas? (5 points)
answer
The Incas spoke Quechua and did not have a written language.
question
What factor allowed the Incas to use their military efficiently? (5 points)
answer
They developed an extensive system of paved stone roads.
question
Why did Pacal the Great make a connection between his mother and the divine First Mother of the Mayan religion? (5 points)
answer
To add legitimacy and stability to his reign
question
How were Aztec chinampas constructed? (5 points)
answer
Raised plots for crops were built from mud in the lake bed with canals between them.
question
How did Pacal the Great impact the importance of Palenque in Mayan civilization? (5 points)
answer
He conquered neighboring western Mayan states and expanded Palenque's power.
question
Why did Moctezuma reorganize the Aztec government? (5 points)
answer
To better handle disasters
question
A Spanish soldier describes Tenochtitlan: "The great city...has many broad streets, though among these are two or three pre-eminent. All travel by...canoes, as I have said, and without these they could neither leave their houses nor return to them." —Anonymous Spanish soldier Aztec Civilization by Lois Warburton, Lucent Books, 1995, page 60. Which of the following does this excerpt imply? (5 points)
answer
Tenochtitlan has water canals throughout the city.
question
In the matrilineal society of Ghana, who was supposed to become king when the old one died? (5 points)
answer
The son of the king's sister
question
How did Mansa Musa affect the Mali Empire? (5 points)
answer
He made a pilgrimage to Mecca that boosted trade.
question
What important natural resource did the Songhai Empire control? (5 points)
answer
Salt
question
What caused the downfall of Ghana? (5 points)
answer
Climate change and Berber battles
question
What did the city of Great Zimbabwe become known for? (5 points)
answer
Stone architecture
question
When Emperor Lalibela established the kingdom of Ethiopia around 1185 CE, what religion was widely practiced there? (5 points)
answer
Christianity
question
Based on the map, what can be said about the difference between trade from Songhai and trade from Mogadishu (on the eastern coast)? (5 points)
answer
Trade from Songhai was done by land, while trade in Mogadishu was done by boat.
question
Which of the following is true of the people of Great Zimbabwe? (5 points)
answer
They were skilled craftsman and builders.
question
What was the source of Axum's prosperity in the fourth century CE? (5 points)
answer
Its strategic location in the middle of African, Mediterranean, and Asian trade networks
question
What could a historian infer about the Maya from the codex pages? (5 points)
answer
Mayan writing was in the form of images.
question
Which of the following statements does the image above support? (5 points)
answer
The Nazca decorated their pottery with bold colors and a mix of figures.
question
In which modern South American country was the Moche civilization located? (5 points)
answer
Peru
question
Which fact provides clear evidence that the Maya were influenced by the Olmec? (5 points)
answer
Olmec-influenced artifacts have been found within Mayan ruins.
question
Some archaeologists debate the type of influence the Olmec had on later Mesoamerican cultures. They generally argue one of these ideas: 1) All later Mesoamerican cultures all derived from the Olmec. 2) The Olmec freely communicated ideas with other contemporary peoples. Which of the following possible scenarios, if true, supports the second argument? (5 points)
answer
The Olmecs developed the idea of the ball court and disseminated this idea to other later cultures like the Aztecs and Maya.
question
What happened as a result of the Zapotecs agreeing to be ruled by the Spanish? (5 points)
answer
The Zapotec king became Christian.
question
Which of the following resulted from the formation of the "Triple Alliance"? (5 points)
answer
The continued expansion and conquests of the Aztecs
question
What did the Aztec and Spanish calendars have in common? (5 points)
answer
They had days designated for religious observances.
question
Which of the following is true of the time measurement systems used by ancient Mesoamerican and South American cultures? (5 points)
answer
The Incas, Aztecs, and Mayans all had calendars.
question
What conclusion did historians draw about the Incas after the discovery of Machu Picchu? (5 points)
answer
The Incas were skilled engineers.
question
If a historian knew the dates of all the pyramids, what could he or she tell by comparing the 10 different styles? (5 points)
answer
Which cultures influenced each other
question
Who was at the top of the Inca social structure? (5 points)
answer
The emperor
question
What role did runners play in Inca society? (5 points)
answer
They carried messages between different parts of the empire.
question
What did conquered peoples have to do in Incan society? (5 points)
answer
They had to pay a labor tax by working for the government.
question
Consider the Mayan writing on this stone stele. How does this writing system differ from that of the Inca? (5 points)
answer
The Maya had picture writing, while the Inca used knotted cords.
question
In what way was the Mayan civilization different from the Aztec and Inca civilizations? (5 points)
answer
The Aztec and Inca had large, united empires, but the Maya did not.
question
What motivated Moctezuma I to reorganize the Aztec government? (5 points)
answer
The massive toll of the famine
question
Apart from military conquest, what features do the reigns of Pacal the Great, Huayna Capac, and Moctezuma I have in common? (5 points)
answer
Large-scale public works projects
question
During Pacal the Great's reign, he rebuilt much of Palenque, placing his name and likeness on most of the buildings. What might have motivated him to do this? (5 points)
answer
He felt the need to justify the legitimacy of his claim to the throne.
question
What might account for the fact that developed countries were more affected than developing countries during the H1N1 pandemic? (5 points)
answer
People in developed countries traveled more and exposed more people.
question
Use the following excerpt from Boccaccio's The Decameron to answer the following question: "In the year of our Lord 1348, there happened at Florence, the finest city in all Italy a most terrible plague; which, whether owing to the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the Levant (Middle East) and, after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc all the way, had now reached the west..." Public Domain How does Boccaccio let you know that he recognized that the plague spread widely from one location to another? (5 points)
answer
He states that it spread from the Middle East.
question
How could the spread of AIDS in Africa affect the economies of that continent? (5 points)
answer
A drop in the number and productivity of workers
question
What does this map indicate about the dispersion of H1N1 cases in 2009? (5 points)
answer
The developed countries were affected more than the developing countries.
question
Use the following excerpt from Boccaccio's The Decameron to answer the following question: "In the year of our Lord 1348, there happened at Florence, the finest city in all Italy a most terrible plague; which, whether owing to the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the Levant (Middle East) and, after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc all the way, had now reached the west..." Public Domain According to Boccaccio, what did some people believe to be the cause of the plague? (5 points)
answer
Sins
question
Use the following excerpt from Boccaccio's The Decameron to answer the following question: "In the year of our Lord 1348, there happened at Florence, the finest city in all Italy a most terrible plague; which, whether owing to the influence of the planets, or that it was sent from God as a just punishment for our sins, had broken out some years before in the Levant (Middle East) and, after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc all the way, had now reached the west... " Public Domain Based on the passage, how would Boccaccio likely feel about the actions of the flagellants, who warned Christians to repent? (5 points)
answer
He would find their actions appropriate because he believed human sin may have caused the plague.
question
Which of the following was not an effect of the Great Famine of 1315? (5 points)
answer
Southern European countries were more heavily affected than northern European countries.
question
Considering the dangers associated with spreading a disease, why are people who are affected by communicable diseases told not to travel on airplanes? (5 points)
answer
The tight cabin space makes it easier for the disease to spread.
question
How did Milan grow to be an important city-state in Italy? (5 points)
answer
It had a strong, aggressive military force that conquered many cities.
question
How did Venice acquire the nearby cities of Verona and Padua? (5 points)
answer
It hired professional soldiers called mercenaries to conquer the lands.
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Rome's income was mostly provided by (5 points)
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religious pilgrims and church business
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What is an appropriate label for the yellow line in this map (5 points)
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Venetian Sea Trade Routes
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Which of these choices best describes Italy in the 15th century? (5 points)
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A collection of small kingdoms and city-states
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Who held the most power in the Italian city-states? (5 points)
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The wealthiest people
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How were 12th century Italian communes governed? (5 points)
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With a form of democratic government
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Unlike the monarchy in a feudal system, the wealthy and powerful citizens who controlled Italian city-states were more focused on (5 points)
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economic activity and development
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Which of the following represents one of Desiderius Erasmus's main contributions to the move toward the Protestant Reformation? (5 points)
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Exposing corruption in the Church
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Jan Hus is known for his criticism of (5 points)
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simony and the sale of indulgences
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Huldrych Zwingli's supporters, the Anabaptists, believed (5 points)
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adults, not children, should be baptized
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What was the Counter-Reformation? (5 points)
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A series of actions by the Catholic Church intended to spread and defend the Catholic faith
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How did the Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Reformation? (5 points)
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The pope called for a meeting of all church leaders.
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What were Martin Luther's 95 Theses? (5 points)
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Critical statements about the Church nailed to a church door
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Desiderius Erasmus worked to (5 points)
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establish a middle ground between Catholics and Protestants
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Which of the following represents a contrast between the ideas of Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin? (5 points)
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Calvin believed in the creation of a Christian state, while Zwingli thought church and state should be separate.
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The creation of the Index of Forbidden Books by the Church was in part a result of which of the following? (5 points)
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A lack of trust in the ability of the faithful to read texts without being led astray
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Why were medieval ships unsuited for long-distance voyages? (5 points)
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Medieval ships were designed mostly for battle.
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How did mercantilism operate as a push factor for some European states during the Age of Exploration? (5 points)
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Mercantilism pushed some states to find more profitable trade routes to the east.
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What does the trade deal Vasco da Gama made in India demonstrate about some of the motivations for exploration? (5 points)
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It demonstrates that the Portuguese were hoping to profit from exploration.
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Which of the following explorers led a voyage that ultimately circumnavigated the globe? (5 points)
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Ferdinand Magellan
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How were the explorations of John Cabot and Christopher Columbus similar? (5 points)
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Both were commissioned explorers.
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Which of the following was a pull factor that caused the Dutch to explore the Indies? (5 points)
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The desire to profit from the trade of pepper and other spices found in the Indies
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How was the Dutch expedition to the Indies different from the Portuguese attempts to find new trade routes? (5 points)
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The Dutch expedition was funded as a private enterprise.
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Why did the Catholic Church express interest in the exploration of foreign lands? (5 points)
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The Catholic Church was interested in gaining new converts to the religion.
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Why might the Italian city-states have resisted the exploration around the world? (5 points)
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The discovery of new trade routes to the east threatened the city-state's control over that trade.
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What might be the cargo of a ship moving from New England to West Africa in the trans-Atlantic slave trade? (5 points)
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Rum
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How do scholars believe slavery most likely began? (5 points)
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Prisoners captured during war were forced to farm land for their captors.
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Why did the Atlantic slave trade from Africa begin? (5 points)
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European powers needed African workers for their sugar plantations.
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How were slaves used by the Maya and the Aztecs? (5 points)
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Slaves were sometimes used as a sacrifice to the gods.
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How was the Atlantic slave trade beneficial for merchants in Europe? (5 points)
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They had a new market in West Africa for their manufactured goods.
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Works like the autobiography of Olaudah Equiano helped expose (5 points)
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the brutal conditions of slavery
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In East Asia, one way slaves were acquired was through which of the following? (5 points)
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Capture in war
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How did the Atlantic slave trade benefit the Africans? (5 points)
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Africans eliminated warriors in rival tribes by selling or trading captured prisoners to slave traders.
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Abraham
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There is a painting by Anthony Van Dyke, painted around 1617 CE, showing what the artist imagined Abraham and Isaac to look like. Who: A Mesopotamian man thought to have lived around 1800 BCE. Abraham features prominently in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an and is an important figure in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Significance: Abraham is believed to be the patriarch of the three major monotheistic religions. Abraham was one of the first people to teach the idea that there is only one God.
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Moses
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There is a painting that shows an artist's imagining of Moses holding a tablet that represents the Ten Commandments. Who: Moses was a Jewish prophet and leader, descended from Isaac, who lived during the 14th century BC. According to tradition, he led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt in what is known as the Exodus. Significance: He is the most important figure in Judaism, believed to have written the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible). Moses is an important prophet in both Christianity and Islam.
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Jesus
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There is a painting showing a depiction of Jesus as Christ. Jesus is seen holding an open book, presumably the Bible. Who: Jesus was a Jewish man and teacher believed by Christians to be the Son of God and the Messiah. He lived in the Roman province of Judaea (now part of modern-day Israel) during the first century CE. Significance: He is the most important figure in Christianity, held by tradition to have been the Son of God. Christians believe that Jesus allowed himself to be crucified by the Romans to atone for the sins of humanity.
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Muhammad
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There is an image of a Western artist's portrayal of Muhammad. Muhammad is shown wearing a turban while holding a book and gesturing with his right hand. Who: Muhammad was an Arab merchant who lived during the sixth and seventh centuries CE. He spent most of his life in the city of Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula (modern-day Saudi Arabia), before migrating with his followers to Medina. Significance: Muhammad is the founder of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the last in a line of prophets of God. His prophesies, collected in the Qur'an, are believed by Muslims to be the word of God.
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Five Pillars of Islam
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There is an image of Muslim pilgrims arriving at Mecca to perform the hajj, one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The pilgrims are all dressed in similar white robes, and their feet are bare. What: The Five Pillars of Islam are a set of acts considered by Muslims to be central to their faith. They are shahadah (statement of belief), salat (daily prayers), sawm (fasting) during Ramadan, zakat (alms-giving), and hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). Significance: Muslims believe that observation of the Five Pillars is a sign of commitment to Islam.
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Merovingian
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There is a painting of King Clovis I. He is shown with a long red beard and long red hair. He wears a red robe and gold crown. He holds a golden staff in his right hand (the viewer's left) and has his left hand (viewer's right) on his sword which is in its scabbard. What: The Merovingians were a line of Frankish kings beginning with Clovis I. The Merovingians were a group of Germanic Franks that established a kingdom in the old Roman province of Gaul in the wake of the collapse of the Western Empire. The Frankish line began in 481 CE, though it had its roots in earlier tribal leaders. Clovis I, who converted to Christianity, was a brutal man who expanded his territory at the expense of other kingdoms, and even his own relatives. Significance: The Merovingians ruled Gaul (present-day France) for approximately 200 years. But the expansion of the kingdom and Clovis's acceptance of Christianity helped to spread the influence of Christianity across Europe.
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Charlemagne
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There is a painting of Charlemagne being greeted by monks. At the left of the image is a man on a horse. He is being greeted by a man in the center of the picture who wears a cape and crown. To the right of the man in the cape and crown are three figures of monks and a castle. Who: Charlemagne was a Frankish king who united the Franks and conquered neighboring lands in the old Roman province of Gaul. Born in 742 CE, Charlemagne was a pious Christian who sought to reform the church and improve education in his kingdom. Significance: Charlemagne laid the groundwork for political and economic patterns that would dominate the rest of the medieval period in Europe; conquests formed the basis of what would be the Holy Roman Empire.
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Holy Roman Empire
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There is a map showing Europe with the area of the Holy Roman Empire colored pink and all other land colored grey. The Holy Roman Empire is bounded by France to the west, the Baltic Sea to the north, and Poland to the east, and it extends into northern Italy in the south. What: The Holy Roman Empire was an empire composed of lands in Central Europe, largely comprising what is now Germany. Its origins go back to the empire of Charlemagne, but the actual Holy Roman Empire didn't begin until 962 with Otto I. Significance: The empire was a major political power in Europe for a long time, and continued to exist for over 800 years. The empire, and its relationship with the Church in Rome, helped to spread the influence of Christianity throughout northern Europe.
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Crusades
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There is a map of the First Crusade. The Christian lands included the Holy Roman Empire (Central Europe), the Byzantine Empire (the Balkan Peninsula and western Turkey), Portugal, Leon, Castile, the Kingdom of Sicily, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, England, and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Seas. The Muslim lands included Africa, southern and eastern Spain, the Arabian Peninsula, and Southwestern Asia. The first Crusade spread through Metz, Regensburg, Constantinople, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, Acre, Jerusalem, Genoa, Rome, and Venice. What: The Crusades were a series of military expeditions between the 11th and 13th centuries on behalf of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches to establish control over the Holy Land. Christians had been making pilgrimages to the Holy Land for years. But, these pilgrimages stopped as a product of the prohibitive tactics of the Seljuk Turks. When the Byzantine emperor was looking for a way to check the Turkish advance, he used the general Christian passions about the Holy Land to launch holy wars against Turks. Significance: While the Crusades ultimately failed to maintain control of the Holy Land, they did succeed in expanding the medieval European world, bringing Muslim knowledge to medieval Europe, and increasing the wealth and power of the Catholic Church.
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Pope Urban II
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There is a painting of Pope Urban II standing at a pulpit inside a large cathedral, with hundreds of men seated before him. Pope Urban II is wearing a red robe and holding a staff in his left hand. Each of the men seated are wearing tan, red, and blue robes. Along the sides of the building are individual statues placed upon pedestals at the base of extremely tall walls. Who: Pope Urban II was a Roman Catholic pope between the years 1088-1099. He is most famous for responding to the Byzantine emperor's plea for help defending the empire against the Turks by vigorously calling for Christians to begin a holy war. Significance: Pope Urban II called the Council of Clermont and issued a call for the First Crusade.
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Richard the Lionheart
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There is a painting of King Richard and Philip II receiving the keys to Acra. The painting shows the two kings sitting in a tent while two raggedly dressed men kneeling before them offer up a key. In the background is a large castle. Who: English King Richard I was known as "the Lionheart" for his bravery and leadership in battle. He is most famous for participating in and leading the Third Crusade. He battled with and won many victories against the Muslim military leader Saladin; however, he was never able to win back Jerusalem. Significance: While his leadership in the Third Crusade is his most famous achievement, he is also prominent in some English folklore. According to the legend, it is in King Richard's absence that the circumstances that brought about Robin Hood resulted.
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Saladin
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There is a painting of Saladin after the battle of Hattin in 1187. Saladin is sitting under a tent and is surrounded by armed guards, soldiers, and horses. There are several other tents and many other soldiers in the background. Christian knights are laying down their swords in front of him. Who: Saladin was a Kurdish Muslim warrior who gained prominence fighting in the Holy Land against the Crusaders. In 1187, he successfully conducted a coordinated force that retook Jerusalem in 1187. Significance: Saladin is most important for his role in uniting the Muslims of Egypt, Syria, and surrounding lands and in driving the Christian Crusaders out of Jerusalem. Before Saladin, the major weakness of the Muslim defenders was their disunity.
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Sundiata Keita
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There is a two-color map that shows the extent of the Mali Empire at its height. The image shows West Africa with the Mali Empire colored in green. The green of the Songhai Empire covers parts of what are now Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania, and Mali. The cities of Koumbi Saleh, Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenna are also marked. Who: Sundiata Keita, whose name means "hungering lion," was the first king of Mali. He founded the kingdom in 1235 CE. Later, he expanded the kingdom's territory to include parts of the Kingdom of Ghana. Significance: Sundiata Keita was the founder of the Kingdom of Mali. He reestablished the gold and salt trade. He is also a major figure in the oral histories of West Africa.
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Mansa Musa
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There is a detailed color drawing of a map showing Mansa Musa. It is from an atlas of the known world created in 1375 CE. The image shows a bearded black man center, seated on a low throne with a red pillow or cloth. The man's legs are crossed. He wears a European-style gold crown and holds a gold scepter in his right hand and a gold nugget in his left. He is surrounded by symbols, lines, and writing that refer to other elements of the map. Who: Mansa Musa was a king of the Mali Empire who came to power in 1312 CE and ruled for 20 years. During his reign Mansa Musa went on an extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca. The volume of gold he spent during this pilgrimage was so high that it was reported to have altered the value of gold in the area. Significance: Mansa Musa's devotion to Islam caused the religion to flourish in the region. His pilgrimage to Mecca made Mali famous, which in turn increased trade and made the Kingdom of Mali richer and more powerful. Finally Mansa Musa brought Arab and Islamic scholars, scientists, and architects to Timbuktu, fostering developments in learning and making the city an important intellectual center.
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Sonni Ali the Great
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There is a two-color map that shows the extent of the Songhai Empire. The image shows West Africa with the Songhai Empire colored in green. The green of the Songhai Empire covers parts of what are now Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, and Niger among others. The cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenne are also marked. Who: Sonni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire who ruled from 1464 to 1492 CE. By the end of his reign, the Songhai Empire grew larger even than the Mali Empire. Though not a Muslim, Sonni Ali allowed the practice of Islam, and practiced a kind of Islam which combined elements of the religion with local animist beliefs. Significance: Sonni Ali was the founder of the Songhai Empire. His acceptance of Islam and his unusual practice of it helped to spread the religion into more areas of West Africa.
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Askia Muhammad
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There is a color picture of Askia Muhammad's tomb. It shows a square-ish mud-brick structure with sticks protruding from the brick. Who: Askia Muhammad ruled the Soghia Empire from 1593 to 1628 CE. He was overthrown by his son. During his reign, Askia Muhammad expanded the empire and increased its power. Significance: Askia Muhammad strengthened the Songhai Empire and founded the Askia Dynasty. Muhammad Askia practiced traditional Islam and he made that religion the official religion of the Songhai Empire. The empire's civil code became the Quran, and the official language became Arabic.
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Bantu Migration
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There is a map of Africa showing the Bantu migrations. It shows the continent of Africa with three sets of broad arrows emanating from West Africa around the area of present-day Nigeria and Congo to East, Central, and South Africa. What: Beginning around 2000 BCE, Bantu-speaking peoples of the Niger and Bhenu River Valleys moved into East, Central, and South Africa. Significance: The Bantu migration changed the culture of East, Central, and South Africa. They spread their language and traditions, which included their agricultural skill and knowledge of ironworking into these new areas. The Bantu also helped smaller communities grow into kingdoms.
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Swahili Coast
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There is a color photograph of the three modern Dhow sailboats. The Dhow has one very large triangular sail. The ships are open and relatively small. They are sailing through choppy waters. What: Swahili means "of the coast" in Arabic. The Swahili Coast was an area of east Africa where in the eighth century CE, Arab and Indian traders established new port cities along the Indian Ocean. These cities included Mogadishu, Malindi, Mombasa, and Kilwa. Significance: The Swahili Coast became an important and powerful trading region. The combination of cultures in these trading centers created the language Swahili, a combination of Bantu languages and Arabic, as well as a unique Swahili culture.
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Great Zimbabwe
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There is a black-and-white sketch of part of the ruins at Great Zimbabwe. It shows a large curved stone wall in the right foreground with a large open entryway. What: Great Zimbabwe was a kingdom from the 11th through the 15th centuries CE in southeastern Zimbabwe, known today for its pottery and curved stone architecture. Significance: Great Zimbabwe was a major African kingdom and city-state. It sent interior trade goods to cities along the Indian Coast, especially gold.
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Kilwa
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There is a color photograph that shows part of the Great Mosque at Kilwa. This image is of a series of gracefully-curved stone columns and arches. What: Kilwa is an island just off the coast of Tanzania. Kilwa was also an important trading city along the Swahili Coast. It was founded in the 10th century CE by the Persian Prince Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi, who began the city as a sultanate. Significance: Kilwa was among the most powerful cities on the East African coast, and it also helped spread Islam and Islamic culture throughout the region.
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Prince Henry
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Image Description: This is a color illustration of Prince Henry of Portugal. It shows the head and shoulders of a white, middle-aged man. He has a mustache and short hair. He wears a black hat with long drooping sides and an orange robe with a small black collar. Who: Prince Henry was a prince of Portugal and an early explorer. Prince Henry sailed along the coast of Africa where he "discovered" the island of Madeira (1419), passed Cape Verde, and landed on the Azores (1427). In 1445, Prince Henry and his men reached Senegal, where they constructed the first European fort on the African continent. Significance: Prince Henry's journeys established Portuguese dominance in early exploration. The contact with West Africa gave the Portuguese a foothold on the continent and in the later African slave trade.
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Bartolomeo Dias
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Image Description: This image shows Bartolomeo Dias's route. It is a map of the world with an arrow from Portugal around Africa. Who: Bartolomeo Dias was a Portuguese explorer in the late 15th century. In 1488, he was the first European to sail around the base of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. This journey provided Europe with a sea route from Europe to India. Significance: This journey gave Portugal a distinct edge in the lucrative spice trade. Dias's journey also brought knowledge of coastal Africa to Europe, which led ultimately to the Portuguese slave trade.
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Vasco da Gama
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Image Description: This image shows Vasco da Gama's route. It is a map of the world with an arrow from Portugal around Africa, across the Indian Ocean, to the east coast of India. Who: Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer who, in 1497, sailed around Africa to the east coast of India. He then negotiated a good trade deal between India and Portugal. Significance: Da Gama's explorations brought Portugal increased wealth and power and provided new sea routes to India.
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Christopher Columbus
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Image Description: This is a map of Christopher Columbus's four journeys from Spain to America. It shows the western portion of Spain and West Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, and portions of North, Central, and South America. Each journey is represented by an arrow in a different color. The arrows all originate in Spain. They each cross the Atlantic at different latitudes and touch upon the Caribbean Islands and portions of northern South America that Columbus visited. Who: Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer who sailed for Spain. He was the first European since the Vikings to visit the Americas. Columbus made four voyages; his most famous was the first in 1492. The other three took place in 1493, 1498, and 1502. Significance: Columbus's "discovery" of the land between Europe and Asia set off the conquest of those lands, particularly by Spain. It also began the Columbian Exchange of animals, plants, and diseases. This exchange changed the world and led to the destruction of many Native American people, who died from contact with European diseases.
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Ferdinand Magellan
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Image Description: This image shows Ferdinand Magellan's route around the world. It is a map of the world with an arrow from Spain across the Atlantic and around the bottom of South America, then across the Pacific Ocean, then between Indonesia and Australia, across the Indian Ocean, around the bottom of Africa and, up the African coast back to Spain. Who: Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer in the late 15th and early 16th century. In 1519, sailing for Spain, Magellan set out to find a route to Asia by sailing west. The expedition reached the Philippines in 1522, where Magellan was killed. The remainder of his ships and crew returned to Spain the same year, becoming the first expedition in history to sail all the way around the earth. Significance: Magellan's journey gave Spain enormous power and prestige. It also gave Europeans a route around South America and introduced Europe to the Pacific Ocean. The journey added to European knowledge of the earth.
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Hernan Cortés
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Image Description: This is a contemporary image of Hernan Cortés. It shows the head of a man who has short hair, slightly receding hairline, and a sparse beard and mustache. He wears a high collared jacket with some lace at the top of the collar. Tilted to the side on his head is a black beret-like hat with a feather coming out of it. Who: Hernan Cortés was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. From 1519 to 1521, he led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire of Mexico. Significance: Cortés' conquest of the Aztecs earned him awards and enemies in the Spanish empire. Ultimately, however, his conquest of the Aztecs gave Spain control over Mexico.
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Francisco Pizarro
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Image Description: This is a black-and-white image of Francisco Pizarro. It shows the head and torso of a white man wearing armor. He has a long beard and across the armor is a sash. Feathers sprout out of the top of his helmet. Who: Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan people of Peru and Ecuador in 1533. Significance: Pizarro's conquest gave Spain control over the west coast of South America, much of the Andes mountain range, and all the Incan wealth.
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Triangular Trade
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Image Description: This is a map of the triangular trade between Africa, the Americas, and Europe. It shows the Atlantic Ocean bordered by portions of North and South America, Africa, and Europe. There are three big red arrows on the map. These arrows go roughly from Africa to the Americas, from the Americas to Europe, and from Europe to Africa, and together form a triangle. Beside each arrow is what was exchanged as that area's part of the triangular trade. Next to Africa the text reads "Textiles, rum, and manufactured goods to Africa". Next to the Americas the text reads, "Slaves to the Americas". Next to Europe the text reads, "Sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Europe". What: The triangular trade is the name for the trade between Africa, the Americas, and Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the trade, slaves were brought from Africa to the Americas. The slaves provided the labor to grow the sugar, tobacco, and cotton, which were then sold to Europe. The sugar and cotton were manufactured in Europe into textiles and rum, which were then traded in Africa (along with other manufactured goods) for slaves. Significance: The triangular trade provided for much of Europe's growth and prosperity in this era. It was crucial to the development and prosperity of the American colonies. It enslaved or killed millions of Africans.
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Bartolome de las Casas
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Image Description: This is a painting of Bartolome de las Casas. It shows him wearing a monk's rob and seated at a desk writing. Who: Bartolome de las Casas was a Spanish missionary who traveled to the New World in the early 16th century as a missionary. He was horrified by what he saw: the brutal treatment, enslavement, and murder of Native people. He wrote several essays and a book. For this work, he became known as "Apostle to the Indians." Significance: By publicizing the condition of native people, de las Casas helped to bring about some reforms. Today, his work also serves as a rare and important history of the Spanish conquest.
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Olaudah Equiano
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Image Description: This is an image of Olaudah Equiano. This image shows him dressed in European clothing and holding a book with his right hand. Who: Olaudah Equiano, also known as Gustavus Vassa, was an African who was kidnapped and forced into slavery in about 1756. As an adult, he was able to purchased his own freedom. In 1789, he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. This work describes the brutal conditions of slavery and the slave trade. Significance: Equiano became an important abolitionist. His book influenced many people to join the abolition movement. Its influence helped pass the law that ended the British slave trade
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