World History: Module 4 Flashcards

Flashcard maker : Tiffany Hanchett
pandemic
the global spread of a disease
developed nations
nations that have established and successful industries, technologies, and infrastructure to support a relatively high standard of living for citizens
developing nations
nations that are starting to build the infrastructure and industries needed to raise citizens’ standard of living
sanitation
the provision of clean water and adequate sewer systems to residents, usually of a town or city, which greatly improves their health and longevity
epidemic
the spread of a disease widely within a bounded locality or region
Bubonic Plague
a virulent disease, originally of rodents and carried by fleas, that is caused by a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is characterized by the development of large swellings on the body, which turn black before the infected person dies
Black Death
the rampant spread of the bubonic plague that swept Europe from around 1348 and killed about 50% of the population
Buboes
an inflammatory swelling of a lymphatic gland, especially in the groin or armpit
Pneumonic plague
a type of plague which mutated from bubonic plague that afflicts humans; it does not cause buboes to form but instead infects the lungs; death from pneumonic plague may ensue within hours of the first symptoms appearing
The Great or Western Schism 1378-1417
a period of time in which two men claimed to be the pope; one was in Avignon, France and the other in Rome, Italy
Penance
contrition; acts that show that you are truly sorry for the sins you have committed
Flagellants
Medieval Christians who sought to repent of their sins and thus curb the plague by going from town to town while whipping themselves until they bled; flagellants believed that if they, and those who saw them mortifying their flesh, repented of their sins, the plague sent by God would disappear
Danse Macabre
\”The Dance of Death\” paintings that were prompted by the Black Plague; the paintings showed \”death\” leading people to their grave
The Decameron
a book of stories written between 1348 and 1358 by Boccaccio
Climate Changes
a significant shift in the climate, either global or regional, usually caused by alterations in air or ocean currents
Great Famine, 1315-1317
an era during which unceasing, torrential rains caused crops to rot in the fields, leaving almost no food for animals or people; millions died of starvation
Hundred Years War
conflict between England and France during the years of 1337-1453 CE.
Renaissance
a time of transition in Europe between the medieval and modern era, from the 14th to the 17th century, marked by a revival of art, sciences, and classical thinking
The Republic of Venice
City in Italy- was a very powerful trading state. It’s position on the water was a very strategic position to be in as it attempted to profit from trade in the Mediterranean.
Grandi
a ruling social class made up of former members of the nobility
Popolo
a social class made up of regular citizens
Commune
a medieval town or community
Doge
the chief magistrate in the Republic of Venice
Mercenaries
professional soldiers hired to serve in a foreign army
Humanism
a system of thought that gives the most importance to human rather than divine matters
Vernacular
the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region
Patrons
people who gave financial or other types of support to artists during the Renaissance
Chiaroscuro
an artistic effect used in painting, contrasting light and shade
Perspective
the art of drawing in two dimensions in a way that gives the impression of three dimensions
Fresco
a painting created by using watercolors on fresh plaster, so that the color becomes part of the plaster as it dries
de Medici
a ruling family in the
city-state of Florence, known for their patronage of the arts
Flemish
a word used to describe people or art originating from Flanders, a region in northwest Europe, where the present-day Belgium, Netherlands, and France are located
heresy
belief or opinion that goes against orthodox religious teachings
Masonry
the craft of stonework or brickwork
Concentric
circles or other shapes that share the same center, often with the larger shape surrounding the smaller shape
Moveable Type
a system of printing in which small pieces of metal are created to represent each character (i.e. letters, punctuation marks, etc.); these metal pieces can be rearranged and reproduced as needed, making the printing process more efficient
Renaissance Man
a person with many talents and interests, especially in the humanities
Reformation
the Protestant reform movement that split the Roman Catholic Church
Protestants
the leaders and followers of the effort within Europe to reform the Roman Catholic Church, starting in the 1500s
Counter Reformation
the Roman Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation
Transubstantiation
the changing of the elements of the bread and wine, into the body and blood of Christ during a mass (a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church)
Heretic
someone who departs from orthodox Church doctrine
Simony
the sale of Church offices
Indulgences
special grants that released Catholics from the obligation to pray or perform good works as penance for their sins
Purgatory
a spiritual region located between Heaven and Hell where sinners were destined to spend some time after death
95 Theses
statements critical of the church, nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517
excommunicate
to expel from the Church
predestination
doctrine associated with John Calvin, whereby God has chosen in advance those who are eligible for eternal salvation
Puritans
English followers of John Calvin whose strict code of discipline led them to dissent from the Anglican Church
Anabaptist
Protestant sect that believed in adult baptism
Presbyterian
of, relating to, or denoting a Christian Church or denomination governed by elders according to Presbyterianism
annulment
official cancellation of a marriage
Anglicans
Protestant members of the Established Church of England
Council of Trent
ecumenical (or general) council called by the Roman Catholic Church in 1545 to formulate a response to the Protestant Reformation in Europe
Seminaries
an educational institution that prepares students to be church leaders
Jesuits
priests who belong to the Society of Jesus, a special order of Catholic clergy founded by Ignatius of Loyola in the 1500s
Inquisition
an institution of the Catholic Church focused on identifying and punishing heresy
Huguenots
French Protestants
Basque
an autonomous region in northwest Spain, extending across the French border and/or people from this region.
Thirty Years War
a European war of 1618-48 that broke out between the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor and some of his German Protestant states and developed into a struggle for continental hegemony with France, Sweden, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire as the major protagonists; it was ended by the Peace of Westphalia
major effects of the Peace of Westphalia
each leader had the right to decide the official religion of their country
Christians practicing religions other than the official religion of their country had the right to practice their own religion
leaders had exclusive authority within their own country and over their own people, and were responsible for the actions of any of their citizens abroad
Mercantilism
Mercantilism is the idea that the more gold or silver a nation has, the more powerful the nation
Reasons for Exploration
Desire to spread Christianity, Improved technology of sea worthy ships, need for more resources and desire for wealth in the form of gold and silver
Lateen
a three-sided sail that was far more maneuverable and adaptable than a square sail; used in caravels and carracks
Caravel
a type of seagoing vessel with triangular sails and a slender bow
Carrack
a three- or four-masted sailing ship developed in 15th century Western Europe for use in the Atlantic Ocean
Magnetic Compass
a compass that has a magnetized needle that points toward Earth’ s magnetic north; used by sailor to determine direction
Astrolabe
a navigational device used by sailors to determine their position relative to celestial bodies and the horizon
Siberia
extensive area was annexed by Russia in stages during the 16th and 17th centuries; it is considered an undesirable location due to harsh weather conditions
Prince Henry the Navigator
a Portuguese royal prince, soldier, and patron of explorers
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who discovered the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer who discovered a sea route to India around Africa
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who sailed from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean via the southern tip of South America
Hernán Cortés
Spanish explorer and conqueror who conquered the Aztec Empire and established a Spanish colony in Meso America during the early 1500s
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer who sailed for Spain. He was the first European since the Vikings to visit the Americas. Columbus made four voyages; his most famous was the first in 1492. The other three took place in 1493, 1498, and 1502. He was looking for a trade route to China
Garrison
the troops stationed in a fortress or town to defend it
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer and conqueror who conquered the Inca Empire and established a Spanish colony in South America in the early 1500s
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer who established the colony of Quebec in the early 1600
Jamestown
early English colony in present-day Virginia
The Columbian Exchange
enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, food, human population, diseases and ideas; one of the most significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture and culture between America, Asia, Europe, and Africa.
Encomienda system
a labor system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas
Concessions
grants of land or property especially by a government in return for services or for a particular use
Atlantic Slave Trade
the forced movement of enslaved Africans from Africa to the Americas for profit; it last from the early 1500s to the mid-1800s
Triangular Trade
Atlantic slave trade that had triangular routes
Involuntary Migrations
the forced movement of people
Voluntary Migration
the movement of people, which involves people who freely choose to move
the Middle Passage
the route taken in the triangular slave trade from West African to the Caribbean, which involved the abusive transport of enslaved Africans
Human trafficking
slave trading
Olaudah Equiano
An African who was kidnapped and forced into slavery in about 1756. As an adult, he was able to purchase his own freedom. In 1789, he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. This work describes the brutal conditions of slavery and the slave trade.
Bartolome de las Casas
a Spanish missionary who traveled to the New World in the early 16th century as a missionary. He was horrified by what he saw: the brutal treatment, enslavement, and murder of native people. He wrote several essays and a book. For this work, he became known as \”Apostle to the Indians.\”

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