World Cultures 14.1 & 14.2

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Peninsulares
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Members of the highest class in Spain’s colonies in the Americas, born in Spain
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Creoles
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American born descendant of Spanish settlers
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Mestizos
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Person of Native American European descent
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Mulattoes
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Person of African and European descent
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Simon Bolivar
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South American leader who won Latin American independence and set up Gran Columbia
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Toussaint L’Ouverture
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Freed slaves and inspired people to fight for independence
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Miguel Hidalgo
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Led mestizos in revolt against Spanish rule
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Jose Morelos
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Priest who fought for wide ranging reforms
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El Grito de Delores
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Speech given by father hidalgo in his parish which became a symbol of Mexican independence
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Jose de San Martin
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Helped Argentina gain independence from Spain
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Dom Pedro
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Son of Portuguese king, appointed leader of Brazil
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Conservative
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Person who supports the old way of doing things
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Conservatives
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Noble land owners, church leaders, monarchs and officials
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Liberals
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Business owners, writers, bankers, lawyers, politicians
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Liberal
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Person who wants to change the way in which things are done
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Serbs, Balkans, wantedto gain independence from ottoman rule
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Who, where, and why did the first revolts happen in Eastern Europe
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Created two house legislature and allowed limited freedom of press
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Why did Louis XVIII issue the Charter of French Liberties
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Ultra Royalists
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High clergy and emigre nobles that were against a constitutional government hat returned to France after the revolution
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Liberals
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People who favored a constitutional gov and opposed the ultra royalists, they wanted to extend suffrage and win a share of power for middle class citizens
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Radicals
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People who supported a republic, decent pay, and affordable bread
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July Revolution
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Charles X inherited the throne and suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press. Angry citizens revolted and rebels soon controlled Paris
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Luis Philippe
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Cousin of Charles X. Nicknamed “citizen king” because he thought he owed his throne to he people, got along well with liberals. Liberal politicians filled his gov, he extended suffrage only to French wealthier citizens, his policies favored middle class
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Uprisings in Paris caused uprisings all over Europe
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What did Metternich mean when he said “When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold?”
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Revolts and changes of gov in France
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What inspired the outbreak of uprisings in Europe

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