The California Wildlife Protection Act (Proposition 117) banned hunting of ——.
Mountain Lions

——: Mountain Lions have never been know to kill humans.

BTO researchers found that the —— had increased to higher numbers than ever reported throughout history.
Grey Heron

Agriculturalists in Britain blamed the declines in some species on predation by ——.
sparrow hawks

——: At the 2002 CITES meeting, the US agreed with the motion to allow a one time sale of ivory stockpiled in five African nations.

A study of 24 species of —— birds in Britain conducted by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) found that although many species were declining a few species were increasing.

—— is one of the African nations that argued for lifting the ban on ivory trade.

—— is the nation that joined Kenya and fought against permanently lifting the ban on ivory trade.

Voters in Oregon banned the hunting of mountain lions with ——.

In one study of British farmland birds researchers found that about —— of all European birds are now a conservation concern.

Cougars have recently been found in South Dakota and ——.

—— species of kangaroo are only harvested on Flinders Island and Tasmania.

In ——, CITES banned international trade in ivory.

the Predator Defense Institute attacked the —— state wildlife agency over its methods for studying mountain lion population size.

—— Is the animal rights advocacy group that led the campaign to ban the sale of kangaroo meat in UK grocery stores.

Although Japan supported the one time sale of ivory, the sale was opposed by ——.

Researches believe that the declines seen in British farmland birds are due to ——.
farming practices

According to Viva!, —— is the nation that imports the greatest amount of kangaroo meat.

—— was the non-African nation that wanted the ivory trade to be reinstated.

Most of the kangaroo meat commercially harvested in Australia is exported to —— countries.

—— species of kangaroo are harvested commercially on the mainland of Australia.

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on ——.
population size

Prairie dogs are especially vulnerable to ——.
Sylvatic Plague

The state of Louisiana constructed —— plants to process nutria for human consumption.

The population of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Lubbock, Texas could be as high as ——.

The main problem caused by Nutria in Louisiana is that they ——.
destroy wetland and farmland vegetation

When exposed to air, phostoxin reacts to form ——.
hydrogen phosphide

The range of Black-footed Ferret historically coincided more or less with the range of ——.
prairie dogs

Varmint hunters shoot prairie dogs chiefly for ——.

——: The Black-tailed Prairie dog is protected by state law in several states.

Nutria were introduced to the US from ——.

The largest population of re-introduced black-footed ferrets (164 individuals) is in ——.
South Dakota

In August 2004, based on new information, the USFWS ruled that the Black-tailed Prairie Dog should ——.
not be listed

The —— Prairie Dog inhabits the short grass prairie zone of the Great Planes.

A total of —— nutria was processed in 1996-1997 for human consumption in Louisiana.

When first considered for listing under the ESA, the Black-tailed Prairie dog was assigned a priority number of ——.

Wide scale poisioning of prairie dogs was undertaken between 1920 and 1970 by the agency now known as ——.
USDA Wildlife Services

The individuals used in re-introductions of the black-footed ferret came from ——.
captive breeding

The cost of removing 300 prairie dogs from the Lubbock site was ——.

About 150 nutria were able to escape from “escape proof” cages in Louisiana in 1940 following ——.
a hurricane

In Louisiana, authorities recently hoped to persuade the public to ——.
eat nutria meat

The —— Prairie Dog is listed as endangered.

Since European contact, the Black-tailed Prairie dog has lost about —— of its original 100 million acres of habitat.

In 1981, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found near Meeteese in ——.

Black-footed ferrets are vulnerable to —— as well as sylvatic plague.
canine distemper

The —— is a once commercially important native North American furbearer that weighs about 2 lbs.

——: In 1999, the USFWS ruled that there was sufficient evidence to warrant an emergency listing for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.

In 1999 petitioners listed —— threats to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.

Recently trappers in Louisiana were earning about —— per nutria pelt.

Petitioners originally sought an “emergency” —— categorization for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in 1994.
candidate 2

Nutria were originally introduced ——.
to establish a fur industry

Once thought to be extinct, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found in —— in 1964.
South Dakota

Officials in Lubbock plan to use —— to kill prairie dogs.

Phostoxin reacts with —————— in the atmosphere to become activated.

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on ——.
population size

By the late 1950s there roughly —— nutria in the US.
20 million

According to Seton, at the start of the twentieth century there were —— prairie dogs on the Great Plains.
5 billion

——: All ranchers in the US oppose wolf re-introductions.

A hunter from Louisiana, who shot a radio-collared lynx in Colorado, was fined ——.

Sea Horses are especially popular in markets in traditional medicine in ——.

When re-introduced wolves kill livestock where they are re-introduced, the livestock owner is ——.
paid fair market value for the loss

Re-introductions of Canada Lynx in Colorado all took place on —— land.
National Forest

Management of snow geese legally falls under the —— Act of 1918.
Migratory Bird Treaty

Canada Lynx feed principally on ——.
Snowshoe Hares

Fishers (Martes pennati) have recently been re-introduced to the state of ——.

Sea horses commonly live over ——.
beds of sea grass

——: The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow spends the winter in Cuba.

The —— is the organization that has vehemently opposed Lynx re-introductions to Colorado.
Farm Bureau

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows typically nest in ——.
one meter tall saw grass

Fishers are members of the —— family.

Many sea horses are harvested by fishers from ——.
the Philippines

Sea Horses are actually ——.
bony fish

Moulton was able to buy some dried seahorses at a market in ——.
Tarpon Springs

The Dusky Seaside Sparrow that went extinct in Florida was a victim of ——.

A favorite food of fishers in some areas is ——.

A female snow goose can lose —— of her body mass producing a single clutch.

The fisher re-introductions were funded in part by ——.

In a poll, —— of Australians favored the killing of feral cats.

—— is the non-governmental organization that pushed for and participated in the re-introduction of gray wolves to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.
Defenders of Wildlife

When the USFWS increased the bag limit on snow geese, the —— sued them to stop the increase.

—— is the non-governmental organization that claims increased numbers of snow geese are destroying arctic vegetation.
Ducks Unlimited

“Egging”, means the removal of eggs from snow goose nests will likely be ineffective in managing snow geese because ——.
nests are far from any people

There are an estimated —— feral cats in Australia.
12 million

One concern regarding the harvest in Big Cypress NP was the amount of air boat damage to the habitat of Snail Kites and ——.
Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows

Piping plovers in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge were mostly preyed on by —— gulls.
Great Black-backed

——: Piping Plovers are restricted to the east coast of the United States.

——: Black Skimmers benefited from gull control at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

A frog gig is basically a ——.
multi-pronged spear

According to the Miami Herald in 1996 people were killing —— worth of frogs per night.

As noted in lecture, there are —— main foraging types (not species!) of gulls.

Wisconsin deer may have been infected with CWD by eating ——.
Protein pellets

In 1996, public outcry led to a ban on the harvest of —— in Big Cypress National Preserve.

——: Before 1996, frog gigging for consumption by a person’s family was legal in Big Cypress National Preserve.

USFWS scientists wanted to kill certain gulls at the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts because the gulls were ——.
killing federally listed Piping Plovers

CWD is caused by ——.

In April 1996 a ranger in Big Cypress found that 67 boats of frog leg catches weighed —— lbs.

The USFWS used —— to kill gulls in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

CWD was first seen in captive deer in ——.

In Wisconsin, authorities plan to kill —— deer in a circle with a 10 mile radius around a spot where 18 deer tested positive for CWD.

—— is one of the species that benefited most from gull culling at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.
Common Terns

People in Kentucky developed Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease like symptoms after eating —— brains.

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is similar to —— seen in England.
Mad Cow Disease

The frog most sought after in Big Cypress National Preserve was the —— frog.

CWD has been known to infect —— as well as deer.

The —— Gull is a common scavenging species of the Gulf Coast of Florida.

White line disease is found in certain —— in Florida.

—— is an example of a wildlife classification scheme based on an international agreement.

The structurally simplest animals we discussed are the ——.

—— are extremely dangerous species found in the region of tropical Australia.
Box Jellyfish

Cannonball jellyfish are a good species for commercial harvest because they ——.
have high reproductive rates

Bleaching of coral reefs can be caused by ——.
environmental stress

—— is a cellular structure that is typical only of species in the kingdom Fungi.
Cell wall of chitin

Sponges once were, but no longer are, commercially harvested out of ——.
Key West

Red tides are caused by a species from the kingdom ——.

Species in the kingdom —— are characterized by having prokaryotic cells.

Red Tides toxins are produced by ——.

—— are cells that trap tiny food particles as water flows through the body wall of sponges.
Collar cells

Coral reefs are formed by species in the phylum ——.

Currently the market for US caught cannonball jellyfish exists especially in ——.

——: Plants are not listed by CITES.

Intracellular digestion by amoebocytes is typical of ——.

Most of the species listed by CITES are categorized in Appendix ——.

Roughly —— nations have signed the CITES agreement.

There are basically —— kinds of red tides.

——: Red tides are not always characterized by a change in the water color.

Cannonball jellyfish belong to the Phylum ——.

Which of the following is the correct sequence in going from smaller groups to larger? ——.
Life > Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species

Most non-phylogenetic wildlife classification schemes are based on ——.
distribution and abundance

Which of the following is the correct sequence in groing from larger groups to smaller? ——.
See below

Today sponges are commercially harvested in Florida only out of ——.
Tarpon Springs

When —— are low, some organisms that cause red tides revert to sexual reproduction.

International trade in endangered species is monitored by ——.

According to MPM many wildlifers, if given a choice would study ——.

Only species in the class —— can be exempt of provisions in the Endangered Species Act.

Scallops are members of the phylum ——.

——: The Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly once occurred statewide in Florida.

Creating stepping-stone habitat is a technique used by Dr. Tom Emmel to aid the ——.
Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly

The blastula is a ——.
hollow ball of cells

The MFC left the recreational scallop season open for 2 months because of ——.
economic pressure

After the scallops declined, the state (through the MFC) banned commercial harvest of scallops ——.

Scallops began to disappear in the region of the Gulf of Mexico ——.
south of the Suwanee river

The FWC lists —— species of invertebrates as being threatened, or endangered.

Lobsters and shrimp are species in the phylum ——.

Flatworms belong to the phylum ——.

The solid ball of cells formed through cleavage is called a ——.

A pseudocoelom is characteristic of the ——.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly may avoid extinction in the wild because of a partnership between conservation scientists and a —— association.

Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) have —— secondary body cavity.

Before 1997 the scallop season ran for —— months in Florida.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly survived because a few individuals were ——.
none of these (not protected by the NPS, naturally large, or had mated with an introduced species)

In deuterostomes the —— froms from the blastopore.

The blastopore becomes the mouth in the development of ——.

—— is one of the three most represented phyla of invertebrates listed by FCREPA.

The invertebrate phylum —— has no species listed by the FWC.

The —— is an introduced species in North America that belongs to the phylum Mollusca.
Zebra Mussel

A true coelom is a secondary body cavity that is surrounded by ——.
mesoderm and mesoderm

By 1984 the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly was reduced to a total of —— individuals.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is found only in ——.
the Florida Keys

Moulton believes that few invertebrate species are federally listed in Florida because invertebrates ——.
have not been studied extensively

Embyonic genes switch on during the —— phase of development.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly was nearly wiped out in 1992 because of ——.
Hurricane Andrew

When the Welland canal was deepened —— invaded Lake Erie.

Natives on the Yukon River harvest nemeryaq which are actually ——.

The —— are chordates that are sessile as adults and/but have a free-swimming larva.

——: All lampreys are parasitic.

TFM is a chemical once used to control ——.

The parasitic sea lamprey is characterized by having ——.
an oral disk

All chordates have ——.
dorsal hollow nerve cord

——refers to the developmental change from juvenile to adult.

The phylum chordate is subdivided into —— subphyla.

Fish that live in marine environments and ascend creeks and streams to breed are called ——.

——: The four chordate characteristics are all visible in the adults of all chordate species.

Some species of —— are catadromous species.

—— use slime production as a defense mechanism.

All chordates have ——.
pharyngeal gill slits

There are about —— species of jawless vertebrates in the world today.

——: Lampreys are chiefly catadromous.

When lampreys reached the upper Great Lakes the —— fishery collapsed.
Lake Trout

Typically, invertebrates use their gills for ——.

Modern hagfishes are found only in —— environments.

The currently accepted theory among biologists on the evolution of the vertebrates is based on ——hyphothesis.

TFM may be replaced in the future by ——.

The Ostracoderms may have used the bone in their skin for ——.
a mineral reservoir

The sea squirts belong to the subphylum ——.

Sea urchins belong to the phylum ——.

The Ostracoderms may have used their bony skin for ——.

Amphioxus is a typical member of the subphylum ——.

—— is the phylum of marine, acorn worms.

In the vertebrates the gills are internal and ——.
connected to the digestive tube

Among the vertebrates a prominent notochord is found in adult members of the class ——.

Scientists once thought (incorrectly) that Amphioxus was a larval —— that underwent paedomorphosis.

The —— were the first vertebrates.

The Patagonian Toothfish is managed by a group of 24 nations that make up the ——.

In order for jaws to function properly an animal must be able to overcome ——, pitch, and yaw.

According to Sea Web as many as 1.1 million pounds of marlin were discarded by the swordfish industry between 1995-1996.

Sharks are now commonly harvested for their ——, which is said to function as a cancer preventative.

To protect Lake Michigan from possible invasion by Asian carp, fishery managers ——.
put up an electrical barrier

——: The Patagonian Toothfish is officially listed as endangered.

Any swordfish that are caught that are not large enough by established standards are ——.
thrown overboard

The US government recently closed more than 132,000 square miles of the Atlantic to commercial swordfishing because these areas are ——.
swordfish nursery areas

According to SUSA about —— pounds of Swordfish are consumed by the US public each year.
30 million

The Placoderms are thought to have evolved from the ——.

The common carp is native to ——.

Swordfish USA (SUSA) claims there are roughly 17 million recreational fishers and —— commercial swordfish boats in the North Atlantic.

One problem with harvesting sharks commercially is that they are ——.

The “Give Swordfish a Break” campaign was run by Sea Web and ——
Natural Resources Defense Council.

When the US government closed more than 132,000 square miles to commercial swordfishing in the Atlantic, the sponsors of the ‘Give Swordfish a Break’ ——.
formally ended the campaign

Asian Carp may actually leap into boats because ——.
outboard motors frighten them

The —— act of 1972 was enacted to protect dolphins from mortality due to fishing.
Marine Mammal Protection

In the film The Perfect Storm, the crew was fishing for ——.
Atlantic Swordfish

Grass Carp were introduced to the US to control ——.
aquatic weeds

There are actually —— species of Patagonian Toothfish.

Jaws evolved from the ——.
gill arches

Swordfish are harvested commercially using ——.
long lines

Large scale commercial fishing for Patagonian Toothfish began in the ——.

In the 1970s Bighead and Silver Carp were introduced to the US to control ——.
Mollusks and algae

In 1997, —— decided to lift the ban on imports of Mexican tuna.
the US Senate

Atlantic Swordfish feed chiefly on squid and —— as adults.

The fishing technique used to catch Patagonian Toothfish is said to have resulted in the deaths of numerous ——.
sea birds

—— is the group that manages Atlantic Swordfish.

According to Swordfish USA about 2/3 of the swordfish consumed in the US comes from the —— Ocean.

The US imports about —— percent of all legally harvested Patagonian Toothfish.

In 1990, the US banned imports of —— from Mexico because of dolphin mortality.

Pacific Ocean tuna were considered “Dolphin Safe” after —— criteria were established.

The Patagonian Toothfish is harvested using ——.
long lines

There are possibly —— species of bony fishes.

—— were an adaptation that enabled the jaws to work efficiently.
Paired fins

The —— were the first jawed vertebrates.

Icthyostega fossils are known from what is now ——.

The now extinct gastric-brooding frog was known only from ——.

Chirping frogs were first seen in Hawaii in the ——.
mid 1980s

—— of the following is an example of a paedogenetic group of amphibian species.

External fertilization is characteristic of the ——.
frogs and toads

The fossil amphibians and the lobe-finned fishes are linked by similarities in the ——.
forelimb bone pattern

Sexual coupling in species that have external fertilizatioin is called ——.

The formation of a communal foam nest is seen in certain tree frogs in ——.

The presence of —— is a juvenile characteristic retained by some paedogenetic species.
external gills

There were —— recognizable evolutionary lines of fossil amphibians.

The fossil lineages of the amphibians are recognizable on the basis of the struction of the ——.

Both the frogs and the salamanders produce —— eggs.

—— is a characteristic shared by the amphibians and certain lobe-finned fishes.
Labyrinthine infolded tooth enamel

In Darwin’s frog in Chile, the young frogs develop in ——.
father’s vocal sac

—— has not been suggested as a cause of deformities in frogs.

There are —— federally listed species of amphibians in Florida.

—— refers to the facultative or environmentally determined form of paedomorphosis.

The genus Eleutherodactylus a genus of chirping frogs has —— species scattered over the West Indies.

The —— is the sole surviving member of the lobe-finned fishes.

In addition to being toxic bufotenine is also an ——.

There are roughly —— times as many frogs and toads as there are salamanders.

Paedomorphosis is a characteristic of certain ——.

The Golden Toad which has recently decline precipitously is native to ——.
Costa Rica

—— are primitive salamanders that have external gills, and front legs but no hind legs.

When —— aestivate they produce a mucous cocoon like the African lungfish.

Respiration occurs across a pharyngeal membrane in the ——.

The Hedonic glands play an active role in ——.
salamander courtship

A species of lobe finned fish still occurs in ——.
the Indian Ocean

—— are structures produced by male salamanders for reproductive purposes.

Toads secrete a poison from the —— glands on their heads.

Deformed frogs were first seen in —— in the 1990s.

The so-called poison arrow frogs are native to ——.
Central and South America

External fertilization is seen in —— salamanders.

Caecilians are characterized by having ——.
internal fertilization

Chirping frogs were introduced to Hawaii from ——.
Puerto Rico

The — is an international organization concerned with managing Atlantic Swordfish and Tuna harvests.

Once a species is listed under the Endangered Species Act it can never be de-‐ listed.

Priority numbers are based on the magnitude of the threat, the immediacy of the threat and
Taxonomic uniqueness

To see if a person was bewitched people made a cake with — and fed it to a dog.
Their urine

— is one of the two groups that belong to the Hemichordata.
Pterobranchs and Acorn Worms

—nations have signed the CITES agreement as of 2011.

Discodermolide is a compound produced by some
sponges and can fight cancer.

Species in the phylum — are characterized by having two tissue layers (diplobalstic).

All lampreys are parasitic.

All Hagfish are marine

Paddlefish occur in the Mississippi river drainage and in Germany.

People harvest sharks for food and for their skins, which are thought to contain a cancer preventative agent.

In the 1990s, Canada seized a Spanish fishing boat that was 28 miles outside the 200 mile limit.

In 2006, hunters in Michigan killed about — Black Bears.

The Marine Iguana is the world's only sea-‐going lizard. The — are large enough to dive underwater and eat seaweed. (Coasts)

— species of seabirds come to land lay their eggs

Mostly because of intense predation, about — in every 100 Flatbacked Turtle hatchlings survive to adulthood. (Coasts)

Synchronized sea turtle hatching may be a strategy to overwhelm potential — and, thus, increase the chances of hatchlings reaching the sea.

New Zealand’s Capelin spawn on the beach because, perhaps, the eggs are safer from marine predators and the eggs develop — than in the surrounding cold waters. (Coasts)

% of the world’s seabirds nest together, perhaps in large colonies. (Coasts)

7. Assembling in large colonies provides — stimulation that allows seabirds, which often live solitarily, to coordinate and synchronize their breeding. (Coasts)

When Crested Auklets gather to nest in high densities, one benefit may be that they can share information on good —. (Coasts)
feeding sites

Small seabirds known as Petrels deal with winds that keep them from their nest by laying an egg that can be left for several days without —.(Coasts)

When Walruses, distant cousins of bears, return to land for a few weeks each year to breed, their skin changes from white to —

: Marine mammals lose heat more rapidly in water than in air. (Coasts)

Male Elephant Seals fight to gain access to

For Southern Sea Lions, the benefit of group breeding may be that the pups develop bonds and — that will allow them to share information in the future

The reason Killer Whales play with their food is —

Coasts are the most — of all the ocean’s habitats

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, seahorses are considered — in China.
charms of love

In the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, we see that all seahorses are brightly colored and therefore easy to see.

According to the narrator of the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, seahorses may be found as far north as Nova Scotia.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, seahorses only anchor themselves to a specific species of sea grass.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, seahorses do not have stomachs.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, females stake out breeding territories and attract males with a pungent glandular secretion.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, the — of a seahorse is as unique as a thumbprint.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, — are close relatives of seahorses.
pipefish and sea dragons

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, in a series of experiments Amanda Vincent showed that male seahorses fight other males using head butts and tail wrestling.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, some seahorses brood up to — young at a time.

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, Amanda Vincent helped establish a conservation plan for seahorses in —
The Philippines

According to the film “Kingdom of the Seahorse”, about — seahorses per year are harvested for traditional Chinese medicine.
20 million

Coral growth can proceed at the rate of — centimeters per year.

The largest fish in the sea is the —. (Coral Seas)
Whale Sharks

A skeleton of — supports the flesh of a coral polyp, and this skeleton forms the underlying hard structure of a coral reef.

Corals are found in clear, warm, shallow water because within coral polyps live millions of single-‐celled algae, and algae use sunlight to produce energy through the process of —.

Algae produce — of the food consumed by coral polyps. (Coral Seas)

6. At night, coral polyps extend their tentacles and trap —.

When corals compete for space, the polyps extend their — and digest their rival.

A — is an example of an animal that lives in coral and defends the coral from the attack of a Crown-‐of-‐Thorns Starfish.

Humphead — consume the algae within coral and rock, and they defecate the soft sand that forms beaches. (Coral Seas)

According to “Coral Seas,” a recent discovery is that tiny — that live within sponges have a social system like bees.

Whitetip Sharks are able to hunt in the dark by using their sense of smell and —. (Coral Seas)
electro reception

12. For coral reef animals, each sexual strategy is aimed at maximizing the number of young that will survive until they can —
breed themselves

Because the male Banded Pipefish guards the eggs from when they are laid until they hatch, a pair of pipefish can produce — as many young in a year.

The corals of the Great Barrier Reef synchronize their spawning to maximize the chances of —. (Coral Seas)

Because of a reef’s rigid structure, hurricanes can not damage a coral reef. (Coral Seas

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ there are about — species of amphibians worldwide.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ the first amphibian might have resembled a —
lung fish

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ the — is native to Japan.
giant salamander

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ the eggs of the Giant Salamander unlike those of other amphibians have a well developed shell.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ the female — wraps her egg in a leaf.
Alpine Newt

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ Marbled Salamanders spend the winter in limestone caves.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ Marbled Salamanders are native to —
Easter U.S.

In the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ we saw a colony of several hundred slimy salamanders living in a —
mine shaft

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ female salamanders that were living in a mine shaft will starve themselves before they will feed on the eggs of other females.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ — are legless amphibians that spend most of their lives underground.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ young Caecilians fed on a secretion from
a gland and the skin on their mother.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ New Guinea is the home of the tiniest of all frogs.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ Painted Reed Frog males must increase energy intake by — fold for calling.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ the — of Africa guards the nursery pool.

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ female —- frogs of Central and South America feed the young an unfertilized egg.
Poison Arrow

According to the episode ~ Life in Cold Blood – Land Invaders ~ the male Marsupial Frog carries the tadpoles in pouches on his hips for up to —
6 weeks

The chief food of lizards is

Jacky Dragons may signal their territorial boundaries with
a wave of the front leg and a bob of the head.

is the place with the most species of chameleons.

The Meller’s Chameleon occurs in
Malawi in Central Africa

A male South African Dwarf Chameleon was attacked and driven off by a female because
she was pregnant.

The prey of a chameleon may weigh
— as much as the chameleon.

The Leaf-Tailed Gecko of Madagascar has morphological adaptations so that it
can disguise itself

The Pygmy Blue-tongued Skink uses holes made
by trap-door spiders.

The Parenti Lizard is the largest monitor found in

The highest lizard population densities in the world are along the Orange River in
South Africa

The — lizard has a humped back perhaps top mimic a local beetle.

We see a Parenti run down and kill a