The California Wildlife Protection Act (Proposition 117) banned hunting of ——.
——: Mountain Lions have never been know to kill humans.
BTO researchers found that the —— had increased to higher numbers than ever reported throughout history.
Agriculturalists in Britain blamed the declines in some species on predation by ——.
——: At the 2002 CITES meeting, the US agreed with the motion to allow a one time sale of ivory stockpiled in five African nations.
A study of 24 species of —— birds in Britain conducted by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) found that although many species were declining a few species were increasing.
—— is one of the African nations that argued for lifting the ban on ivory trade.
—— is the nation that joined Kenya and fought against permanently lifting the ban on ivory trade.
Voters in Oregon banned the hunting of mountain lions with ——.
In one study of British farmland birds researchers found that about —— of all European birds are now a conservation concern.
Cougars have recently been found in South Dakota and ——.
—— species of kangaroo are only harvested on Flinders Island and Tasmania.
In ——, CITES banned international trade in ivory.
the Predator Defense Institute attacked the —— state wildlife agency over its methods for studying mountain lion population size.
—— Is the animal rights advocacy group that led the campaign to ban the sale of kangaroo meat in UK grocery stores.
Although Japan supported the one time sale of ivory, the sale was opposed by ——.
Researches believe that the declines seen in British farmland birds are due to ——.
According to Viva!, —— is the nation that imports the greatest amount of kangaroo meat.
—— was the non-African nation that wanted the ivory trade to be reinstated.
Most of the kangaroo meat commercially harvested in Australia is exported to —— countries.
—— species of kangaroo are harvested commercially on the mainland of Australia.
Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on ——.
Prairie dogs are especially vulnerable to ——.
The state of Louisiana constructed —— plants to process nutria for human consumption.
The population of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Lubbock, Texas could be as high as ——.
The main problem caused by Nutria in Louisiana is that they ——.
destroy wetland and farmland vegetation
When exposed to air, phostoxin reacts to form ——.
The range of Black-footed Ferret historically coincided more or less with the range of ——.
Varmint hunters shoot prairie dogs chiefly for ——.
——: The Black-tailed Prairie dog is protected by state law in several states.
Nutria were introduced to the US from ——.
The largest population of re-introduced black-footed ferrets (164 individuals) is in ——.
In August 2004, based on new information, the USFWS ruled that the Black-tailed Prairie Dog should ——.
not be listed
The —— Prairie Dog inhabits the short grass prairie zone of the Great Planes.
A total of —— nutria was processed in 1996-1997 for human consumption in Louisiana.
When first considered for listing under the ESA, the Black-tailed Prairie dog was assigned a priority number of ——.
Wide scale poisioning of prairie dogs was undertaken between 1920 and 1970 by the agency now known as ——.
USDA Wildlife Services
The individuals used in re-introductions of the black-footed ferret came from ——.
The cost of removing 300 prairie dogs from the Lubbock site was ——.
About 150 nutria were able to escape from “escape proof” cages in Louisiana in 1940 following ——.
In Louisiana, authorities recently hoped to persuade the public to ——.
eat nutria meat
The —— Prairie Dog is listed as endangered.
Since European contact, the Black-tailed Prairie dog has lost about —— of its original 100 million acres of habitat.
In 1981, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found near Meeteese in ——.
Black-footed ferrets are vulnerable to —— as well as sylvatic plague.
The —— is a once commercially important native North American furbearer that weighs about 2 lbs.
——: In 1999, the USFWS ruled that there was sufficient evidence to warrant an emergency listing for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.
In 1999 petitioners listed —— threats to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.
Recently trappers in Louisiana were earning about —— per nutria pelt.
Petitioners originally sought an “emergency” —— categorization for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in 1994.
Nutria were originally introduced ——.
to establish a fur industry
Once thought to be extinct, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found in —— in 1964.
Officials in Lubbock plan to use —— to kill prairie dogs.
Phostoxin reacts with —————— in the atmosphere to become activated.
Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on ——.
By the late 1950s there roughly —— nutria in the US.
According to Seton, at the start of the twentieth century there were —— prairie dogs on the Great Plains.
——: All ranchers in the US oppose wolf re-introductions.
A hunter from Louisiana, who shot a radio-collared lynx in Colorado, was fined ——.
Sea Horses are especially popular in markets in traditional medicine in ——.
When re-introduced wolves kill livestock where they are re-introduced, the livestock owner is ——.
paid fair market value for the loss
Re-introductions of Canada Lynx in Colorado all took place on —— land.
Management of snow geese legally falls under the —— Act of 1918.
Migratory Bird Treaty
Canada Lynx feed principally on ——.
Fishers (Martes pennati) have recently been re-introduced to the state of ——.
Sea horses commonly live over ——.
beds of sea grass
——: The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow spends the winter in Cuba.
The —— is the organization that has vehemently opposed Lynx re-introductions to Colorado.
Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows typically nest in ——.
one meter tall saw grass
Fishers are members of the —— family.
Many sea horses are harvested by fishers from ——.
Sea Horses are actually ——.
Moulton was able to buy some dried seahorses at a market in ——.
The Dusky Seaside Sparrow that went extinct in Florida was a victim of ——.
A favorite food of fishers in some areas is ——.
A female snow goose can lose —— of her body mass producing a single clutch.
The fisher re-introductions were funded in part by ——.
In a poll, —— of Australians favored the killing of feral cats.
—— is the non-governmental organization that pushed for and participated in the re-introduction of gray wolves to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.
Defenders of Wildlife
When the USFWS increased the bag limit on snow geese, the —— sued them to stop the increase.
—— is the non-governmental organization that claims increased numbers of snow geese are destroying arctic vegetation.
“Egging”, means the removal of eggs from snow goose nests will likely be ineffective in managing snow geese because ——.
nests are far from any people
There are an estimated —— feral cats in Australia.
One concern regarding the harvest in Big Cypress NP was the amount of air boat damage to the habitat of Snail Kites and ——.
Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows
Piping plovers in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge were mostly preyed on by —— gulls.
——: Piping Plovers are restricted to the east coast of the United States.
——: Black Skimmers benefited from gull control at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.
A frog gig is basically a ——.
According to the Miami Herald in 1996 people were killing —— worth of frogs per night.
As noted in lecture, there are —— main foraging types (not species!) of gulls.
Wisconsin deer may have been infected with CWD by eating ——.
In 1996, public outcry led to a ban on the harvest of —— in Big Cypress National Preserve.
——: Before 1996, frog gigging for consumption by a person’s family was legal in Big Cypress National Preserve.
USFWS scientists wanted to kill certain gulls at the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts because the gulls were ——.
killing federally listed Piping Plovers
CWD is caused by ——.
In April 1996 a ranger in Big Cypress found that 67 boats of frog leg catches weighed —— lbs.
The USFWS used —— to kill gulls in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.
CWD was first seen in captive deer in ——.
In Wisconsin, authorities plan to kill —— deer in a circle with a 10 mile radius around a spot where 18 deer tested positive for CWD.
—— is one of the species that benefited most from gull culling at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.
People in Kentucky developed Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease like symptoms after eating —— brains.
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is similar to —— seen in England.
Mad Cow Disease
The frog most sought after in Big Cypress National Preserve was the —— frog.
CWD has been known to infect —— as well as deer.
The —— Gull is a common scavenging species of the Gulf Coast of Florida.
White line disease is found in certain —— in Florida.
—— is an example of a wildlife classification scheme based on an international agreement.
The structurally simplest animals we discussed are the ——.
—— are extremely dangerous species found in the region of tropical Australia.
Cannonball jellyfish are a good species for commercial harvest because they ——.
have high reproductive rates
Bleaching of coral reefs can be caused by ——.
—— is a cellular structure that is typical only of species in the kingdom Fungi.
Cell wall of chitin
Sponges once were, but no longer are, commercially harvested out of ——.
Red tides are caused by a species from the kingdom ——.
Species in the kingdom —— are characterized by having prokaryotic cells.
Red Tides toxins are produced by ——.
—— are cells that trap tiny food particles as water flows through the body wall of sponges.
Coral reefs are formed by species in the phylum ——.
Currently the market for US caught cannonball jellyfish exists especially in ——.
——: Plants are not listed by CITES.
Intracellular digestion by amoebocytes is typical of ——.
Most of the species listed by CITES are categorized in Appendix ——.
Roughly —— nations have signed the CITES agreement.
There are basically —— kinds of red tides.
——: Red tides are not always characterized by a change in the water color.
Cannonball jellyfish belong to the Phylum ——.
Which of the following is the correct sequence in going from smaller groups to larger? ——.
Life > Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species
Most non-phylogenetic wildlife classification schemes are based on ——.
distribution and abundance
Which of the following is the correct sequence in groing from larger groups to smaller? ——.
Today sponges are commercially harvested in Florida only out of ——.
When —— are low, some organisms that cause red tides revert to sexual reproduction.
International trade in endangered species is monitored by ——.
According to MPM many wildlifers, if given a choice would study ——.
Only species in the class —— can be exempt of provisions in the Endangered Species Act.
Scallops are members of the phylum ——.
——: The Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly once occurred statewide in Florida.
Creating stepping-stone habitat is a technique used by Dr. Tom Emmel to aid the ——.
Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly
The blastula is a ——.
hollow ball of cells
The MFC left the recreational scallop season open for 2 months because of ——.
After the scallops declined, the state (through the MFC) banned commercial harvest of scallops ——.
Scallops began to disappear in the region of the Gulf of Mexico ——.
south of the Suwanee river
The FWC lists —— species of invertebrates as being threatened, or endangered.
Lobsters and shrimp are species in the phylum ——.
Flatworms belong to the phylum ——.
The solid ball of cells formed through cleavage is called a ——.
A pseudocoelom is characteristic of the ——.
The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly may avoid extinction in the wild because of a partnership between conservation scientists and a —— association.
Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) have —— secondary body cavity.
Before 1997 the scallop season ran for —— months in Florida.
The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly survived because a few individuals were ——.
none of these (not protected by the NPS, naturally large, or had mated with an introduced species)
In deuterostomes the —— froms from the blastopore.
The blastopore becomes the mouth in the development of ——.
—— is one of the three most represented phyla of invertebrates listed by FCREPA.
The invertebrate phylum —— has no species listed by the FWC.
The —— is an introduced species in North America that belongs to the phylum Mollusca.
A true coelom is a secondary body cavity that is surrounded by ——.
mesoderm and mesoderm
By 1984 the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly was reduced to a total of —— individuals.
The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is found only in ——.
the Florida Keys
Moulton believes that few invertebrate species are federally listed in Florida because invertebrates ——.
have not been studied extensively
Embyonic genes switch on during the —— phase of development.
The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly was nearly wiped out in 1992 because of ——.
When the Welland canal was deepened —— invaded Lake Erie.
Natives on the Yukon River harvest nemeryaq which are actually ——.
The —— are chordates that are sessile as adults and/but have a free-swimming larva.
——: All lampreys are parasitic.
TFM is a chemical once used to control ——.
The parasitic sea lamprey is characterized by having ——.
an oral disk
All chordates have ——.
dorsal hollow nerve cord
——refers to the developmental change from juvenile to adult.
The phylum chordate is subdivided into —— subphyla.
Fish that live in marine environments and ascend creeks and streams to breed are called ——.
——: The four chordate characteristics are all visible in the adults of all chordate species.
Some species of —— are catadromous species.
—— use slime production as a defense mechanism.
All chordates have ——.
pharyngeal gill slits
There are about —— species of jawless vertebrates in the world today.
——: Lampreys are chiefly catadromous.
When lampreys reached the upper Great Lakes the —— fishery collapsed.
Typically, invertebrates use their gills for ——.
Modern hagfishes are found only in —— environments.
The currently accepted theory among biologists on the evolution of the vertebrates is based on ——hyphothesis.
TFM may be replaced in the future by ——.
The Ostracoderms may have used the bone in their skin for ——.
a mineral reservoir
The sea squirts belong to the subphylum ——.
Sea urchins belong to the phylum ——.
The Ostracoderms may have used their bony skin for ——.
Amphioxus is a typical member of the subphylum ——.
—— is the phylum of marine, acorn worms.
In the vertebrates the gills are internal and ——.
connected to the digestive tube
Among the vertebrates a prominent notochord is found in adult members of the class ——.
Scientists once thought (incorrectly) that Amphioxus was a larval —— that underwent paedomorphosis.
The —— were the first vertebrates.
The Patagonian Toothfish is managed by a group of 24 nations that make up the ——.
In order for jaws to function properly an animal must be able to overcome ——, pitch, and yaw.
According to Sea Web as many as 1.1 million pounds of marlin were discarded by the swordfish industry between 1995-1996.
Sharks are now commonly harvested for their ——, which is said to function as a cancer preventative.
To protect Lake Michigan from possible invasion by Asian carp, fishery managers ——.
put up an electrical barrier
——: The Patagonian Toothfish is officially listed as endangered.
Any swordfish that are caught that are not large enough by established standards are ——.
The US government recently closed more than 132,000 square miles of the Atlantic to commercial swordfishing because these areas are ——.
swordfish nursery areas
According to SUSA about —— pounds of Swordfish are consumed by the US public each year.
The Placoderms are thought to have evolved from the ——.
The common carp is native to ——.
Swordfish USA (SUSA) claims there are roughly 17 million recreational fishers and —— commercial swordfish boats in the North Atlantic.
One problem with harvesting sharks commercially is that they are ——.
The “Give Swordfish a Break” campaign was run by Sea Web and ——
Natural Resources Defense Council.
When the US government closed more than 132,000 square miles to commercial swordfishing in the Atlantic, the sponsors of the ‘Give Swordfish a Break’ ——.
formally ended the campaign
Asian Carp may actually leap into boats because ——.
outboard motors frighten them
The —— act of 1972 was enacted to protect dolphins from mortality due to fishing.
Marine Mammal Protection
In the film The Perfect Storm, the crew was fishing for ——.
Grass Carp were introduced to the US to control ——.
There are actually —— species of Patagonian Toothfish.
Jaws evolved from the ——.
Swordfish are harvested commercially using ——.
Large scale commercial fishing for Patagonian Toothfish began in the ——.
In the 1970s Bighead and Silver Carp were introduced to the US to control ——.
Mollusks and algae
In 1997, —— decided to lift the ban on imports of Mexican tuna.
the US Senate
Atlantic Swordfish feed chiefly on squid and —— as adults.
The fishing technique used to catch Patagonian Toothfish is said to have resulted in the deaths of numerous ——.
—— is the group that manages Atlantic Swordfish.
According to Swordfish USA about 2/3 of the swordfish consumed in the US comes from the —— Ocean.
The US imports about —— percent of all legally harvested Patagonian Toothfish.
In 1990, the US banned imports of —— from Mexico because of dolphin mortality.
Pacific Ocean tuna were considered “Dolphin Safe” after —— criteria were established.
The Patagonian Toothfish is harvested using ——.
There are possibly —— species of bony fishes.
—— were an adaptation that enabled the jaws to work efficiently.
The —— were the first jawed vertebrates.
Icthyostega fossils are known from what is now ——.
The now extinct gastric-brooding frog was known only from ——.
Chirping frogs were first seen in Hawaii in the ——.
—— of the following is an example of a paedogenetic group of amphibian species.
External fertilization is characteristic of the ——.
frogs and toads
The fossil amphibians and the lobe-finned fishes are linked by similarities in the ——.
forelimb bone pattern
Sexual coupling in species that have external fertilizatioin is called ——.
The formation of a communal foam nest is seen in certain tree frogs in ——.
The presence of —— is a juvenile characteristic retained by some paedogenetic species.
There were —— recognizable evolutionary lines of fossil amphibians.
The fossil lineages of the amphibians are recognizable on the basis of the struction of the ——.
Both the frogs and the salamanders produce —— eggs.
—— is a characteristic shared by the amphibians and certain lobe-finned fishes.
Labyrinthine infolded tooth enamel
In Darwin’s frog in Chile, the young frogs develop in ——.
father’s vocal sac
—— has not been suggested as a cause of deformities in frogs.
There are —— federally listed species of amphibians in Florida.
—— refers to the facultative or environmentally determined form of paedomorphosis.
The genus Eleutherodactylus a genus of chirping frogs has —— species scattered over the West Indies.
The —— is the sole surviving member of the lobe-finned fishes.
In addition to being toxic bufotenine is also an ——.
There are roughly —— times as many frogs and toads as there are salamanders.
Paedomorphosis is a characteristic of certain ——.
The Golden Toad which has recently decline precipitously is native to ——.
—— are primitive salamanders that have external gills, and front legs but no hind legs.
When —— aestivate they produce a mucous cocoon like the African lungfish.
Respiration occurs across a pharyngeal membrane in the ——.
The Hedonic glands play an active role in ——.
A species of lobe finned fish still occurs in ——.
the Indian Ocean
—— are structures produced by male salamanders for reproductive purposes.
Toads secrete a poison from the —— glands on their heads.
Deformed frogs were first seen in —— in the 1990s.
The so-called poison arrow frogs are native to ——.
Central and South America
External fertilization is seen in —— salamanders.
Caecilians are characterized by having ——.
Chirping frogs were introduced to Hawaii from ——.