Windows Server Chapter 4

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Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
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Disks that are formatted using the GUID Partitioning Table (GPT) can hold larger volume sizes, and benefit from increased reliability provided by which feature?
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backplane
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A connection system that uses a printed circuit board instead of traditional cables to carry signals.
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basic disk
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A traditional Windows or DOS disk arrangement in which the disk is partitioned into primary and extended partitions, and cannot hold volumes spanning multiple disks or be part of a RAID.
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boot volume
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The volume where the Windows folder is located; usually the C drive but doesn’t have to be.
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direct-attached storage (DAS)
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A storage medium directly connected to the server using it but differs from local storage in that it includes externally connected HDDs in an enclosure with a power supply.
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disk drive
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A physical component with a disk interface connector (such as SATA or SCSI) and a power connector.
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extended partition
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A division of disk space on a basic disk that must be divided into logical drives; can’t be marked active and can’t hold the Windows system volume.
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dynamic disk
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A disk arrangement that can hold up to 128 volumes including spanned volumes, striped volumes, and RAID volumes.
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file system
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The method and format an OS uses to store, locate, and retrieve files from electronic storage media.
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fixed provisioning
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A method of creating virtual disks that allocates all space for the virtual disk from the storage pool immediately.
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formatting
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The process of preparing a disk with a file system used to organize and store files.
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GUID Partitioning Table (GPT)
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A disk-partitioning method that supports volume sizes up to 18 exabytes.
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just a bunch of disks (JBOD)
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A disk arrangement in which two or more disks are abstracted to appear as a single disk to the OS but aren’t arranged in a specific RAID configuration.
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local storage
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Storage media with a direct and exclusive connection to the computer’s system board through a disk controller.
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logical unit number (LUN)
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A logical reference point to a unit of storage that could refer to an entire array of disks, a single disk, or just a part of a disk.
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Master Boot Record (MBR)
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A disk-partitioning method that supports volume sizes up to 2 TB.
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mirrored volume
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A volume that uses space from two dynamic disks and provides fault tolerance. Also called a “RAID 1 volume.”
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network-attached storage (NAS)
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A storage device that has an enclosure, a power supply, slots for multiple HDDs, a network interface, and a built-in OS tailored for managing shared files and folders.
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page file
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A system file in Windows used as a virtual memory and to store dump data after a system crash.
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partition
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A logical unit of storage that can be formatted with a file system; similar to a volume but used with basic disks.
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primary partition
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A division of disk space on a basic disk used to create a volume. It can be assigned a drive letter, be marked active, and contain the Windows system volume.
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primordial pool
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A collection of physical disks available to be added to a storage pool.
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RAID 5 volume
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A volume that uses space from three or more dynamic disks and uses disk striping with parity to provide fault tolerance.
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redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
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A disk configuration that uses space on multiple disks to form a single logical volume.
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resilience
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Another term for fault tolerance; indicates a disk arrangement’s capability to maintain data if a disk fails.
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serial ATA (SATA)
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A common disk interface technology that’s inexpensive, fast, and fairly reliable with transfer speeds up to 6 Gb/s; used in both client computers and low-end servers and replaces the older ATA (PATA) technology.
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serial attached SCSI (SAS)
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A newer serial form of SCSI with transfer rates up to 6Gb/s and higher; the disk technology of choice for servers and high-end workstations.
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simple volume
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A volume that resides on a single disk, basic or dynamic.
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small computer system interface (SCSI)
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An older parallel bus disk technology still used on some servers but has reached its performance limits at 640 MB/s transfer rates.
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solid state drive (SSD)
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A type of storage medium that uses flash memory, has no moving parts, and requires less power than a traditional HDD. Also faster and more shock resistant than a traditional HDD but costs more per gigabyte and doesn’t have as much capacity as an HDD.
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spanned volume
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A volume that extends across two or more physical disks, such as a simple volume that has been extended to a second disk.
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storage area network (SAN)
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A storage device that uses high-speed networking technologies to give servers fast access to large amounts of shared disk storage; the storage managed appears to the server OS as though it’s physically attached to the server.
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storage layout
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The method used to create a virtual disk with Storage Spaces; includes simple, mirror, and parity.
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storage pool
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A collection of physical disks from which virtual disks and volumes are created and assigned dynamically.
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Storage Spaces
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A new feature in Windows Server 2012/R2 that provides flexible provisioning of virtualized storage
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striped volume
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A volume that extends across two or more dynamic disks, but data is written to all disks in the volume equally; provides no fault tolerance but does have a performance advantage over simple or spanned volumes.
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system volume
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A volume containing the files a computer needs to find and load the Windows OS.
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thin provisioning
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A method for creating virtual disks whereby the virtual disk expands dynamically and uses space from the storage pool as needed until it reaches the specified maximum size.
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VHD file
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The format virtual machines running in Hyper-V use for their virtual disks; can also be created and mounted with Disk Management and used like physical disks.
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volume
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A logical unit of storage that can be formatted with a file system.
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True
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A solid state drive is a good candidate for storing the page file.
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False
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The biggest advantage in using virtual disks instead of physical volumes is the lack of portability.
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False
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A parity space storage layout is similar to a RAID 1 volume in that a parity bit is written to the spare drive.
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False
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Thin provisioning allocates all configured space immediately ensuring that the space is available for the specified virtual disk.
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True
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A disk that is initialized via the Disk Management mmc is initialized as a Master Boot Record (MBR) disk by default.
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What special character cannot be utilized in an NTFS file’s name?
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Resilient File System (ReFS)
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What file system can repair minor file system issues automatically and supports up to 1 yottabyte of volume size?
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data deduplication
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What feature provides the ability to find identical sets of data on a SAN based storage array and reduce the identical sets to a single instance in order to reduce space?
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RAID 0
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A simple space storage layout is similar to which non-fault tolerant RAID technology?
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New-Partition
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What PowerShell cmdlet can be used to create a new volume?
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Version 3
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What SATA version supports transfer speeds up to 6 Gb/s?
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RAID 5
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An administrator wants to utilize a RAID volume that provides redundancy using disk striping with parity. What type of RAID should the administrator select?
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metadata
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Modern file systems use what component to describe information about files, such as time stamps and attributes?
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The disk pool is moved to an offline state until more physical storage is added.
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If a disk pool becomes full how does Windows Server 2012 respond?
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A volume must be accessible using Windows 9x.
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Under what circumstance would an administrator choose to format a volume using the FAT file system?
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True
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The page file should be on its own volume.
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Network Attached Storage
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What type of storage typically shares files utilizing standard network protocols, such as Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), and File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?
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Solid State Drive (SSD)
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A(n)___________ uses flash memory and the same type of high-speed interfaces, such as SATA or SATA express, as traditional hard disks.
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iSCSI
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The most commonly used network technologies within SANs are Fibre Channel and ______________.
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Access Control List (ACL)
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A(n)_______________________ determines who can access a file or folder and what can be done with the file.

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