What You Understand By Glass Ceiling Sociology Essay Example
What You Understand By Glass Ceiling Sociology Essay Example

What You Understand By Glass Ceiling Sociology Essay Example

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Harmonizing to Erica Strauss on Women and Barriers ( 2007 ) reported that adult females are non acquiring the recognition they ought to hold in the workplace despite holding come a long manner since clip immemorial. Most have gotten their manner to congress or in political relations and achieved high places, been given voting rights, and are involved in making concerns across the Atlantic, and rocketed into infinite among others. Most adult females seem under-represented in upper direction degrees in many companies and acquiring paid less for the same work done by work forces.

The chief statement is that `` glass ceiling '' exists in the workplace and the term was coined more than twenty old ages ago by a Wall Street Journal to depict the barriers adult females face in the workplace with the word `` ceiling '' proposing that a


dult females are blocked from progressing in their callings and the term `` glass '' is used because the ceiling is non ever noticeable. ''

Phrases.org.uk defines glass ceiling as `` an unofficial barrier to workplace promotion, normally in respect to adult females or minority groups. '' While ethnicmajority.org defines the term as `` the barriers that frequently confront Cultural Americans and adult females in seeking to make the upper echelons of corporate America. '' Castro ( 1997 ) concurs and says that it is a `` term that describes the unreal tableland, beyond which adult females and other minorities are denied the chance to progress to upper degrees of executive direction in corporate America. ''

Mindtools.com reports that `` glass ceiling was a construct applied to adult females and some minorities. It was really hard, i

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non impossible, for them to make upper direction places. No affair how qualified or experienced, they merely were non given chances to further progress their callings. There are many more adult females and minorities in powerful places. However, the glass ceiling is still really existent. And it 's non ever limited to gender or race. '' The `` glass ceiling '' barriers toward adult females, Fieldman ( 1997 ) says `` they are nil but an insidious signifier of sex favoritism, in misdemeanor of jurisprudence. ''

Paycheck.in.com define glass ceiling as `` an unreal barrier in a adult females 's calling which deters her from making senior places or achieving high salary degrees. This peculiar term was foremost coined by Hymowitz and Schellhardt in a 1986 Wall Street Journal Report on corporate adult females. While the word ceiling is used to bespeak that the promotion of adult females in their callings is limited the term glass is used because the ceiling is non ever seeable. The barriers normally include salary inequality for the same work, favoritism in publicities, sexual torment in the workplace and deficiency of policies to keep work-life balance. ''

From all these definitions at that place seems to be a commonalty in the definition of glass ceiling. From my perspective glass ceiling is an unreal barrier in adult females 's calling and minority groups including certain cultural groups, which deters them from making senior places or achieving high wage degrees despite there being chances for advancement no affair how qualified or experienced they may be, non merely in America but globally in callings that have been male dominated for a long clip. I besides

feel that in today 's universe, work forces are besides confronting glass ceiling in their workplaces even though they may non be every bit bulk as adult females particularly in Kenya. I think some major contributing factors are the organisation work civilization and environment, racism, nepotism, sexual torment, diverse subcultures and cultural beliefs, employment policies and patterns, type of organisation ( household owned ) and leading within these organisations.

Glass Ceiling from an international position

The ILO 's Global Employment Trends ( 2003 ) reported that `` adult females continue to hold lower labor market engagement rates, higher unemployment rates and important wage differences compared to work forces. Women represent over 40 per cent of the planetary labor force, about 70 per cent of adult females in developed states and 60 per cent in developing states. Women occupy about 30 to 60 per cent of professional occupations in the sample of states from which new informations were available. This represents an addition of 0.7 per cent between 1996-99 and 2000-02. However, considerable fluctuations remain between adult females 's portion in different types of professional occupations. '' Statisticss besides show that the `` figure of adult females keeping administrative and managerial places has risen dramatically ( U.S. Department of Labor, 1996 ) , information besides suggests the overall market is still demoing marks of a glass ceiling for adult females. '' ( U.S. Department of Labor, 1995 ) . Furthermore, `` adult females represent about 50 % of the entire U.S. labour force. Yet harmonizing to Catalyst, a non-profit group committed to spread outing chances for adult females in the workplace, adult females held merely 16.4 per centum

of corporate officer places in 2005. Merely 10 Fortune 500 companies had adult females CEOs in 2006, and none of those companies were among the Fortune 100. '' ( Copernicusmarketing.com ) . Additionally, Jacobs ( 1995 ) says that `` extended probe of sex segregation in the workplace indicated that adult females have non found occupation chances equivalent to those of their male opposite numbers. '' Harmonizing to Lahtinen and Fiona ( 1994 ) , `` during the last 20 old ages in Britain, the figure of adult females employees has grown ; there has been a 2.8 million autumn in the figure of work forces, and a two million rise in the figure of adult females who work. ''

Liff andWard 's ( 2001 ) survey on a `` UK High Street Bank investigates adult females 's under representation in senior direction places, in relation to the occupation demands for such places. Their consequences found the bank giving changeless messages to their adult females that to be on top direction 1 has to turn out trueness and committedness through working long hours and take parting and affecting in the senior and top direction maps. Furthermore, adult females who were unable to accommodate to this were undermined and excluded by the bank. ''

In a series of interviews of authors and observers in Dailymail.co.uk ( 2008 ) , a feminist author Fay Weldon commented that adult females with kids are the lone 1s that face glass ceiling because adhering with babes creates a relationship that can ne'er be turned off and the female parent function becomes more of the female parent 's duty than any other function.

The multitasking of adult females is what prevents them from making the top because of the many issues that go through their heads. Work force on the other manus happen it easier because they can concentrate on one undertaking wholly exchanging off other issues and carry through more at work. Additionally, most adult females do non desire to work for long hours which bring with it a batch of emphasis and strains because of the much duty they have at work and at place as they try to keep that balance.

Duncan Bannatyne disagrees and does n't believe that glass ceiling exists. He does n't believe in a concern being so male-dominated and points out that regardless of whether one is male or female, they are all able to get down, ain and run their ain concerns, though he had frequently questioned why there were less adult females in concern compared to work forces.

Lorraine Heggessey sees it otherwise and believes that glass ceiling does be. Harmonizing to her,

adult females seem to be developing their assurance and behaviour and are comparatively new to working in the authorities, media, banking among other. She points out that work forces 's deficiency of experience does n't impede them from acquiring to the top and use for occupations two old ages earlier before going prepared for it unlike adult females who make certain that they had completed all they need to make before they can take up that place. As a `` successfully first adult female accountant of BBC1 in 2000 and now the main executive of talkback THAMES, one of the state 's largest Television production companies '' she advices

adult females to look through the glass ceiling and see it as something transparent and act as if it is non at that place.

It may be true that work forces do n't let their deficiency of experience to acquire in their manner but I besides feel that there are adult females who do n't let it either and it does n't intend that all adult females must experience that they are wholly prepared for a occupation before traveling for it. I think intense competition, high rates of unemployment and increased alumnuss in the market has made both work forces and adult females look for occupations intensely or get down their ain concern out of what they studied in campus.

Harmonizing to Nicola Horlick, `` one of Britain 's best known businesswomen who was nicknamed Superwoman for keeping down a high-octane City occupation while raising a household remarks that adult females are no less successful today than previouslyA -A in fact, there are now more female than male millionaires. '' She ascertains that to the fact that more adult females are going entrepreneurial and since the workplace for so is excessively inflexible while one has a household, so one opts for more flexible chances and in occupations such as PR, Marketing, and Publishing which are more household friendly. The playing field for adult females becomes uneven particularly when they start raising up kids. ( Dailymail.co.uk 2008 )

Ruth Badger who `` runs her ain consultancy house in Didsbury, Manchester and was a smuggler up on the 2nd series of The Apprentice, now helps turn falling companies into successes and runs her ain consultancy house in Didsbury, Manchester ''

believed that she could ever nail any glass ceiling that would impede her from traveling up. She outshone her equals at work both work forces and adult females by lifting up to a much senior place from a mere junior director. She believes in difficult work and public presentation and the capacity to show your accomplishments verbally ( Dailymail.co.uk 2008 ) Stfrancis.edu agrees and points out that glass can be smashed hard plenty through doggedness and ne'er giving up until one work stoppages it alternatively of kicking about it.

Michelle Mone, a `` co-founder of MJM international and Godhead of Ultimo, one of the UK 's most successful interior decorator lingerie trade names believes that, the job for adult females in concern is non menA -A it is their ain deficiency of assurance. '' She says that adult females are so afraid of being rejected more that the manner work forces do therefore miss the ardor to hit the glass ceiling. She does n't believe in a adult female acting like a adult male instead she points out on finding, being passionate and self-asserting that will assist adult females acquire through to senior degrees. She attributes to the creative activity of glass ceiling by adult females due to taking attention of households, have to make shopping, clean the house and apparels, and schooling. Additionally, adult females tend to be covetous of each other and can non assist each other get top most places because they are perceived as menaces and particularly when 1 is attractive. She encourages adult females to work together since they can accomplish more. However, I besides feel that work forces 's self-importance,

fright and demand for position can impede other work forces and besides adult females from accomplishing top places. ( Dailymail.co.uk 2008 ) ,

Harmonizing to Dailymail.co.uk ( 2008 ) , `` Avivah Wittenbery-Cox a co-author of Why Women Mean Business and CEO of 20-First gender consultancy says that, all this talk about the glass ceiling does n't assist work out the existent jobs confronting the female work force. The phrase implies that we adult females lift up and up through the ranks without any problem at all, until all of a sudden we find our way is blocked. '' She says that the authorities policy in Britain does n't back up every bit much double income twosomes and even though many companies take adult females through programmes in leading preparation and give excess support to female employees as they try to make the right thing ; deficiency of authorities support is a hinderance.

Harmonizing to Avivah, there is a policy by most top companies to place high executing employees at the age of 30 and 35 and it is at the point where most adult females are get downing their households or are holding immature kids and are on pregnancy leave, or encounter insomniac darks because of the immature kids, while their work forces co-workers are at work and acquire the publicities much faster. Women harmonizing to Avivah privation to stand out in what they do as a married woman, girl, female parent, girlfriend, voluntary and professional callings and it does n't intend they want the top places.

Harmonizing to Wells ( 1997 ) there has been an addition in adult females possessing unmarried mans and station alumnus

grades particularly in concern direction and jurisprudence at the graduate student degree which are considered to be the cardinal certificates needed for senior direction places.

Mallon and Catherine ( 1999 ) , highlight that married adult females without kids, unmarried or divorced adult females are more likely to be in senior direction classs and unlike their male opposite numbers, they take long to set up their callings. In their survey, the restraining consequence on calling development for adult females had to make with organisation civilization particularly working for long hours, value, policy related to childcare and household, and pattern and sexual favoritism. `` A noteworthy determination was that, despite the high degree of makings held, 35 per cent of adult females attributed their ( perceived ) decelerate calling patterned advance to their ain deficiency of relevant preparation and comprehensiveness of accomplishment and a similar figure thought that extra preparation was the reply. Lack of assurance was described by one adult female as a: `` powerful barrier with many elusive effects '' . ( Mallon and Catherine 1999 ) and it is frequently cited as a cause of adult females 's under-representation at senior degrees ( Inlogov 1989 ) . Research findings confirm that the many adult females rejected for higher direction places are every bit competent as the work forces fall ining the work force ( White, 1992 ) Even though adult females are now graduating in higher Numberss than work forces from educational establishments ( Fagenson & A ; Jackson, 1994 ) , `` the hapless representation of adult females at senior direction degree continues '' ( Hind & A ; Baruch, 1997, p. 276

) . Research appears to propose that glass ceilings, instead than a deficiency of makings, limit adult females 's promotion into the upper degrees of direction ( Lyness & A ; Thompson, 2000 ) .

Glass ceiling in Africa

Harmonizing to un.org/africarenewal on an article written by Ernest Harsch ( 2006 ) , `` the election of Ms. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf as the new president of Liberia stands as a dual landmark. The event signalled an of import measure in the West African state 's passage to peace after 14 old ages of civil war ; it besides marked the first clip that a adult female was elected to the highest political office anyplace in Africa. '' She was able to interrupt the glass ceiling by being the lone adult female among 22 presidential campaigners.

Harmonizing to africa-investor.com, checking the glass ceiling ( 2008 ) , until late, `` the Nigerian economic system was run by a adult female ; South Africa has a female Vice President ; and Kenyans laud their ain female Nobel-prize-winning scientist. '' Despite adult females interrupting the glass ceiling, `` there are still major disparities between the sexes in the workplace. UNICEF estimates there are six million more adult females in the universe than work forces, executing 66 % of the work in return for merely 11 % of the universe 's income. Yet there are marks that the banking industry in Africa - traditionally a male-dominated bastion - is get downing to reflect non merely the makeup of banking elsewhere in the universe, but besides the makeup of the societies it works with and relies on for its concern. Womans are commanding larger

sums of money than at any other clip, and are get downing to emerge from behind the corporate head of many traditionally male-dominated environments to go leaders, professionals and enterprisers. While South Africa 's vivacious economic system offers adult females exciting employment chances with aggressive, world-renowned houses, the way to the top has been twice every bit difficult. Racial subjugation during the apartheid epoch has compounded adult females 's attempts to interrupt into concern in general, ensuing in what Ruwaida Kassim, CEO of the Institute of Retirement Funds ( IRF ) , refers to as a racially-tinted glass ceiling. '' ( africa-investor.com 2008 )

`` Womans in South Africa 's fiscal sector have been double marginalised as a byproduct of favoritism, yet we have progressed steadily, '' she says. She points out that the current pension fund adjudicator is a adult female, and that she, at merely 27, is heading up a organic structure that plays a critical function in supervising an industry that contributes more than ZAR 10 trillion ( US $ 1.24tr ) to the South African economic system. Many adult females besides have the sort of life experience that makes them ideally suited to the human facets of fiscal services, peculiarly when explicating or selling merchandises to other adult females. Beyond that, the battalion of functions adult females find themselves executing - female parent, sister, married woman, calling adult female, housewife - helps develop finely-tuned emotional intelligence that plays to their advantage within the societal kineticss of a workplace no affair who they are covering with, from the council chamber to the canteen. '' ( africa-investor.com, 2008 )

In less developed states there are

few adult females with direction accomplishments, and this creates a barrier to growing. Additionally, adult females are much more likely to be taken out of school early by their parents so that they contribute economically and materially to place life, and childbearing force per unit areas which further disrupt calling chances. '' ( africa-investor.com, 2008 )

Harmonizing to ILO 's Global Employment Trends ( 2003 ) , `` cultural and societal attitudes towards what constitutes `` male '' or `` female '' occupations result in occupational segregation, although the extent of the job varies from state to state, and from occupation to occupation. Womans are chiefly concentrated in the `` feminized '' professions such as nursing and instruction ( horizontal occupational segregation ) , where at the same clip they remain in lower occupation classs than work forces ( perpendicular occupational segregation ) . However, adult females continue to do little inroads into non-traditional Fieldss such as jurisprudence, information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) and computing machine scientific discipline, and technology, and there is grounds that employers are get downing to advance adult females more consistently and to present family-friendly policies in order to retain them.

However, adult females who choose non-traditional occupations can confront particular restraints in the workplace, non least of which are isolation, limited entree to mentoring and female function theoretical accounts, and sexual torment. ''

In South Africa, while `` adult females are deriving credence to informally come in the council chambers, the civilization of long on the job hours and demanding occupation demands, are detering them from really keeping seats at that place. '' ( Babita 2006 )

It can be seen that

glass ceiling is non merely a one state adult females 's job but in Africa and internationally non merely in one calling field e.g. selling, finance, engineering but in bulk of callings if non all.

Glass ceiling in Kenya

In an on-line article written by Muthoni Thang'wa ( 2006 ) , `` Statisticss in Kenya show that more misss enroll in school each twelvemonth than of all time before due to the debut of free primary instruction in 2003. '' But it was noted that the registration of misss merely increased in some parts after presenting free instruction in primary schools exemplifying that many parents who did n't see the demand of educating the miss kid had to wait for the debut of free primary instruction. Additionally, most civilizations would get married off their girls at the age of 12 old ages nevertheless, many organisations that cater for adult females have tried to halt these imposts by educating the parents and society and sheltering misss who try to be married off earlier and give them instruction. However, there is a batch yet to be done since some civilizations have held on to these imposts.

Harmonizing to Muthoni ( 2006 ) , `` Ms Agnes Pareiyo of Tasaro Girls Rescue Centre in Narok runs a Centre that serves as a safety for chiefly Maasai misss who refuse to undergo female Circumcision and opt for an alternate rite of transition. '' The Centre helps to advice, reconcile and educate parents and their girls on other ways these rites of transition can be done while avoiding these harmful civilization of miss 's Circumcision. Ms. Agnes was recognized by the UN for

her attempts.

That the end of the Centre is to accommodate parents and their girls after the alternate rites and giving them an instruction speaks volumes of misss in respect to the cultural rites of transition.

Former Tetu MP Professor Wangari Maathai, the Nobel Laureate, contributed to sustainable development, democracy and peace and won the Nobel peace award in 2004. Muthoni ( 2006 ) says that Professor Wangari through the Green Belt Movement was able to mobilise rural adult females to contend deforestation, therefore reconstructing non merely the chief beginning of fuel, but forestalling dirt eroding and protecting our rivers an lakes which are a beginning of life to adult male. Professor Olive Mugenda shattered a glass ceiling when she became the first female frailty Chancellor of the Exchequer to function Kenyatta University which is one of Kenya 's six public universities.

Harmonizing to deloitte.com ( 2010 ) , in an interview with Ambassador Amina Chawahir Mohamed, the lasting secretary and main executive officer, Ministry of Justice, National Cohesion and Constitutional Affairs of the Republic of Kenya, `` states that have adult females in authorities leading places have an increased figure of issues impacting adult females on the legislative docket, frequently ensuing in positive societal and economic developments. For illustration, after 10 adult females won parliamentary seats in Kenya, statute law associating to adult females 's issues, such as battling domestic force, was passed into jurisprudence. ''

Similarly, `` research has shown companies with adult females in leading places perform better and accomplish more economic wagess than those without adult females representation. The top 500 transnational houses, which had at least three adult females on their boards, saw a

16.7 per centum return on equity, while mean companies merely saw an 11.5 per centum return. '' ( Marquez Jessica, 2007 )

Harmonizing to deloitte.com ( 2010 ) , a study by UNIFEM, Migrating rates of people with third instruction, `` as the universe grows of all time more interrelated, endowment is going progressively nomadic. With the exclusion of North America, parts throughout the universe are sing a `` encephalon drain, '' in which educated adult females are emigrating at dismaying rates in hunt of advancement chances. For illustration, in Africa entirely, 27.7 per centum of females with third instruction emigrate-10 per centum more than work forces. An organization-wide civilization displacement is required to foster an environment that is friendly to adult females and encourages their promotion. '' Women 's advancement has critical deductions for the wellness and growing of authoritiess, companies, and states. Both the private and public sectors must go on to foster and progress diverse talent-including high-voltage adult females -- in order to remain competitory and grow. ( deloitte.com 2010 )

Harmonizing to `` Prof David Ndetei, a lector at the University of Nairobi says that instances of depression among adult females are likely to be high in African states where life conditions are hard and there are no mechanisms to react to adult females who need psychiatric aid. Prof Ruth Oniang'o, a gender militant who advocates adult females economic authorization in eastern Africa, notes that `` many of the retrenchment programmes implemented by states in sub-Saharan Africa in response to hapless economic public presentation have affected those in lower cells, which are preponderantly occupied by adult females while Mr. Peter Lubao, a adviser

counsellor says that `` the emphasis at the workplace, which might come in the signifier of sexual torment, combined with the troubles at the family degree, combine to do life really nerve-racking for a on the job adult female. ''

( www.nation.co.ke )

Harmonizing to allafrica.com, adult females have been overburdened by many gender functions and social force per unit areas more than work forces, which have contributed negatively to the wellness of adult females. The professional adult females are said to be the most affected since they have to unite both the demand of the household and those at work and guarantee that both run swimmingly. Additionally, it is said that sexual torment and force, and favoritism at work and in the family causes anxiousness development in adult females and depressive upsets and therefore lack ideal ways on how to react to these force per unit areas.

Glass ceiling confronting adult females in selling

Harmonizing to Maclaran, Stevens and Catterall ( 1997 ) , highlight that many adult females are choosing to go enterprisers because they are dissatisfied with their non-supportive working environments which `` is determined by the civilization within a peculiar organisation, viz. the systems of shared values which create the behavioral norms. '' In their survey they gave an illustration of a adult female selling who would ever experience deprived and perceived herself as an foreigner because the pull offing manager would take all the other gross revenues people who were all work forces for drinks, moreover, in her efforts to put up a client feedback system, the gross revenues squad resisted all her efforts. This affected her non to execute every bit required because

she besides felt that they were keep backing valuable information from her and hence, created a long distance relationship with them.

Other cases included adult females being excluded from treatments, had to accommodate to the male civilization and had to turn out themselves that they could manage the undertaking at manus.

Maclaran, Stevens and Catterall ( 1997 ) argue that `` the external environment is an country of peculiar importance to the selling function, and that there are many civilizations that the adult female selling director must grok, suit and come to footings with. It is non sufficient for her merely to seek to understand the civilization of her ain organisation and work to better her internal communications ; she continually faces the challenge of being a adult female in a preponderantly male universe. Learning to accommodate to the gender related civilization of clients ' organisations besides becomes a critical map for her to be able to pull off the company/customer interface more successfully. ''

Forrest ( 1989 ) points out that `` adult females are often evaluated as less acceptable campaigners for stimulating, disputing occupations or for high position places within their organisations. This was surely the instance for one adult female selling director who related how, in a old occupation, she had built up the selling map within the organisation but did non have acknowledgment for her attempts. It was non until she left the organisation that there was touchable acknowledgment of her work: a male subsidiary, recruited and trained by her, was promoted to her place and was given the rubric of `` selling director '' , a rubric which had eluded her. '' (

Maclaran, Stevens and Catterall 1997 )

Maclaran, Stevens and Catterall ( 1997 ) point out that `` one of the jobs ensuing from the premises made about adult females 's function in the workplace is that adult females are often excluded from group activities within those organisations where a strong male civilization predominates. These activities may be business-related, for illustration, sing a female co-worker excessively irrational to be involved in the development of a strategic program, or excessively emotional to do a worthwhile part to the inquiry of break uping relationships with a long-run provider. At other times these activities are of a societal Nature and may attest themselves as `` male childs '' weekends or featuring webs, societal activities which strengthen work forces 's bonds with one another. ''

`` The selling construct with its accent on understanding clients and internal coordination is rather basically about teamwork and pass oning with others, both within and outside the organisation. Yet the selling directors were frequently excluded from activities that would hold enabled them to web more efficaciously and which would hold made their occupations so much easier. For illustration, the female selling director with an all-male gross revenues squad found that they would run into most often in the saloon and she was ne'er invited along to these meetings. Many of the adult females felt excluded from strategic determination devising, and normally found themselves in less valued support functions in selling, such as client attention, market research, advertisement or promotional activities '' ( Maclaran, Stevens and Catterall 1997 )

In the cordial reception industry, Li and Leung ( 2001 ) suggested that `` a profile characterized by finding,

aspiration, positive attitude, interpersonal accomplishments and difficult work contributed to the calling promotion of female directors. ''

Harmonizing to copernicusmarketing.com, `` adult females are sing success in selling. Eighty per centum believe adult females are sing a greater grade of success in marketing sections than in the past and 66 % say their success in selling is greater than in other sections. 81 % privation to be Chief marketing officer someday compared to 68 % of male sellers. It is argued that adult females `` listen '' to consumers better ( because they 're better hearers, by and large ) . This is cited by 54 % of respondents, including 52 % of the work forces and 57 % of the adult females in the study. Individually, about as many ( 45 % ) say adult females understand the importance of `` emotional connexions to trade names. '' Women favor a `` collaborative '' attack, and desire to `` act upon, '' but non command their co-workers, which are the best ways to bring forth a successful selling plan. These grounds are cited by about 40 % of the male respondents and over 50 % of the females. Based on the consequences of the survey, the writer conclude that adult females have achieved great success in selling and that their success has been in big portion due to the decision-making manners and features such as a collaborative manner, team-orientation, installation with consensus edifice, contemplation, and listening accomplishments that are progressively ascribed to female concern decision-makers. Clearly these features are considered an plus within selling and have been rewarded in the signifier of increased promotion chances. ''


much research has been done on glass ceiling confronting adult females in selling and it is an country that needs to be looked into. However, from the small research done, adult females are still confronting glass ceiling, and some have been able to interrupt the glass ceiling through finding, difficult work, good interpersonal accomplishments, positive attitude and aspiration. Most of the promotional activities in selling would work good for adult females who are non married because of the traveling and dark outs publicities in assorted geographical topographic points that is why the function is more suitable for work forces therefore, move faster up the ladder. However, selling occupations within the office would work good for adult females because of the normal on the job clip.

Causes of glass ceiling in Kenya

Harmonizing to copernicusmarketing.com, `` one theory behind the slow-rise of adult females to upper direction is that the qualities and features by and large ascribed to female concern decision-makers are by and large undervalued-in malice of turning grounds of the strong, positive part these properties make to better corporate public presentation. '' This is besides true to the Kenyan society because of the civilization and beliefs particularly in assorted subcultures where the adult female 's topographic point in society is the place and can non keep higher places than the work forces.

Due to the demand to pass more clip with their households, many adult females opt to work for fewer hours as compared to their male opposite numbers. Statisticss have shown that `` it is easier for work forces to hold both a household and a calling. Where adult females forego their matrimony and kids and

devote themselves to a calling is more marked in industrialised states than in developing states. '' Wirth ( 2001, p.18 ) . The strongly knit civilization in Kenya has brought up the adult female as taking attention of the place including the grandparents hence, you will happen many adult females get downing little concerns to acquire adequate money to take attention of the household.

Harmonizing to Powell and Graves ( 2003 ) , `` work forces tend to mensurate success by high wages and of import occupation rubrics and promotional chances whereas adult females place a higher value on their relationships with co-workers and community service concentrating on interpersonal relationships and feelings. Others suggest that deep-rooted stereotypes and socialisation cause the glass ceiling. In some organisations, 'the good old male child web ' is still permeant. When make up one's minding who to advance in these organisations, adult females are frequently non even considered. '' The stereotypes held about adult females and work forces in our society has been ingrained in our organisations where the work forces do non experience comfy taking orders from a female foreman.

Businessmanagement.suite101.com ( 2010 ) argues that there are career spreads between work forces and adult females where, `` adult females are more likely to take a leave of absence and work a parttime occupation than a adult male. '' It is true particularly when the adult female has to travel for pregnancy leave and during the clip she comes back to work has to get by with both household and work seeking to keep a balance between the two, and when the kid gets ill doing it easier for her

to get down her ain concern or expression for a less nerve-racking work state of affairs where she can get by good. Wirth ( 2001, p.114 ) notes that, `` calling break for household grounds frequently implies losingss in senior status, less likeliness of having preparation, and depreciation of occupation accomplishments. ''

Womans in our society have non been empowered plenty to cognize how they can acquire fiscal resources and besides lack instruction and preparation and support particularly in rural countries on how to utilize the fundss and how to acquire the necessary instruction and preparation needed in the occupation market.

Additionally, deficiency of child care agreements whereby, acquiring a good house aid is a challenge and this can impact public presentation at work. The kid attention services are besides expensive and you may happen many adult females choosing to raise up their kids themselves or take a long interruption from work or make non desire to take up major places in the organisation that may take up most of their clip.

With fewer adult females in Kenya interrupting the glass ceiling, we lack function theoretical accounts, wise mans who can supply way and motivate adult females to make greater highs. In most instances, particularly in political relations, adult females who have tried to make top places have encountered a batch of torments from their work forces who are competing for the same places including decease menaces. At work topographic points, if person is seen to execute better than your supervisor, a batch of green-eyed monster and hatred may construct up and the supervisor of employer at times makes certain that you can non accomplish your dreams and

looks for all ways to guarantee you are ever busy and have no clip to go to categories, no preparation and calling promotion.

Employer prejudices and negative perceptual experiences of adult females such as in civilizations where they do non believe that the adult female can non raise her voice in public or when a adult male is speaking or are merely required to maintain quiet and delay for determinations to be made by the adult male can hold a negative impact on adult females accomplishing higher places.

Sex-segregated occupations where there are occupations that can be specifically done by a adult male or adult female. For illustration, ab initio there were no adult females pilots in Kenya but now there are rather a few. Jobs in technology, building, medical specialty, CEO 's in companies, drivers etc, have been dominated by work forces but things are now altering. Hence, the highest paying occupations are more directed towards the work forces since adult females are seen to be weaker and can non set about such occupations and consequences to pay inequalities. It is non a free pick for adult females non to set about such occupations but the environment has been dictated by traditions that have defined functions for both work forces and adult females. Even in businesss where adult females predominate, for illustration in nursing ( Lahtinen and Fiona 1994 ) `` In1986 it was found that 9 per cent of nurses were work forces, but they held 45 per cent of the top nursing occupations. '' ( Stamp and Robarts 1986 ) . There are immense differences in the occupation type done by work forces and

adult females do, working hours, wage, accomplishments acquired and how the employment takes topographic point.

Sexual torment particularly in organisations which are male dominated. It is another major cause of glass ceiling where one can non be promoted unless she agrees to the foreman 's demands even if the other terminal of the deal is met by one acquiring a publicity, there is a bound to acquiring higher places. This consequences to most adult females go forthing an organisation to look for a better work environment and can restrict their opportunities of traveling frontward. Work force are besides confronting sexual torment from their adult females foremans who besides create a barrier for them non to travel up the ladder.

Research reflects the `` effects of parents ' traditional sex-role attitudes ; despite misss and male childs holding the same school classs and being scored likewise in maths trials, parents of misss express less assurance in their kid 's competency compared with the parents of male childs ( Hyde, Fennema and Lamon 1990, Kimball 1989 ) In fact surveies of school classs show that misss do better in maths every bit good as other topics. ( Jacobs and Eccles 1992 ) This undervaluation of adult females 's capablenesss limits adult females 's calling picks so that they develop their abilities merely in sex-appropriate countries by taking humanistic disciplines topics alternatively of maths or calculating. This leads adult females into low-paid occupations like nursing or instruction. '' I agree that this has been a major job ab initio since earlier free primary instruction, most parents would hold instead educated the male child kid than the miss who was left

to acquire married after she grows up or is left to make house assist occupations to gain a life. It was the belief that the male child kid was better. Due to the free primary instruction many misss have been given the opportunity to larn and many households have been educated on the importance of taking the miss to school alternatively of remaining at place.

At times adult females lack the assurance and have a low self-esteem sing the occupation place and fright taking up the place and neglecting to present since it may necessitate them to wholly perpetrate themselves in the long term, and giving small clip to their households. Balancing the two duties can be instead hard. Spencer and Podmore ( 1987 ) argue that `` it is assumed that adult females 's domestic committednesss will take precedency. This premise leads to prejudice against them, detracts from the impression that adult females can be committed professionals, and amendss publicity chances. ''

How to cover with glass ceiling

There are factors `` which have been suggested as taking to adult females 's calling promotion include mentoring, preparation and development, calling planning, single features, and difficult work ( Ismail and Arokiasamy, 2007 ; Burke, Burgess and Fallon 2006 ) among others. '' The right preparation non merely any preparation should be given that is in line with the new alterations in the environment and in line with the calling of the individual. The preparation demands should foremost be identified and matched to accommodate the employee and work with the best schemes that will assist harvest major benefits such as developing on how to pull off budgets and fundss

and strategic direction.

Allafrica.com, suggests that `` African authoritiess need to set in topographic point statute law on gender-based force and other household Torahs. Datas on gender-based force is still missing in many states, doing it hard for appropriate intercessions to be designed. Additionally, gender advocators want information and instruction programmes initiated or enhanced, where they exists, to buffer adult females from anxiousness and depression. Generative wellness experts think adult females can cut down their exposure to anxiousness and depression by understanding what they go through, seeking early intervention, and following different get bying mechanisms. They besides want their male opposite numbers to back up adult females, sharing some of the gender functions, and cut downing sexual and physical force against their spouses or adult females they meet in societal topographic points. '' I agree with the writer and I feel that particularly in Kenya there are many programmes that have been put frontward but have n't done much to mobilise the adult females and minority in Kenya. Additionally, because of the high poorness degrees, most adult females can non afford and frequently do non seek early intervention whenever faced with anxiousness and depression it gets a clasp of them subsequently when the effects have affected them negatively impacting their working lives. There should be more consciousness and action to educate adult females and assist them set up undertakings that can assist them.

The company should present flexible working hours for the adult female employee. Because of household duties, the company can do it easier for adult females particularly working female parents to work from place, or offer portion clip occupations. Additionally, they can hold child attention

centres for illustration ; Safaricom Kenya has enhanced a good working environment for the female parent by holding an onsite child care centre within their premises where the adult female can concentrate with work without the buncos of acquiring person to assist with the house. `` Organizations need to follow a civilization that will let them to remain competitory but besides allows their employees to keep a balance with their lives outside of the office. Employees should be encouraged to take advantage of work-family plans that are offered in their organisation. Unfortunately, adult females may experience loath to take advantage of these plans as they feel it may decrease than opportunity for success within the company. '' ( businessmanagement.suite101.com, 2010 )

`` Equal parenting and duties could assist adult females in their calling development. The ultimate end for adult females is to interrupt the glass ceiling which requires foremost, bettering institutional agreements - kid attention agreements, flexible working hours and household leave. Many companies now offer alternate work agreements, such as occupation sharing, flexitime and parttime work. '' ( Davidson and Cooper 1992 ) . `` Such patterns can ease adult females 's calling promotion. Equal parenting and division of housekeeping constitute the key issues which must be addressed if the conditions are to be created in which adult females and work forces have equal power dealingss. '' ( Lahtinen and Fiona 1994 )

Governments should guarantee companies have clear policies for payment of which it does n't count is you are a adult male or adult females but if you are making the same sort of work the footings of payment should be the same. Womans

should non be paid less for the same sort of occupation. Additionally, the authorities should set rigorous steps that should be followed. The enlisting and choice procedure should be consistent and give equal opportunities to both work forces and adult females.

Higher degree directors or adult females in society should promote, steer, motivate, support and facilitate adult females in lower places to progress in their callings. `` Most top female executives have had wise mans who were critical to their success. It is suggested that mentoring received by adult females could take them to see less favoritism and rush up adult females 's callings. '' ( Vertz 1985 )

Organizations should make a civilization that promotes and supports adult females to travel up to higher places academically and in their callings. Companies can acknowledge and actuate adult females to take up more ambitious undertakings that would assist them use their cognition every bit good as expand their cognition where they could larn as much. Additionally, they should make an unfastened communicating system where employees feel free to aerate their positions and travel to more level constructions where authorization can be decentralized and employees can be empowered at every degree.

Directors should besides be trained on how to manage gender and household issues and the best direction manners that would work positively for the whole organisation and their employees and besides supply chances for upward mobility and good working relationships between sections.

Organizations should come up with clear cut policies that prevent sexual torment and rigorous penalty for those who do non adhere to it. Additionally, direction should be after carefully for smooth sequence, encourage and appoint adult females and

other minorities to make full managerial stations one time a director retires or leaves. The organisation should make teamwork in the organisation where both work forces and adult females can congratulate each others accomplishments.

Womans should be encouraged to fall in professional associations and play a function in societal events where they can web and assist each other and be seeable. Harmonizing to Ackah and Heaton ( 2003 ) work forces used webs to obtain publicities. Zhong ( 2006 ) states that adult females need to put up their webs and take part in work forces 's webs. There should besides be mentorship programmes for adult females in organisations where they are given a wise man from outside the state particularly in developed states with whom they can work with or larn from them.

The educational course of study in primary, secondary and third establishments should advance gender

equality, raise consciousness on survey picks particularly, in line with what is presently go oning in the universe that will model them ready to take up occupations in the market and be marketable, avoid stereotyping and promote them to take up disputing occupations whether for male or female, seek to take cultural patterns that do non assist adult females to lend to the growing of the economic system and in their places, course of study should be modified to guarantee that more adult females take part in all countries.

Companies should hold clear and nonsubjective public presentation appraisals for all their employees giving equal chances for each ; they should come up with long-run possible calling waies and ends and affect employees in developing their callings and have clear benchmarks. The

occupation design should be aligned with the accomplishments of employees. They should provide for all diversenesss in the organisation placing their different demands and respond to them to heighten their calling development.

The society should be educated and advance a positive attitude and civilization that enhances diverseness, growing and go forth out facets in their civilization that hinder adult females or other minorities from lending to break our society. Families, friends and other who play a function in the growing of the kid should promote adult females to take up classs such as scientific discipline, mathematics, engineering and other topics that have been defined as work forces 's topics.


I agree that glass ceiling does be, but organisation work environment affairs. Despite all these challenges, I do believe that the sky is non the bound anyone can interrupt the glass ceiling if one is determined and passionate. One should non be afraid and should take hazards, addition assurance whenever one fails. Organizations should make a friendly and contributing environment, good policies for its employees both male and female that enhance growing and accomplishments within the organisation and authorise them.

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