WH – Flashcard

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deficit spending
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when the government spends more money than they bring in
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Louis XVI
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Put France into big debt. Pleasures over business. Called on Estates-General.
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Estates-General
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Legislative body consisting of members from the 3 estates.
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Tennis Court Oath
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Oath made by members of 3rd estate on a tennis court. Members promised to never separate and meet where circumstances required.
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Bastille
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A prison. Stormed when Parissians thought it was holding weapons and gunpowder.
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What was the social structure of the old regime of France like?
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3 estates: 1st made of nobility, 2nd of clergy and 3rd (largest) of peasants. 1st and 2nd paid no taxes while 3rd paid heavy taxes.
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What economic troubles did France face? How did it lead to further unrest?
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Bad harvests lead to hunger in peasant population. Debt causes government to have to pay 50% revenue toward interest on loans.
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What actions did delegates of the 3rd estate take when the Estates-General met in 1789?
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They declared themselves as the National Assembly & took the Tennis Court Oath.
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What was the significance of the storming of the Bastille?
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Parissians challengedf t the status quo & challenged the existence of the regime.
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Why did peasants revolt against the nobles?
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Rumors that the government were going to seize peasant crops & were trying to reimpose old taxes.
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How did the National Assembly react to peasant uprisings?
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Abolished feudalism & convinces Louis XIV to not react.
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What were provisions of the Constitution of 1791?
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Legislative Assembly & natural/civil rights.
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How did the rest of Europe react to the French Revolution?
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Increased border control, enlightened rulers turned against France, & the Legislative Assembly declared war on multiple states.
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guillotine
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devince used during reign of terror to execute by beheading.
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Marseilles
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port city of France
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What occurred after radicals took control of the Assembly?
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They wrote a new declaration of rights & constitution.
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Why did Robespierre think the terror was necessary to achieve the goals of the revolution?
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He thought it’d give him a political advantage.
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What changes occurred after the reign of terror came to an end?
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New gov: power in the hands of the upper-middle class. 2 house legislature & executive body.
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What were goals of the Committee of Public Safety?
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To deal with threats imposed upon France.
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How did life in France change after the terror came to an end?
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People felt safer and would voice their opinions because there were less executions.
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What changes occurred in France because of the French Revolution?
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The monarchy was overthrown, no more old social order, church was controlled by the state, strong sense of national identity, slavery was abolished, pushes for social reform & religious tolerance.
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Napoleonic Code
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Body of French civil laws that served as a model for other nation’s civil codes.
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Continental System
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blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britian economically by closing European ports.
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Congress of Vienna
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European leaders who worked to piece Europe back together after Napoleon era.
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Concert of Europe
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Result from quadruple alliance. Consisted of Austria, Prussia, Britain, and Russia. Discuss problems affecting peace in Europe.
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How did Napoleon rise to power so quickly in France?
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Got UK out of Toulon. Ended royalist counter revolution. Friends included him in the coup against French government.
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What reforms did Napoleon introduce during his rise to power?
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Napoleonic code (embodied enlightenment ideas) & controlled prices, promoted new industry, and built roads/canals.
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How did Napoleon dominate most of Europe by 1812?
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Good tactics: find weak point of enemy and have best men attack them. Conquer & ally with other countries.
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What were the effects of the disaster in Russia?
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Napoleon lost a majority of his soldiers & the French army became devastated and weak.
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What challenges threatened Napoleon’s empire?
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He was seen as a foreign oppressor, was resented for trying to push French culture on his empire, revolts against France & supply trains and troops were ambushed.
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What led to te disaster in Russia?
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Tsar of Russia & Napoleon wanted to divide Europe. Russians were upset about the economic effects of the Continental System. Napoleon made the Grand Army & invaded Russia. When retreating, Russia attacked the army. The attack and the winter killed a majority of Napoleon’s men.
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How did Napoleon impact Europe and the rest of the world?
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He centralized French government, gave it a constitution, gave more citizens the right to property&education, sparked nationalist feelings, and sold France’s Louisiana territory to the U.S.
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Explain the goal and outcome of the Congress of Vienna.
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Goal: To create a lasting piece in Europe. Outcome: Concert of Europe was created & Europe didn’t experience a Napoleonic war until 1914.

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