Practice Exam 1

Stopping the activity of the sodium potassium pump
A type of transport protein found in the plasma membrane of cells lining the inside of the intestine allows sodium ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient. The ions move through the transport protein, and into the cell. These transport proteins will use the kinetic energy of the diffusing sodium ions to bring glucose into the cells as well. Which of the following would stop transport of glucose through this transport protein?
True
Introns represent a genome scrap yard that provides DNA segments for genome evolution and a variety of small RNA molecules. T/F
Calcium AMP and calcium may be second messengers
Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as “second messengers”?
False
Microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein composed of myosin. T/F
True
Lipid rafts, found in the cell outer membrane surface, are concentrating platforms for certain receptor molecules or for protein molecules needed for cell signaling.. T/F
Synthesis of cells membranes
Which of the following correctly states the functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Glucose
Which of the following would NOT diffuse through the plasma membrane by means of simple diffusion?
a hypertonic solution
Crenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in ________.
All of the above: membrane glycolipids,membrane glycoproteins, glycocalyx sugars
Which of the following molecules might change over time in a cancer cell?
carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion
The movement of water across the plasma membrane can be described by all of the following EXCEPT ________.
telophase
In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?
If cilia are paralyzed then mucus-containing particles, including bacteria, will remain in the lungs and may cause a respiratory infection.
Your patient has a respiratory disease that has literally paralyzed the cilia. Why would this patient be at an increased risk for a respiratory infection?
More unsaturated fatty acids means less tightly packed phospholipids, resulting in greater membrane fluidity.
How do unsaturated phospholipid fatty acid tails affect plasma membrane fluidity?
desmosomes
In a tissue type that undergoes a relatively great deal of mechanical stress, like the tissue that lines the intestine, you would expect to see an abundance of ________ between the individual cells of the tissue.
contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
Mitochondria ________.
False
Prophase has a series of checkpoints that determine whether a cell will undergo all stages of mitosis. T/F
Interphase
The phase of the cell life cycle in which the cell grows and carries on its usual activities, has a series of checkpoints that determine whether the cell will undergo mitosis.
transcription and translation
What are the two basic steps of polypeptide synthesis?
transcription
DNA’s information is encoded into mRNA
translation
the information carried by the mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides
potential energy that can be harnessed when molecules passively diffuse down the concentration gradient
If active transport establishes a concentration gradient with the use of ATP, then the concentration gradient can be looked at as ________.
specialized junctions, wavy membrane contours, and glycoproteins
Which of the following factors act to bind cells together?
C
Which of the following is NOT a function of lysosomes?
A. degrading worn-out or nonfunctional organelles
B. digesting particles taken in by endocytosis
C. help in the formation of cell membranes
D. breaking down bone to release calcium ions into the blood
B
Which of the following is LEAST like the other three? A. interstitial fluid
B. cytoplasm
C. plasma
D.cerebrospinal fluid
B. mitochondria
Myocardium (cardiac muscle tissue) must rhythmically contract for a lifetime. This requires a considerable amount of energy production by the cells. You would expect to see a relatively high amount of which organelle in these cells?
A. lysosomes
B.mitochondria
C.cytoskeleton
D.smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D
Assume that Na+ is being transported across a membrane via facilitated diffusion. Which of the following conditions would allow for the most transport of Na+ across that membrane?
A. a gradient of more than 50% difference between sides for the Na+ and Na+ diffusing toward K+
B. a gradient of less than 5% difference between sides for the Na+ and Na+ diffusing toward K+
C. a gradient of less than 5% difference between sides for the Na+ and Na+ diffusing toward Cl−
D. a gradient of more than 50% difference between sides for the Na+ and Na+ diffusing toward Cl−
phagocytosis
A cell engulfing a relatively large particle will likely utilize ________.
The cell is producing a large amount of proteins
As you look under a microscope you see a nucleus with a large density of nucleolus. What inference can you make about that cell?
pinocytosis
If a cell is non-selectively engulfing samples of extracellular fluid, for example to absorb nutrients, it will likely utilize ________.
True
Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material. T/F
A
Which of the following is a difference between primary and secondary active transport?
A. In primary active transport, the transport protein gets phosphorylated; in secondary active transport, the transport protein is not phosphorylated.
B. Primary active transport is used to transport sugars and amino acids across the plasma membrane, while secondary active transport includes the sodium-potassium pump.
C. Energy is required for primary active transport, but energy is not required for secondary active transport.
D. Primary active transport is driven by secondary active transport.
A
Which of the following processes allows cells to concentrate material that is present only in very small amounts in the extracellular fluid?
A. receptor-mediated endocytosis
B. pinocytosis
C.phagocytosis
D. transcytosis
are able to detoxify substances by enzymic action
Peroxisomes ________.
False
Phospholipids provide the specific functions of the plasma membrane. T/F
phospholipids
Which of the following is a component of the plasma membrane that creates a chemical barrier between the inside and the outside of the cell?

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