US History Chapter 17 Reconstruction

Flashcard maker : Judith Simpson
Reconstruction
The process of readmitting the former Confederate states to the Union, period lasted from 1865 to 1877
Ten Percent Plan
Plan for readmission of southern states proposed by Lincoln.
Ten Percent Plan
Plan that offered southerners amnesty for all illegal acts supporting the rebellion
Ten Percent Plan
Plan that allowed states to form a new government and be readmitted to the Union when following conditions were met: 10 % of voters in a state had to swear an oath of loyalty to the US and agree that slavery was illegal.
Wade-Davis Bill
Alternative to Lincoln’s proposal for readmission of southern states
Wade-Davis Bill
Plan that allowed states to rejoin the Union under two conditions: slavery was banned and a majority of adult males took a loyalty oath
Amnesty
official pardon
13th Amendment
Made slavery illegal throughout the US
13th Amendment
Expansion of Emancipation Proclamation
13th Amendment
Proposed by Congress on January 31, 1865, ratified and took effect on December 18, 1865.
Freedman’s Bureau
An agency providing relief for freedpeople and certain poor people in the South.
Freedman’s Bureau
Played an important role in establishing more schools in the South
Freedman’s Bureau
1. Provided supplies and medical services.
2. Established schools
3. Supervised contracts between freedpeople and employers
4. Took care of lands abandoned or captured during the war
American Missionary Association
Northern group that provided before the war ended the South with books and teachers
April 14, 1865
President Lincoln is assassinated
Andrew Johnson
Democrat Vice President to President Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
Bacame president because President Lincoln was killed
Andrew Johnson
Pardoned more than 7,000 Southerners by 1866
Andrew Johnson’s Plan of Readmission
1. He appointed temporary state governments
2. States revised their constitutions
3. Elections held for state and federal representatives
4. State government declared secession was illegal
5. State ratified 13th Amendment and did not pay Confederate debts

However, Congress refused to recognized the new federal representatives because they were leaders of the Confederacy.

Black Codes
laws that greatly limited the freedom of African Americans
Black Codes
Required African Americans to sign work contracts creating conditions similar to slavery, to prove employment or be arrested. Prevented owning guns and renting property
Radical Republicans
Republicans that wanted the federal government to be more involved in Reconstruction and force changes in the South
Thaddeus Stevens
Leader of the Radical Republicans from Pennsylvania
Charles Sumner
Leader of the Radical Republicans from Massachusetts
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Provided African American the same legal rights as white Americans
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Response of Congress because President Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill in 1866
14th Amendment
Ensured citizenship for African Americans and guaranteed equal protection
Reconstruction Acts
First passed in March 1867
Reconstruction Acts
Divided South into five districts, each under military control
Reconstruction Acts
Allowed states to be readmitted when a state wrote a new constitution supporting the 14th Amendment and give African American men the right to vote
Impeachment
Process used by Congress to bring charges againes President Johnson
15th Amendment
Gave African Americans the right to vote in 1869
Ulysses Grant
Elected President in 1868
Ulysses Grant
African American votes helped him win a narrow victory against Horatio Seymour
Hiram Revels
Became the first African American Senator in 1870
Blanche K. Bruce
Important republican in Mississippi and served one term as Senator
Ku Klux Klan
secret society opposed to civil rights for African Americans
Compromise of 1877
ended dispute of election outcome between Hayes and Tilden.
Compromise of 1877
agreement to accept Hayes victory
Compromise of 1877
removed all federal troops from the South
Redeemers
Democrats that brought their party back to power
Redeemers
Wanted to reduce the size of state government and limt the rights of African Americans
Poll Tax
Special tax people had to pay before they could vogte
Literacy Tests
Test that targeted African Americans to prevent them from voting
Segregation
forced separation of whites and African Americans in public places
Jim Crow Laws
laws that enforced segregation
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Supreme Court ruling that allowed segregation and allowed \”separate-but-equal\” facilities
Separate-but-Equal
facilities implementing segregation
Sharecropper
Person that farmed the land but did not own the land and had give the owner most of the crop
Henry Grady
Leader of of the new South movement, Atlanta newpaper editor
Panic of 1873
Economic downturn caused by the bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Raillroad

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