Unit 10 – Organic Chemistry Essay

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addition reaction
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a chemical reaction in which one molecule is added to another
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alcohol
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any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
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aldehyde
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any of a class of highly reactive chemical compounds
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alicyclic
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an aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon such as a cycloalkane or cycloalkene
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aliphatic
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having carbon atoms linked in open chains
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alkadiene
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An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which two pairs of carbon atoms possess double bonds.
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alkane
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a non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2)
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alkene
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any unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
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alkyl group
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any of a series of univalent groups of the general formula CnH2n+1 derived from aliphatic hydrocarbons
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alkyne
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a colorless flammable gas used chiefly in welding and in organic synthesis
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aromatic
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(chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings
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branched-chain
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this consists of a parent chain and a substituent
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carbohydrate
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an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
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enzyme
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any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
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ester
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formed by reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water
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esterfication
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The formation of an ester from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, and the elimination of a molecule of water, in the presence of an acid catalyst..
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ether
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a colorless volatile highly inflammable liquid formerly used as an inhalation anesthetic
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fatty acid
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any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis
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fermentation
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a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
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fractional distillation
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fractionation of a liquid by distillation
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functional group
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group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
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homologous series
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Series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH₂
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hydrocarbon
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an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
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increment
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the amount by which something increases
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isomer
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a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight
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IUPAC system
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An organisation known as International union of pure and applied chemistry that determines the system for naming organic compounds.
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ketone
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any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals
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monohydroxy alcohol
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An alcohol with only one hydroxyl group.
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normal alkane
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any alkane in which all the caron atoms are algiend in a continuous chain
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olefin
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any unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
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open-chain
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Exercise is when the distal end of the moving segment moves freely
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organic chemistry
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the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)
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paraffin series
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another name for alkanes
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polymer
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a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
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primary alcohol
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an alcohol that has one alkyl group bonded to the carbon atom with the -OH
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saponification
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a chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap)
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saturated compound
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An organic compound in which all the carbon atoms are joined by single bonds is called a(n) ________.
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secondary alcohol
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What type of alcohol is produced by the attachment of the hydroxyl group to a carbon atom that is joined directly to two other carbon atoms in the chain?
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soap
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a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats
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structural formula
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an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
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substituent
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Any atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule
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substituent
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Any atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule
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substitution reaction
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one atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom of group of atoms
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tertiary alcohol
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an alcohol that has three alkyl groups bonded to the carbon atom with the -OH
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trihydroxy alcohol
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An alcohol having three hydroxyl groups. Example: glycerol.
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unsaturated compound
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An organic compound with at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms is called a(n) ________.

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