Unit 10 Antebellum America

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Summarize the social and political differences between the North and South that gave rise to sectional conflicts.
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Social- all the slavery controversy/ division between North and South Popular sovereignty Kansas- Nebraska Act Compromise of 1850 Political So confusing so many different parties= so many different beliefs and views Republicans vs Democrats Election of 1860 Abe not unanimously popular among the people
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Explain how the issue of slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico disrupted American politics from 1848-1850.
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After this the Missouri Compromise can no longer be applied b/c it would split California in half Leads to the Compromise of 1850 which introduces popular sovereignty creating turmoil between North and South
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Identify the major terms of the Compromise of 1850 and indicate how this agreement attempted to deal with the issue of slavery.
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California=free state (favors North) Fugitive Slave Act (South) Makes it a crime for anyone to knowingly or unknowingly help a runaway slave in any form Up to one year in jail or $10,000 fine No more slave trade in DC (North) Utah and New Mexico territory= popular sovereignty Good for North b/c chances of them reaching population to apply for statehood are low Disputed territory between Texas and New Mexico surrendered to New Mexico Texas gets 10 million in compensation
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Describe Douglas’ Kansas- Nebraska Act and explain why it stirred sectional controversy to new heights.
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Enacted because Douglas wanted to create a transcontinental railroad Passed in May 1854 and completely erased the Missouri Compromise Led to popular sovereignty in all unorganized territory except Indian which was already slave territory HUGE DEAL b/c it could possibly lead to the US being a slave country North Hates It Leads to a race to settle first Pretty much causes Civil War in Kansas
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Explain how and why “Bleeding Kansas” became a dress rehearsal for the Civil War.
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Kansas-Nebraska leads to a race to see who can settle first Free soilers (Iowa) vs, Abolitionists (North) vs. Slavers (Missouri) Causes mini Civil War Popular Sovereignty led to concerns of becoming slave country Leads to extreme violence in Kansas over the vote for whether it will be a slave state or not People come from other states to vote Ends when it is decided that Kansas is too dangerous for statehood and must wait until population reaches 100,000
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Trace the growing power of the Republican party in the early 1850s and the increasing divisions and helplessness of the Democrats.
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Attracted Northern Whigs and Democrats “Free labor, free land, free men” Opposed Kansas Nebraska Act Party had a clear idea of what they wanted and this attracted most Northerns
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Explain how the Dred Scott decision and Brown’s Harpers Ferry raid deepened sectional antagonism.
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Dred Scott sues for his freedom because he was brought to a free state, but loses Two Major Problems No African Americans free or not have any rights. They are not citizens Undermines all the compromises There is no more free or slave states Sucks for North John Brown attempts to free slaves from ferry Becomes a Northern Hero Hated by South The North and South’s differing views on slavery led to even further division then before as they continue to disagree
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Trace the rise of Lincoln at the leading exponent of the Republican Doctrine of no expansion of slavery.
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December 1834 joins Illinois General Assembly Known as a brawler Will fight you 1842- retires 1846- runs for congress, spot resolutions, retired in 1849 when job he was expecting was not offered 1854- returns goes to state legislature 1858- runs for senate loses * Lincoln- Douglas Debates* This is where he makes a name for himself “A house divided against itself cannot stand”- speech what he thinks of slavery compared to Douglas extremely weak answer Lincoln gained recognition. He knows what he stands for and people like that especially North Highlight the issues in the Election of 1860, the sectional divisions it revealed, and expl
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Highlight the issues in the Election of 1860, the sectional divisions it revealed, and explain why Lincoln won.
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Candidates: Lincoln: Republican Two Democrats Constitutional Union Party- No fighting Lincoln wins with 60% of the electoral and 40% of the popular vote Super controversial South hates him not even a question on whether they should vote for him or not 60% of the people don’t like Lincoln huge deal b/c he is now their president and they have to listen to him
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Describe the movement toward secession, the formation of the Confederacy, and the failure of the last compromise effort.
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Starts in Southern Carolina who had been fighting for secession since Compromise of 1850 Lincoln has a clear idea of what he wants and this threatens the South They lead the South to secede from the Union Less intense in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas
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How did westward expansion bring the issue of slavery to the forefront?
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Have to decide whether states will be slave states or not Uneven numbers through off power balance in North and South increasing tensions Popular Sovereignty debates lead to even more tension
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Why was the idea of popular sovereignty so controversial?
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If more states chose to be slave or free states it will create a shift in power between North and South increasing the already enormous tension between them North hates it
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Was the Compromise of 1850 a good compromise? Why or Why not?
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The debate of slavery was pushed off by continuing to create compromises to prevent war (3/5 Compromise, Missouri Compromise, etc.) 1850 Compromise created a balance in power, but per usual no side left happy It increased the already huge tensions
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What were the key events in the 1850s that increased the tension between North and South?
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Compromise of 1850 California=free state (favors North) Fugitive Slave Act (South) Makes it a crime for anyone to knowingly or unknowingly help a runaway slave in any form Up to one year in jail or $10,000 fine No more slave trade in DC (North) Utah and New Mexico territory= popular sovereignty Good for North b/c chances of them reaching population to apply for statehood are low Disputed territory between Texas and New Mexico surrendered to New Mexico Texas gets 10 million in compensation
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Why did South Carolina and other states secede? What did they fear? Were those fears reasonable?
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Starts in Southern Carolina who had been fighting for secession since Compromise of 1850 Lincoln has a clear idea of what he wants and this threatens the South They lead the South to secede from the Union Less intense in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas The South is built on slavery and with the election of Lincoln there way of life has been threatened Lincoln thinks the union must “become all one thing or all the other”
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How did the actions of individuals heighten the tensions between the two sides?
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Douglas- Kansas- Nebraska Act Dred Scott vs. Sandford Freeport Doctrine Harper’s Ferry Sacking of St. Lawrence Gadsden Purchase Decisions made by individuals about the controversial topic of slavery is going to lead to disputes among the two sides because they already hate each other’s views so any push from either side to make a diference is going to lead to larger problems
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Compromise of 1850
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Laws passed that were meant to resolve the dispute over the status of slavery in the territories. Key elements included the admission of California as a free state and the Fugitive Slave Act.
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Personal-liberty laws-
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Laws enacted in many northern states that guaranteed to all residents, including alleged fugitives, the right to a jury trial.
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Gadsden Purchase-
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A small piece of land (now part of Arizona and New Mexico) purchased by President Franklin Pierce in 1853 for the purpose of building a transcontinental rail line from New Orleans to LA
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Ostend Manifesto-
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An 1854 manifesto that urged President Franklin Pierce to seize the slave-owning province of Cuba from Spain. Northern Democrats denounced this aggressive initiative and the plan was scuttled.
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Kansas- Nebraska Act-
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A controversial 1854 law that divided Indian Territory into Kansas and Nebraska, repealed the Missouri Compromise, and left the new territories to decide the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty
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American, or Know- Nothing Party-
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A political party formed in 1851 that drew on the anti-immigration and anti catholic movements of the 1840s. In 1854, the party gained control of the state governments of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.
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“Bleeding Kansas”-
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Term for the bloody struggle between proslavery and antislavery factions in Kansas following its organization as a territory in the fall of 1854
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Dred Scott vs. Sandford-
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The 1857 Supreme Court decision that ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. The court ruled against slave Dred Scott, who claimed that travels with his master into free states and territories made him and his family free. It also denied the federal government the right to exclude slavery from the territories and declared that African Americans were not citizens.
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Freeport Doctrine-
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The argument presented by Senator Stephen A. Douglas that a territory’s residents could exclude slavery by not adopting laws to protect it.
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Lecompten Decision-
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Because of the instability of Kansas it was decided they must reach 100,000 citizens instead of 50,000 to apply for statehood

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