Unit 1 Retake

How did the Code of Hammurabi affect Babylonian society?
by clarifying the role of government
How did the Jewish Ten Commandments affect the development of a legal code?
The Commandments emphasized the importance of ethical behavior.
Why was the transition from hunting and gathering to permanent settlements with agriculture important?
The ability to produce surpluses allowed for specialization.
How did people adapt to these conditions in this region to develop early civilizations?

Mesopotamia
• A plain located between two rivers
• Bordered to the north and east by mountains
• Melting snow causes annual river floods
• Seasonally overflowing rivers deposit silt

cultivating crops in rich fertile valley
Which ancient civilizations were located in Mesopotamia?
Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians
?

• City-state government
• Cuneiform writing
• Lunar calendar
Which title would best describe this list?

Influences of Sumerian Civilization
These provisions reflect which aspect of many ancient systems of law?

Selections from the Code of Hammurabi
• If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall
receive sixty blows . . . in public.
• If a free-born man strike the body of another free-born man or equal
rank, he shall pay one gold mina.

protection of social hierarchy
Song Dynasty Reforms to the Civil Service Exam
• Candidates were assigned numbers to replace names.
• Exams were copied by clerks to disguise handwriting.
• Candidates were forbidden from including personal information in essays.
What was the main purpose of these reforms?
to ensure equity in the selection of scholar-bureaucrats
• Vedas
• Reincarnation
• Karma
The religion described by these elements is primarily practiced in which region?
India and some areas of Southeast Asia
Which development was an accomplishment of the Mauryan Empire?
the establishment of Buddhism in Southeast Asia
This chart represents a historical aspect of which belief system?
a social hierarchy based on Hinduism
Characteristics of the Mandate of Heaven

• The right to rule is granted by Heaven
• Just leaders have divine authority
• Unjust leaders lose divine authority
Which event best shows an application of this concept?

the founding of a new dynasty
What was the purpose of the Great Wall built during the Qin Dynasty?
to stop attacks by northern nomads
Ancient Indian Social Structure

• Brahman (priestly) class
• Kshatriya (warrior/noble) class
• Vaishya (commoner/herdsmen/tradesman) class
• Shudra (peasant/servant) class

What is the best classification for this social structure?

caste system
How did the collapse of the western Roman Empire affect Europe?
Germanic invaders expanded territorial claims.
Which statement best explains the cause of the fall of Rome during the 5th century A.D.?
Repeated invasions by Germanic tribes weakened Roman society.
Which philosopher’s idea of who should govern was based on the principle of rule by a “wise philosopher-king”?
Plato
Which title best completes this diagram?
Features of Greek and Roman Government
The ancient Greek city-state of Athens influenced later cultures by
establishing a democratic government.
Cause Effect
Constantine legalizes Christianity ?
Which effect best completes the table?
Christianity spreads quickly with government support.
Why is the idea in this excerpt important to the development of government in Western Europe?

And the rule of law, it is argued, it is preferable to that of any individual.

—Aristotle, Politics

It limited the authority of a tyrant.
Which feature best explains how major river valley civilizations influenced the development of Greece and Rome?
enforcement of a code of laws
Which architectural feature was commonly used by the ancient Greeks?
columns
In the days of Kecrops and the first kings, down to the reign of Theseos, Attica was divided into communes, having their own town halls and magistrates. Except in case of alarm, the whole people did not assemble in council . . . but administered their own affairs, and advised together in their several townships.

—The History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides, ca. 404 BC
Which form of government developed from these circumstances?

democracy
The influence of Judeo-Christian laws was spread throughout Europe and the Middle East by which empire?
Roman
The diffusion of aqueduct technology occurred because of which development?
the expansion of the Roman Empire
The Law of the Twelve Tables, 451-450 BC

Table I. Proceedings Preliminary to Trial
Table II. Trial
Table III. Execution of Judgment
Table IV. Paternal Power
Table V. Inheritance and Guardianship
Table VI. Ownership and Possession
Table VII. Real Property
Table VIII. Torts or Delicts
Table IX. Public Law
Table X. Sacred Law
What was one effect of this Roman document on modern Western government?

the creation of a written constitution
Which responsibility did citizens in ancient Greece most likely have?

It is necessary for the citizens to be of such a number that they know each other’s personal qualities and thus can elect their officials and judge their fellows in a court of law sensibly.

—Aristotle, Politics

to serve on juries and vote for leaders
Why was Emperor Constantine historically significant to the Roman Empire?
Official policies promoted the spread of Christianity.
Selected Laws from the Twelve Tables of Ancient Rome
1.1 If he (plaintiff) summon him (defendant) into court, he shall go.
11.3 Whoever is in need of evidence, he shall go on every third day to call out loud before the doorway of the witness.
VIII.21 If a patron shall defraud his client, he must be solemnly forfeited (killed).
IX.6 Putting to death . . . of any man who has not been convicted, whosoever he might be, is forbidden.
Which protection is supported by these laws?
innocent until proven guilty
Which change resulted from the fall of the western Roman Empire?
The role of religious institutions in society declined.
Why is Hammarabi’s Code such a significant body of laws?
It is the first written code of laws
The written code was displayed for all people to seeBoth A & B
Which group practiced monotheism, settled in Cannan, and gave modern society many of its moral codes?
Hebrews
The Hebrew kept a written account of their history, rules, and beliefs in what important document?
Torah
Ancient Egypt was ruled by a Pharaoh. The Pharaoh was both king and god. What type of government is this?
Theocracy
Which of the following is not a characteristic of early river civilizations?
Large armies for conquering neighbors
What Macedonian king was able to conquer Greece, Persia, and most of the known world? His conquest exposed Greek culture to the East and Asian goods to the West.
Alexander the Great
How were the Roman Republic and Athens democracy similar?
Both allowed only citizens to vote
How were Roman and Greek religious ideas similar?
Both were polytheistic
Both used the same gods, the Romans renamed the Greek gods
Both A & B
Which Greek city-state was devoted to war and held the most powerful army in ancient Greece?
Sparta
Which Greek city-state had a powerful navy and was known for its democratic government?
Athens
Which of the following best describes a similarity between women’s roles in classical Indian and Chinese civilizations?
Women in both civilizations were expected to serve men
Social order in China could be established if people practiced respect, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness. Which Chinese philosopher does this apply to?
Confucius
Due to the ideals of Confucius, Chinese society was patriarical or based on following the:
Father
Why did Buddishm spread so rapidly in East and Southeast Asia?
Appealed to people because it abandoned the Caste System
Which of the following is a contribution of the Qin Dynasty to China?
Standard currency

Standard of weight

Standard of writing

What factor(s) led to the Fall of the Roman Empire?
Moral decay and reliance on the government for support

Invasion of Germanic and Asiatic tribes and loss of farm goods

What is the name of traditional stories about Greek gods that were designed to understand the mysteries of nature and powerof human passion?
Myth
First Major Threat to Roman power

People were sold into slavery after three wars

Hannibal was their greatest general

What civilization is this?

Carthage
Which Roman Emperor is the list describing?

Split the empire into East and West

Fixed prices to stop inflation

Resisted Germanic invaders

Diocletian
Which leader are the following point desribing?

Leader of an Asiatic / Turkish band

Terrorized both East and West Roman Empires

Followers settled in modern day Hungary

Attila
Which Roman Emperor are the following points describing?

Reunited the Eastern and Western Empires

Stopped the persecution of the Christians

Established the code of beliefs for the Christian church at Nicea

Constantine
Why did Julius Caeser come to power? What factor(s) led to the fall of the Roman Republic?
Slaves made up 1/3 of the population and were a source of cheap labor

Rome was overpopulated and many riots broke out

Military leaders recruited the urban poor to serve them in the army

Why did Rome become the center for early Christianity?
Capital of the Roman Empire

Apostle Peter became the fist bishop of Rome

Jewish leaders persecuted the Christians

He was the governor of Gaul, who took advantage of economic problems and civil war. He eventually led a revolution that ended the Roman Republic.
Julius Caesar
Which of the following moves by Constantine signaled the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the shift of power to the Eastern Roman Empire?
The capital was moved to Byzantium (Constantinople)
What leader is being described?

Caused fear in the Roman rulers

Told the Jewish people he was their Messiah

His followers started a new religious belief

Jesus of Nazareth
What were the results of Octavian/ Augustus becoming leader of Rome?
Declared himself emperor

Established a civil service

Defeated Marc Antony

Choose the philosopher that matches the description
Questions
1.
Teacher of Alexander the Great and creator of the scientific method

2.
Philospher who called on all people to constantly question themselves and their moral character

3.
Distrusted democracy, believed society should be ruled by intellectuals

4.
Wrote the Republic

5.
Philosopher believed society should be broken into distinct social groups. His theory dominated Western thought for 1500 years.

Answer Choices
Plato
Socrates
Aristotle

1.
Overthrew the Roman Republic after a brief civil war

2.
Leader of Athens during the “Golden Age”

3.
Wealthy Romans of the republic who could serve in the Roman Senate

Answer Choices
Octavian
Pericles
Julius Caesar
Patricians
Plebians

Question

Explain the three major battles between Alexander and Darius and give details of at least one.
Explain how Hellenistic styles of government altered the successor governments.

The 3 major battles between Alexander The Great and Darius were: The battle of Gaugamela, the battle of Issus, and the battle of Granicus. The battle of Guagamela occured near the tigris river. There Alexander the Great met face to face with Darius’ army. His plan of attack was a diagonal formation (never seen before by Darius). Alexander sent in his groups. Once they began to fight it seemed as if Alexander’s army was losing so the far group “retreated”. They took everything they had with their horses and headed into the foot hills. Darius’ army went after them but found out very quickly that a bunch of horses running through a landscape of dust and sand; it wasn’t very easy to see. when Darius’ army least expected it Alexanders army turned and headed straight back to the battle field. Due to this commotion, a gap was formed at the battle field where Alexander led his Army straight through. Alexander and his army now had an advantage. Darius and his troops ran and Alexander won the battle.
Due to the ideals of Confucius, Chinese society was patriarical or based on following the:

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