citizens attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events, when aggregates together are known as
public opinion
preferences reflect
what people want
what is the difference between preferences and beliefs?
beliefs reflect what people know, preferences reflect what people want
what is NOT a major source of Americans’s political values?
the set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which an individual understands and interprets politics is his or her
political ideology
family, group membership, education, and prevailing political conditions are examples of
agents of political socialization
in the United States today, people often describe themselves politically by using the labels
liberal or conservative
A person who decides not to invest time and energy to study political issues is said to be
rationally ignorant
the two primary pathways through which media coverage shapes what people think are
priming and framing
an impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not is known as the illusion of
in today’s terms, someone who generally supports extensive government intervention in the economy is known as a
A survey question ask, “if you knew that Miller, a senatorial candidate, was addicted to drugs and raised taxes four times, would you support him in the upcoming election?
push polling
which of the following is NOT an important problem in measuring public opinion?
the Bradley effect
the inability of principals to know all aspects of the actions taken by an agent who represents them is an example of
moral hazard
all of the following are true of voter turnout in American politics EXCEPT that it
is unaffected by registration laws
by the 19th century, America was unusually democratic because it allowed:
all adult white males to vote
relative to other Western democracies, voter turnout in the US is
quite low
in presidential elections, every state is allocated votes in the Electoral College equal to the number of
representatives in the House and Senate combined
in the 1992 presidential election, independent candidate Ross Perot won 19% of the popular vote ___ percent of the votes in the Electoral College.
which type of electoral system is generally used in the US?
the type of electoral system in which a candidate must receive more than 50% of all votes cast in the district to win is called
majority system
Political campaigns in the US occur in 2 stages, known as the ___ campaigns
primary and general
the single strongest predictor of how (not if ) a person votes is:
party identification
Unlike spatial issues, ____ issues cannot be ordered in terms of the possible options
Voting choices that are based on the past performance of incumbents are known as
retrospective voting
as opposed to interest groups, political parties are composed mostly of ____ seekers
when recruiting candidates, parties typically look for candidates who have an unblemished record and
the ability to raise money
which is NOT a reason political parties form?
to check presidential power
in modern American politics, most candidate are nominated to elected office through
primary elections
a primary elections in which individuals declare their party declaration on the actual day of the primary election is a ____ primary
political parties effectively lower the information costs of voter participation because they provide
brand-name recognition
an individual voter’s psychological attachment to one party or another is called
party identificaiton
among the youngest group of Americans today, the majority describe themselves as
over the last 30 years, the south has transitioned from being a
solidly democratic to solidly republican region
america’s most rapidly growing electoral bloc, won overwhelmingly by Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012 is
currently about what percentage of AA describe themselves as democrats?
in american electoral politics, the difference between men, and women in presidential voting is known as
the “gender gap”
political parties facilitate mass electoral choice by
providing voters with a kind of party “brand-name” that simplifies their choice of candidate
which of the following is NOT one of the reasons given by the text for why third parties tend to be short-lived?
major parties often co-opt popular third-party platform planks
Interest groups of lobbyists tend to concern themselves with
policies of government
according to James Madison in Federalist 10, what is the best way to curb the dangers of interest groups?
allow them to exist and compete
the theory that all interests should be free to compete for the influence in the government, yielding compromise and moderation, is known as
interest groups tend to reflect the bias of
well-educated, upper-income professionals
In The Logic of Collective Action, Mancur Olsen challenged the pluralist assumption that
common interests among individuals automatically lead to organized action
according to Mancur Olsen, the solution to the collective action problem is
selective benefits
an example of a collective action problem that explains why cooperation in groups can be difficult to achieve is the
prisoner’s dilemma
special newsletters, training programs, and conference provided to members of interest groups to entice others to join are examples or
informational benefits
which benefits are selective benefits given to members that emphasize friendship, networking, and consciousness-raising
solidarity benefits
in the quest for political influence, insider strategies include:
meeting with a senator
in the quest for political influence, outsider strategies include:
going public
an attempt by a group to influence the policy process through persuasion of government officials is known as
In what case did the Supreme Court rule that “money is speech”?
Buckley v. Valeo
A device that allows groups to propose laws that the public will vote in the next general election, thereby passing elected officials is an
the referendum, initiative, and recall all entail shifts in the
agenda-setting power
Why are the mass media one of the most unusual political institutions?
they are really an industry
until the mid-1990s there was really just two classes of media
print and broadcast
which news source reaches more Americans than any other single news source?
television news
newspapers remain an important source of news because:
the broadcast media largely cover stories already broken down by major newspapers
talk radio
tends to be dominated by conservatives
which federal agency regulates broadcast media?
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
the requirement that broadcasters must provide all candidates for the same political office the opportunity to communicate their messages to the public is known as
the equal time rule
following the passage of the Telecommunications Act in 1996, media ownership in the US became more
which is NOT one of the 3 major factors affecting news coverage?
second amendment
surveys of journalists have revealed that
democrats and liberal outnumber republicans and conservatives
because print and broadcast media are businesses seeking a profit, they must cater to the preferences of
which of the following is NOT an advantage of the internet for news purposes?
the internet is not bound by the same journalistic standards as print media
Baker v. Carr (1962)
established “one person one vote” Formalized in the Apportionment Act (1967) Single-member districts (SMDs)
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
Spending money = free speech rights
Citizens’ United v. FEC (2010)
Ruled the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) 2002 unconstitutional – corporate contributions to PACs now unlimited
McCutcheon v. FEC (2014)
Ruled individuals may contribute to as many candidates as they wish (although a cap on contributions to a single candidate remains)
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
set a high legal threshold for “prior restraint” (government efforts to prevent the publication of harmful material)
New York Times v. United States (1971)
rejected “prior restraint” argument (also known as the Pentagon Papers case)
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
held that to be deemed libel a story had to “be untrue and result from actual malice”
The idea that a majority of a group is more likely to reach a correct decision than would a single individual who heard the same facts is
the Jury Theorem
Today in America there is widespread agreement on fundamental political values such as
equality of opportunity, liberty, and democracy
Family, group membership and education are examples of
agents of political socialization
A device that allows groups to propose laws that the public will vote on in the next general election, thereby bypassing elected officials is a(n)
In the case of New York Times v. United States, also known as the Pentagon Papers case, the Supreme Court ruled against
prior restraint