Theory, Art Therapy Approaches, and Therapeutic Application

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What is Psychoanalysis?
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Form of therapy that explores the interaction of conscious and unconscious to bring repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind by techniques such as dream interpretation and free association.
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Signmund Freud
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Dreams have meaning. Id, Ego, Super Ego. Repressed unconscious. Defense mechanisms. Art as projection of unconscious. Behavior is motivated by sexual and instinctive drives known as libido.
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Freud’s five stages of Psychosexual Development
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1. Oral Stage (first 18 months of life) 2. Anal phase (18-24 months) 3. Phallic phase (24-48 months) Oedipus Complex/Electra Complex 4. Latency phase (end of phallic stage until puberty) 5. Genital stage (starts at puberty)
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Preconscious Mind
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a part of our memory, which is not always part of consciousness, but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought to our awareness.
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Conscious Mind
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an awareness of present perceptions,feelings, thoughts, memories, and fantasies at any particular moment. It is the part of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally.
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Unconscious Mind
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a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict.
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What are the principles of Psychoanalysis?
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Id, Ego, Superego
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Three basic assumptions of psychoanalytic theory of the masses
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1. Groups of dependency 2. Fight-flight 3. Pairing
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Narcissistic Wounds
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A phrase used by Sigmund Freud in the 1920s; a perceived threat to a narcissist’s self-esteem or self-worth.
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Freud’s Theory of Ego Psychology
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With focus on the ego and super ego, Freud believed that different driving forces develop during the stages of personality development which play an important role in how we interact with the world. (Id, Ego, Superego)
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Id
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Born with this part of ego development. This wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation.
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Ego
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Ego development, job is to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation. Has the role of maintaining a balance between the Id and Superego.
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Superego
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Around age 5, this part of the ego develops. It is the moral part that dictates our belief of right and wrong.
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Dream Analysis
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the analysis of dreams as a means of gaining access to the unconscious mind, typically involving free association.
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How is dream analysis used in therapy?
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Method of diagnosing a patient’s mental state by studying his or her dreams.
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What is Freud’s dream symbolism?
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An interpretation of each symbol within a dream, which could represent experiences that are painful, therefore repressed.
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Anna Freud
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Freud’s daughter. Recognized art as form in treatment for children because they could not engage in adult free association.
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What is Analytic Psychology?
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Form of therapy in which the analyst and patient work together to bring unconscious elements of the psyche into a more balanced relationship with conscious awareness and experience in an effort to discover meaning and improve mental health or provide relief to psychological suffering.
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Carl Jung
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Personal unconscious. Collective unconscious. Symbols, archetypes, meaning. Art for self-analysis: one must develop a dialogue between conscious and unconscious in order to achieve psychic equilibrium.
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Personal unconscious
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A person’s own unique experiences and memories.
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Collective unconscious
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Inherited shared memories and tendencies
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What are some of the Jungian symbols use to interpret the psyche/archetypes?
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1. Animus/Anima 2. Shadow 3. Personal 4. Hero 5. Self
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Jung’s Animus/Anima
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Represents the opposite gender to a person’s self. Feminine and masculine archetypes, which act as guides to the unconscious unified self.
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Jung’s Shadow
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The elements of ourselves that we consider to be negative. The repressed and suppressed aspects of the conscious self.
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Jung’s Persona
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The identity which we wish to project to others. Not a true reflection of our consciousness, but rather an idealised image which people aspire to.
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Jung’s Hero
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The individual in common myths of all cultures who does various and extraordinary tasks. “Threshold Guardian”.
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Jung’s Self
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The self as a process of individuation, where all aspects are brought together as one. Transcends the ego.
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Jung’s Wise Old Man
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Represents the power of peaceful contemplation in the absence of physical prowess. Foresees the future and offers guidance in turbulent times.
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Introvert and Extrovert Personalities
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In Jungian belief, people could be divided by their personality type. He identified the introvert and extrovert personality types.
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Jung’s Great Mother
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Embodies the idealised qualities of the mother figure. She is caring, compassionate, dependable and loving and may offer guidance when asked.
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Which term describes an old man as “the eternal child”, whose emotional life has remained at an adolescent level with strong ties to his mother?
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“Puer Aeternus”
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“Puer Aeternus”
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Latin for “eternal child.” It refers to an older man whose emotional life has remained at an adolescent level, usually coupled with too great a dependence on the mother.
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The Self-ego Axis
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Referred to by Jung as the relationship between the self and the ego.
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Jung: The Mandala
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Vessel into which we project our psyche. A symbol of wholeness, completeness, and perfection, and moreover the self.
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Boy-who-cried-wold Syndrome
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“Crying wolf”, a person stating something happened that did not.
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Concepts that influence psychoanalytic and analytic approaches
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1. Transference: basis of analysis and treatment 2. Spontaneous Expression: material from the unconscious 3. Amplification and Active Imagination: analytic technique in dream interpretation
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What is transference?
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The client’s unconscious projection of feelings onto the therapist.
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What are types of transference?
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Paternal, maternal, sibling, non-familial.
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Transference and Art Therapy
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Client’s attachment to artwork replaces their dependence on the art therapist. Artistic expression allows for the client to project ones feelings onto the artwork and interact with materials, rather than therapist.
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What is Spontaneous Expression?
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Any image making which is non-directive, meaning the person is simply requested to make anything they want using any material.
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What is countertransference?
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A therapists conscious or unconscious emotional reactions to a client.
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Spontaneous Expression and Art Therapy
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Like free association, it helps clients express their troubles as freely as possible, providing access to the unconscious. Containers for repressed emotions and a source of transformation.
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What is the Scribble Technique and who created it?
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Florence Cane, the older sister of Margaret Naumburg, developed the Scribble Technique. It is a form of spontaneous expression that can help a client intimidated by art making to generate images, which then project thoughts or feelings through the art.
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Who are the main theorists and art therapists associated with Psychoanalytic Theory?
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Freud, Jung, Margaret Naumburg, Edith Kramer, Judith Rubin, Marion Milner, Myra Levick, Mildred Lachman-Chapin, D.W Winnicott, Joy Schaverien, Melanie Klein, Margaret Mahler, David Henley, Ernst Kris, Heinz Kohut, Harriet Wadeson.
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Edith Kramer
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Pioneer in art therapy. Kramer believed in “Art as Therapy” and was influenced by Freud’s personality theory/ego psychology in her work with children. She emphasizes the intrinsic therapeutic potential in the art making process and the central role the defense mechanism of sublimation plays in the experience.
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Placing a strong emphasis on sublimation through art, this therapist wrote, “We must distinguish sublimation from catharsis, from simple displacement, and from highly sexualized and/or aggressively charged imagery that we encounter in the artwork of psychotics.”
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Edith Kramer
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Margret Naumburg
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Considered the Mother of Art Therapy, Naumburg believed in dynamically oriented art therapy or “art psychotherapy” in that the unconscious can be communicated through symbolic expression.
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This theorist saw releasing the repressed material through imagery as curative, in a cathartic as well as communicative sense. She saw the healing potential of symbolic artistic expression, and was one of the first practitioners to stress its role as a primary agent, rather than an auxiliary tool. She called her work “dynamically oriented art therapy,” and felt the only valid meaning of anyone’s art came from the person.
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Margaret Naumburg.
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Judith Rubin
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1970’s. Art Therapist trained in psychoanalytic technique. Known for using the Open Art Assessment, this theorist describes the “framework for freedom,” as a balance between structure and looseness in art therapy sessions.
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Marion Milner
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Art therapist that explored the interplay of analysis, creativity, and artistic process.
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Harriet Wadeson
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Influential in early art therapy. Founded two art therapy program in U.S.
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Ernst Kris
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Austrian Psychoanalyst and art historian (1924-1957) “Art making places an inner experience, an inner image, into the outside world.” Research and assessment. Believed regression in service of the ego. Wrote Psychoanalytic Explorations in Art.
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Myra Levick
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1980’s. Art therapist that viewed art expressions as reflections of defense mechanisms. Developed the Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment.
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Mildred Lachman-Chapin
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1970’s. Art Therapist that used art therapy and self-psychology.
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Heinz Kohut
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Art therapist that viewed art as a way to relieve pain and anxiety and build ego strength. Known for Self-psychology, which recognizes the role of empathy in explaining human development. Particularly helpful in the treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
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Vicarious Introspection
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Associated with Self-Psychology. Heinz Kohut defines as empathy.
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What is self-psychology?
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Self-psychology is a “structural psychology” of “self-object transferences of mirroring and idealization.” In order to develop into a healthy sense of self, children need to be able to identify with the strengths of admired figures (idealization) and receive positive reinforcement from empathetic and care giving others (mirroring).
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Joy Schaverien
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British Art Therapist that used the term “analytical art psychotherapy”, which examines the transference relationship. Possessed a strong psychoanalytic point of view and contributed to the key concept of the symbolic “scapegoat.”
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Schaverien’s Diagrammatic and Embodied Images in Transference
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Diagrammatic Images: those which are merely descriptive. Embodied Images: those which contain deeper symbolic meaning. Scheverien believes transference is only found in embodied images.
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Rhoda Kellogg
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1978. Studied scribbles or mandala drawings in relation to Jung’s collective unconscious. Child art development from ages 18mo-7 years old. (see art interpretation).
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What is Object Relations Theory?
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Humans have an innate drive to form and maintain relationships.
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D.W Winnicott
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Psychoanalyst that contributed to the psychoanalytic understanding of art and play therapy with children. Transitional object. Development of internal working model from mother-infant relationship in early attachment.
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DW Winnicott’s Theory of Attachment
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Early attachment’s shape the development of a child’s “internal working model” of their world which impacts their relationships.
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What is a Transitional Object?
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an actual object (stuffed animal or toy) that represents to a child something more than it actually is. Art can act as a transitional object.
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Internal Working Model
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The child’s attachment relationship with their primary caregiver leads to the development of an internal working model, which is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self and others.
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What is Transitional Space?
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an intermediate area of experience were there is no clear distinction between inner and outer reality.
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Melanie Klein
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Studied under Freud. Object Relations Theory.
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Margaret Mahler
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Object relations theory. Stage Theory of development became framework for understanding clients’ work in art therapy where art making is seen as mirroring and facilitating interpersonal communications and potential difficulties with object relations.
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What are Mahler’s stages of infant-child development?
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Normal Autism (blissful), 0-2mo Symbiosis (bonding), 2-5mo Hatching (differentiation), 5-10mo Practicing, 10-16mo Rapprochement (ambivalence), 17-24mo Object Constancy (internalize mom), 24-26mo
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What treatment model did Margaret Mahler develop, which involved the participation of the mother?
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The Tripartite Model.
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The Tripartite (Treatment) Model
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When the mother participates in the treatment of the child.
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David Henley
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Object relations theory. Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Noted the art is a transitional object because it supports self-relationship and empowerment. Used Mahler’s theory to assess a child’s relationships to significant others.
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What is Humanistic Theory?
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1960-70. Result of the human potential movement. Focuses on the client’s ability to find personal meaning. Emphasizes concepts of personal freedom, choice, values, responsibility, autonomy, and meaning. Trusts the person to make positive and constructive choices.
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What are the types of Humanistic Theory?
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Existential, person-centered, Gestalt, transpersonal
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What are the three principles of Humanistic Theory?
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1. Emphasis on life-problem solving. 2. Encouragement of self-actualization through creative expression. 3. Emphasis on relating self-actualization to intimacy and trust in interpersonal relations and the search for self-transcendent life goals.
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Who are the main theorists and art therapists associated with Humanistic Theory?
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Fritz Perlz, Janie Rhyne, Carl Rogers, Natalie Rogers, Bruce Moon, Maslow, Otto Rank, Rollo May, Viktor Frankl, Josef Garai, Clark Moustakas, James Bugental, Violet Oaklander, Joseph Zinker.
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What is existential therapy?
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Humanistic approach. Originates from philosophy. A philosophy that influences how a therapist practices, rather than a defined model with specific techniques. Therapist is guided by existential ideas and themes that are universally experiences, such as love, joy, or suffering.
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Who is associated with Existential Therapy?
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Viktor Frankl, Bruce Moon, Rollo May, Clark Moustakas, James Bugental, Yalom
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Viktor Frankl
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1960’s. Existential therapy. Embraced the concepts of personal freedom, meaning, and the search for values. “Will to meaning.” Challenged individuals to find meaning and purpose in life.
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Rollo May
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1960’s. Existential therapy. Creativity is a struggle against disintegration and as a means to bring into existence “new kinds of being.”
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Clark Moustakas
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1960’s. Existential therapy. Creativity is central to mental health.
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James Bugental
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Existential therapy. Art of the psychotherapist. Search for authenticity.
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Bruce Moon
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Proposed application of existential therapy to art therapy. Using the art process as a metaphor for choice and free will.
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Existential Therapy and Art Therapy
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Art expression is a personal search for meaning and creativity is an important component of health.
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Process of Art-making and Existential Therapy
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1. The capacity for self-awareness 2. Freedom and responsibility 3. Creating one’s identity and establishing meaningful relationships with others 4. The search for meaning, purpose, values, and goals. 5. Anxiety is a condition of living. 6. Awareness of death and non-being.
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What is Gestalt Therapy?
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Humanistic approach. A whole is more than the sum of its parts. Responsible, honest, direct, and authentic communication between person and therapist. Focus on relationships: ones relationships with the world, with other people, and with ones self.
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Who is associated with Gestalt Therapy?
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Fritz Perls, Janie Rhyne, Rudolf Arnheim, Violet Oaklander, Mala Betensky, Joseph Zinker.
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What do Gestalt therapist encourage?
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Active participation and enactment by the individual. Through sensory-motor activation, there is recognition and clarification of problems.
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Fritz Perls
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1960’s. Gestalt therapy.
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Janie Rhyne
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Gestalt therapy. Developed the idea of the “Gestalt art experience”, which focused on the active movement in the art expression.
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Violet Oaklander
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1978. Developed a Gestalt approach to work with children and families through art, play and other sensory modalities.
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Joseph Zinker
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Believed art expression is therapeutic because it allows people to know themselves as a whole person in a short period of time.
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The Awareness Continuum
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Associated with Gestalt therapy, the freely ongoing Gestalt formation where what is of greatest concern and interest to the person.
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What are the techniques of Gestalt Therapy?
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1. Staying with the feeling 2. Enactment (hot seat empty chair) 3. Exaggeration 4. Guided fantasy 5. It/you talk
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Key components of Gestalt Therapy
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1. A strong emphasis on the therapist-client relationship as a healing tool. 2. Balancing data and subjective experience.
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Gestalt and Art Therapy
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Art therapy dressed the entire range of personal expressiveness, including visual, sound, body language, and verbal communication. Client consider forms and patterns of their visual messages to gain a sense of how their forms can express personal meaning.
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Who is the Gestalt art experience appropriate for?
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People who are capable, active, and committed to realizing and achieving their own potential. They are generally self-directed and responsible for meeting their own goals.
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What is person-centered therapy?
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Humanistic approach. Also known as client-centered therapy. Assists people in becoming more autonomous, spontaneous, and confident.
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Who is associated with person-centered therapy?
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Carl Rogers, Natalie Rogers.
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What should a person-centered therapist possess?
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Empathy, congruence (in agreement), and unconditional positive regard towards the client.
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Carl Rogers
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Humanistic. Believed for a person to “grow”, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
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Natalie Rogers
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Daughter of Carl Rogers. Expressive Arts Therapist. Building on her father’s work she developed a multi-modal, Person-Centered Expressive Arts Process which she named “The Creative Connection”.
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What are the principles of person-centered therapy as seen by Carl Rogers?
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– Active and empathetic “seeing” – Acceptance
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Active and Empathetic “Seeing”
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Ability of the therapist to provide full attention to the person and to actively enhance the person’s feeling of being fully heard and deeply understood. Therapist provides full attention to the client’s creative process and images.
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Acceptance
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Refers to unconditional, positive regard for the individual by the therapist. Used in art therapy, unconditional, positive regard for the client’s art expressions.
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Person-centered therapy and Art Therapy
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The therapist not only listens the the client, but is able to “see” what the client feels and thinks.
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What is transpersonal therapy?
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Humanistic approach. Fairly recent. Recognizes the yearning for spiritual unfolding as one of the givens of human growth and potential. What is beyond the self is important to the person’s well-being.
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Who is associated with transpersonal therapy?
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Abraham Maslow, Pat Allen, Ellen Horovitz-Darby
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Pat Allen
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Art therapist that used Jungian and Humanist ideas to explore art making as a psycho-spiritual path, and advocated for a “return to the studio.” Open studio approaches.
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Author of ART AS A WAY OF KNOWING, this art therapist used Jungian and Humanist ideas to explore art making as a psycho-spiritual path, and advocated for a “return to the studio.”
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Pat Allen.
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Ellen Horovitz-Darby
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Spiritual art therapy. An advocate of the Belief Art Therapy Assessment as a potential tool for therapists, this art therapist explores clients’ spiritual sensibilities and search for personal meaning in their relationship to God.
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Abraham Maslow
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Transpersonal therapy. Proposed ideas of self-actualizations and personal potential. Created Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, an assessment of an individuals needs, both cognitive and aesthetic.
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What are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
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1. Basic physiological needs 2. Safety 3. Social 4. Esteem 5. Cognitive 6. Aesthetic 7. Self-actualization
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What would an art therapist working from a transpersonal approach address?
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The person’s needs to improve other areas of life such as relationships or life satisfaction, and include recognizing spiritual emergencies, such as emotional crisis, serious illness, or death.
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Transpersonal therapy and Art Therapy
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Art therapy strives to address mind, body, and sport through a combination of art expression, humanistic principles, mind-body concepts, and spiritual practices, such as a contemplation and meditation.
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What are the Environmental Learning theories?
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Social Learning, Stimulus Control, Feedback/reinforcement, Cognitive Meditational, Behaviorism
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B.F Skinner
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Operant conditioning. Environmental Learning Theories.
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Operant Conditioning
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a learning process in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus.
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Three elements of operant conditioning
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1. Stimulus-response: a specific stimulus comes to be paired with a particular response in the mind of the subject. 2. Behavioral conditioning: a process whereby a response becomes more frequent or more predictable in a given environment as a result of reinforcement 3. Behavior modification: a change in environmental events that are related to a person’s behavior.
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Ivan Pavlov
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Classical conditioning.
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Classical Conditioning
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a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
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Three elements of classical conditioning
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1. Conditioned stimulus: is a previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. 2. Unconditioned stimulus: is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. 3. Conditioned response: is the learned response (reflexive behavior) to a conditioned stimulus.
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What is CBT’s basic assumption about what produces negative emotions?
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A person’s expectations and interpretations of an event create negative feelings, not the event itself.
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What is the difference between “stimulus response behaviors” and “cognitive behaviors?”
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Stimulus response behaviors are automatic and habitual, cognitive behaviors are used for problem solving.
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What is the Social Learning Theory?
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Developed by Albert Bandura. A theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others. It poses that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.
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Albert Bandura
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1977. Psychologist. Developed Social learning theory.
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Lev Vygotsky
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Soviet psychologist. Zone of Proximal Development. Stated that a child ZPD follows an adult’s example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help or assistance.
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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
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The difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.
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Margin of Error
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The range of values above and below the sample statistic
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What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
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Verbal. Generally short-term, it is a goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that takes a hands-on, practical approach to problem-solving. It aims to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people’s difficulties, and so change the way they feel.
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Who are the main theorists and art therapists associated with Cognitive-Behavorial Theory?
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Aaron Beck, Donal Meichenbaum, Albert Ellis, BF Skinner, Irvin Pavlov.
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Aaron Beck
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CBT. Developed Suicide Intent Scale to assess the severity of suicide attempts.
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Donald Meichenbaum
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CBT. Known for Stress inoculation Therapy.
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Stress Inoculation Therapy
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A psychotherapy method intended to help patients prepare themselves in advance to handle stressful events successfully and with a minimum of upset
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Albert Ellis
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CBT. Founder of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Discovered that people’s beliefs strongly affected their emotional functioning.
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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
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A short-term form of psychotherapy that helps you identify self-defeating thoughts and feelings, challenge the rationality of those feelings, and replace them with healthier, more productive beliefs.
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What is the basic goal of CBT?
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To identify and reconstruct or eliminate negative thoughts and rules.
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Cognitive-Behavorial Therapy and Art Therapy
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A combination of Art Therapy and CBT is particularly effective with which of the following populations?
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Mentally disabled, sex offenders, women with eating disorders.
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What CBT intervention utilizes mental imagery, with the aim of desensitization?
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Imposition and flooding
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From what theory does CBT emerge?
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Social learning theory.
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What is EMDR?
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Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy treatment that was originally designed to alleviate the distress associated with traumatic memories.
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Who are the main theorists and art therapists associated with Solution-Focused and Narrative Therapy?
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Michael White
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What is Solution-Focused and Narrative Therapy?
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What is Developmental Art Therapy?
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Who are the main theorists and art therapists associated with Developmental Art Therapy?
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Viktor Lowenfeld
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What are Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development?
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1. Sensorimotor (0-2 y/o) 2. Pre-operational (2-7 y/o) 3. Concrete Operational (7-11 y/o) 4. Formal Operations (11+ y/o)
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Viktor Lowenfeld
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Developed five stages of creativity development: Scribble stage, pre-schematic, schematic, dawning realism/gang age, pseudo-Realistic (see art interpretation)
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Jean Piaget
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Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired.
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Arthur Robbins
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Affiliated with Pratt. Uses Object Relations as a framework for understanding his client’s verbal and non-verbal communications. He developed the concept of psychoaesthetics.
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What is Expressive Arts Therapy and a Multimodal Approach?
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Tailored to the individuals treatment. Combines multiple therapeutic disciplines, such as dance, drama, or music therapy.
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Who are the main theorists and art therapists associated with Expressive Art Therapy and a Multimodal Approach?
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Robbins
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What decades were the classical period of art therapy?
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1940’s-1970’s
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Who are considered the pioneers of early art therapy?
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Margaret Naumburg, Edith Kramer, Hanna Kwiatkowska, and Elinor Ulman most recognized during this time for their writings on art therapy and as the first art therapy educators.
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What is the contemporary period of art therapy?
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1980-present. Contemporary art therapy theories emerge and more writings. Rubin published in 1987, Approaches to Art Therapy. ATCB founded in 1993.
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Elinor Ulman
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Pioneer in art therapy. Founded the The Bulletin of Art Therapy, now known as The American Journal of Art Therapy (after 1970). Wrote first book on collected essays on AT, one which compares and contrasts Naumburg’s “art psychotherapy” and Kramer’s “art as therapy”.
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What setting did art therapy originate and why?
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Many hospitals and mental health facilities began including art therapy programs after observing how this form of therapy could promote emotional, developmental, and cognitive growth in children. Tool for assessment.
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Art Therapists and Art Therapy in England.
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In England, the first person to refer to the therapeutic applications of art as art therapy was Adrian Hill. Other art therapists associated are Edward Adamson, Joy Schaverien.
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Edward Adamson
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Considered father of art therapy in Britain. Art therapy in hospitals.
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When was AATA (American Art Therapy Association) founded and what did it represent?
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1969. This evolved the professional identity of the art therapist, credentials, and the role of the AT in other related professions. Don Jones. Robert Ault.
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Which States are regulated with professional art therapy licensure?
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New Jersey, New Mexico, Kentucky, Mississippi, Maryland, Oregon, New York
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Which States can regulate art therapy under another professional license?
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Texas, New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Utah
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How long has art therapy existed?
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Art therapy as a focus and practice began in the 1940s. The British Association of Art Therapists was founded in 1964. The American Association of Art Therapists was founded in 1969.
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When was the Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) founded and why?
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In 1993, ATCB was founded to protect the public by promoting the competent and ethical practice of art therapy. It manages the credentialing and testing processes of art therapists (in alignment with the AATA) to ensure the professional and high-caliber practice of the profession.
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Phenomenological approach to therapy
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“What do you see?” The way in which the individual himself or herself understands what he is doing, and how he feels about it.
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Medical Art Therapy
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The ‘use of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing trauma to the body, or who are undergoing aggressive medical treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy”.
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Mala Betensky
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Phenomenological therapy. Combined Phenomenological approaches with Gestalt principles to develop a way for the therapist and client to determine what was present in the image.
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Mala Bentensky, who focused on “things themselves,” and encouraged “intentional looking” while asking clients, “what do you see?” is associated with with form of art therapy?
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Phenomenological therapy.
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What art therapists are associated with Medical Art Therapy?
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Shaun McNiff, Cathy Malchiodi, Gregg Furth
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Shaun McNiff
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Author of ART AS MEDICINE, this art therapist developed the idea of art therapist as “Shaman” and included imaginal dialogues in his work.
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Greg Furth
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The Secret World of Drawings: Healing Through Art
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Bowen Family Systems Theory
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A theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit.
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Murray Bowen
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Bowen Family Systems Theory. Originated this theory and its eight interlocking concepts. (see populations)
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What theorists and art therapists are associated with family art therapy?
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Hanna Kwiatkowska, Deborah Linesch, Gregory Bateson, Nathan Ackerman, Murray Bowen, Salvador Minuchin, Jay Haley, Harville Hendrix, Helen Landgarten, Carl Whitaker, Michael White, Virginia Satir
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Carl Whitaker
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Experiential Family Therapy.
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Virginia Satir
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Transformational Systemic Therapy, also known as the Satir Growth Model
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Transformational Systemic Therapy
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Designed to improve relationships and communication within the family structure by addressing a person’s actions, emotions, and perceptions as they relate to that person’s dynamic within the family unit.
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Michael White
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Founder if Narrative Therapy. Believed in “externalizing the problem” and stories don’t mirror life, they shape it. Separate the individual from the symptom by externalizing it. Broader historical and cultural framework of the family
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Helen Landgarten
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Langarten Photo Collage Assessment.
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Deborah Linesch
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Worked with adolescents. Explored defense mechanisms in teenagers regression, displacement, asceticism, intellectualization, isolation (separation of affect from content), and non-compromise.
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Jay Haley
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Developed Strategic Family Therapy.
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Strategic Family Therapy
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Uses a strategic approach to finding a constructive form of change for individuals within the individual’s immediate social context – namely the family.
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What are the five integral stages that all strategic therapists implement?
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1. Identify solvable problems 2. Set goals 3. Design interventions to achieve those goals 4. Examine the responses 5. Examine the outcome of the therapy
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Harville Hendrix
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Couples and Family therapy. Developed Imago therapy with Helen Hunt.
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Imago Relationship Therapy
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A form of marriage therapy that takes a relationship approach rather than an individual approach to problem solving in a marriage. Developed by Harville Hendrix and Helen Hunt.
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Salvador Minuchin
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Developed Structural Family Therapy.
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Structural Family Therapy
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Views the family unit as a system that lives and operates within larger systems, such as a culture, the community, and organizations
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In SFT, what are types of dysfunctional family patterns?
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Enmeshed Disengaged Triangulation (see populations)
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Nathan Ackerman
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Founded Ackerman Institute for the Family in 1960.
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Gregory Bateson
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Known for identifying and naming the paradox of the double bind – when an individual experiences conflicting emotional, verbal, or physical messages.
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Hanna Kwiatkowska
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Pioneer in art therapy. Known for her contributions in research and family art therapy.
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What were the middle years of art therapy?
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1970-1980. Increased number of AT publications that presented a broader range of applications and conceptual perspectives. Art Psychotherapy (1973) and Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association (1983).
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Rudolf Arnheim
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Art and Visual Perception. Trained in Gestalt therapy. Language goes before perception and that words are the stepping stones of thinking.
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Arnheim believes shape perception operates at a high cognitive level of _______.
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Concept formation.
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According to Arheim how does context give meaning to imagery?
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Through assimilation and contrast.
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According to Arnheim, “All perceiving is thinking, all reasoning is _______, and all observation is ______.”
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Intuition/invention
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What did Arnheim believe about human responses to shape, color, and movement?
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They are inherent behaviors.
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Lawrence Kohlberg
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Stages of moral development: 1. Pre-conventional stage 2. Conventional stage 3. Post-conventional level
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Post-graduation, how many hours of client contact and supervision are required for to obtain the ATR credential?
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Graduates of programs approved by AATA: 1,000 hours of art therapy direct client contact 100 hours of supervision: At least 50 hours must be provided by a current ATCB credential holder (ATR, ATR-BC or ATCS)
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Alfred Adler
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Founder of Adlerian psychology, sometimes called individual psychology. Psychoanalysis. Personality Theory and Personality Types.
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Aggression Drive
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Adlerian term. Describes the frustrated reaction we have when our basic needs, such as the need to eat or be loved, are not being met.
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Striving for perfection
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Adlerian term which encapsulates the desire we all have to fulfill our potential, to realize our ideals.
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Adler believed human beings are striving to overcome a _______ situation and have a strong tendency towards ________.
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Minus/social equality
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What are Adler’s four personality types?
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Ruling Leaning Avoiding Socially Useful
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Adler’s Ruling Type
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These people are characterized early on by a tendency to be generally aggressive and dominant over others, possessing an intense energy that overwhelms anything or anybody who gets in their way.
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Adler’s Leaning Type
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Individuals of this type are sensitive, and while they may put a shell up around themselves to protect themselves, they end up relying on others to carry them through life’s challenges.
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Adler’s Avoiding Type
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People of this type have such low energy they recoil within themselves to conserve it, avoiding life as a whole, and other people in particular
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Adler’s Social Useful Type
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People of this type are basically healthy individuals, possessed of adequate, but not overbearing, social interest and energy
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Irvin Yalom
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Existential therapy. Believed that group therapy produced specific dynamics that increase healing while challenging the therapist.
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Behavioral Couples Therapy
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Training couples in communication skills, the exchange of positive reinforcements, cognitive restructuring, and problem-solving skills in order to facilitate marital satisfaction.
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Family Crisis Therapy
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A crisis-oriented therapeutic approach in which the family as a system is helped to restore its previous level of functioning.
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John Elderkin Bell
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Developed Family Group Therapy
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Family Group Therapy
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The intervention technique developed by John Elderkin Bell based on social-psychological principles of small-group behavior.
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Expressive Therapies Continuum
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Developed by Kagin and Lusebrink. Model used to measure creative functioning in art therapy.
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Creation Axis Model
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Developed by Goren-Bar, process of creativity through six stages. Evaluate the individuals use of different art forms.
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Stages of Creative Axis Model
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Contact Organization Improvisation Central theme Elaboration Preservation

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