The Periodic Table/Law Flashcard

Define valence electron
An electron in an atom’s outermost orbitals; determines the chemical properties of an element.
Who was the first scientist (chemist) to compile a list of all elements that were known in the late 1700s?
Antoine Lavoisier
Who was the first chemist to propose an organized scheme for the elements?
John Newlands
Which chemist developed the law of octaves?
John Newlands
Who was the first chemist to discover that the properties of elements do repeat in a periodic way.
John Newlands
Who was Mendeleev’s partner?
Meyer
Why is Mendeleev usually given more credit than Meyer?
Because he published his organizational scheme for the periodic table before Meyer.
What did Mendeleev’s periodic table demonstrate a connection between?
Atomic mass and elemental properties
Why was Mendeleev’s table greatly accepted?
Because he predicted the existence and properties of undiscovered elements (scandium, gallium, germanium.)
How did Mendeleev arrange the elements in the periodic table?
By order of increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties.
Who was the chemist to remedy the mistakes that Mendeleev’s table demonstrated?
Moseley
Why was Mendeleev’s version of the periodic table wrong?
By arranging the elements by mass this resulted in several elements being placed in groups of elements with differing properties.
How did Moseley arrange the elements in the periodic table?
Moseley arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number (which represents the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus.)
The statement that there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by atomic number is called ____________.
The periodic law
The boxes of the periodic table arranged into a series of columns are called ________ or __________.
Groups ; families
The boxes of the periodic table arranged into rows are called _______ .
Periods
Elements in groups 1,2,13,18 possess a wide range of chemical and physical properties. These elements are often called the main group or _______.
Representative elements
The elements in groups 3 to 12 are referred to as the _________.
Transition elements.
What are the three classifications of elements?
1. Metals
2. Nonmetals
3. Metalloids
Elements that are generally shiny when smooth and clean, are good conductors of heat and electricity are called ______.
Metals
Elements that are malleable and ductile are called _______.
Metals
Most __________ elements and all _________ elements are metals.
Representative ; transition
Except for hydrogen, all of the metals on the left side of the periodic table are ______.
Metals
The group 1 elements are known as ______.
Alkali metals
**Because they are so reactive, alkali metals usually exist as compounds with other elements.**
Elements in group 2 are called __________.
Alkaline Earth metals
Transition metals are divided into two sub-groups named […]
1. Transition metals
2. Inner transition metals
The two sets of inner transition metals, known as the ____(1)____ and ____(2)___.
(1) Lanthanide series
(2) Actinide series
These two sets are located along the bottom of the periodic table. The rest of the elements in groups 3 to 12 make up the transition metals.
Nonmetals occupy the upper-right side of the periodic table. Nonmetals are elements that are generally ___(1)___, or ___(2)___, __(3)___ -looking solids. They are ___(4)___ conductors of electricity and heat.
(1)Gases
(2)Brittle
(3)Dull
(4)Poor
Group 17 is comprised of __(1)___ reactive elements that are known as __(2)__.
(1) Highly
(2) Halogens
The extremely un-reactive group 18 elements are commonly called the ___(1)___.
(1) Noble Gases
Metalloids have physical and __(1)__ properties of both __(2)__ and __(3)___.
(1) chemical
(2) metals
(3) nonmetals
Atoms in the same group have similar chemical group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of ___(1)____.
(1) valence electrons
The energy level of an element’s ____(1)____ indicates the period on the periodic table in which it is found.
(1) valence electrons
The noble gases in group 18 each have __(1)__ valence electrons, with the exception of helium, which has only two valence electrons.
(1) eight
The periodic table has columns and rows of varying sizes. The reason begind the table’s odd shape becomes clear if it is divided into sections, or blocks, represented the atoms’ energy sub level being filled with ____(1)_____.
(1) valence electrons
Because there are four different energy sub levels ___(1)____, the periodic table is divided into four distinct blocks.
(1) s, p, d, f
The s-block consists of groups ___(1)___ and __(2)__, and the element helium.
(1) one
(2) two
Group 1 elements have partially filled s orbitals containing ___(1)___ valence electron and electron configurations ending in S1.
(1) one
Group 2 elements have completely filled s orbitals containing ___(2)___ valence electrons and electron configurations ending in S2.
(2) two
Because s orbitals hold __(1)__ electrons at most, the s-block spans __(2)__.
(1)two
(2)two
The p sublevel is comprised of groups __(1)__ through __(18)__.
(1) 13
(2) 18
The p sublevel does not exist for the __(1)__ principal energy level (n=1).
(1) first
The p-block spans __(1)__ groups because the three p orbitals can hold a maximum of six electrons.
(1) six
The group 18 elements are so stable that they undergo ____(1)____ chemical reactions.
(1) virtually no
Together the s- and p- blocks comprise the ___(1)___ elements.
(1) representative
The d-block contains the ___(1)___ metals and is the __(2)__ of the blocks.
(1)transition
(2)largest
D-block elements are usually characterized by a filled __(1)__ s orbital of energy level n, and filled or partially filled d orbitals of energy level n-1.
(1) outermost
The five d orbitals can hold a total of __(1)__ electrons; thus, the d-block spans __(2)__ groups on the periodic table.
(1) ten
(2) ten
The f-block contains the __(1)__ metals.
(1) inner transition
The f-block elements are characterized by a filled, or partially filled ___(1)___ s orbital, and filled or partially filled 4f and 5f orbitals.
(1)outermost
There are __(1)__ f orbitals holding up to a maximum of __(2)__ electrons, the f-block spans 14 columns of the periodic table.
(1) 7
(2) 14
Therefore, the s-, p-, d-, and f- blocks determine the shape of the __(1)__.
(1) periodic table

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